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  • Interview with Experts
    ZHOU Guo-hua, LONG Hua-lou, LIN Wan-long, QIAO Jia-jun, TAN Hua-yun, YANG Kai-zhong, YUE Wen-ze, YUN Wen-ju, HUANG Xian-jin, LU Han-wen, LI Xun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1919-1940. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230801

    "Three rural issues" (issues concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) is an important mainline of the CPC's centennial course of party building and China's urban-rural development. In order to solve the "three rural issues" in the New Era and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, we hereby invite ten experts in the research field of "three rural issues" and rural revitalization research to conduct interviews. The interview mainly focuses on three perspectives: Historical process and institutional context, urban-rural system and cross scale space, and the integration of policy theory, technical methods, and rural construction practice. It revolves three main lines: The strategic stage and institutional changes of "three rural issues", the essence of "three rural issues" and the ways to solve new "three rural issues", and the rural revitalization mechanism and rural construction practice. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The essence, key areas, and institutional mechanism innovation of the "three rural issues" in the context of spatio-temporal processes and institutional contexts. It is necessary to grasp the laws of "three rural" (agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) and diagnose the "three rural issues" from the perspective of urban and rural regional systems and even the global perspective space. The "three rural issues" is an optimization decision-making problem for improving the functions of rural regional systems within the overall framework of urban and rural regional systems. The imbalance in urban-rural development and insufficient rural development are the concentrated reflection of the "three rural issues" in the New Era. The crux of the "three rural issues" lies in the uncoordinated development of "human, land, and industry". The core goal of China's "three rural issues" in the new development stage is to move towards the common prosperity of farmers and rural areas. The corresponding development system and working mechanism of "agriculture, rural areas, and farmers" need to grasp the two "bottom lines", do a good job in the two "connections", and promote the two "integrations" in key areas such as national food security, farmers' livelihood development, modern agriculture and rural development, rural revitalization, and urban-rural integration development. (2) The theory of rural revitalization and the rural spatial planning under the requirements of urban-rural system interaction and people's common prosperity. The research and solution of China's "three rural issues" are rooted in the geographical theory of territorial system theory of human-environment interaction and location theory, the sector economy theory and the economic cycle theory, as well as the theory of development economics, sociological function theory and social conflict theories. In the research practice of the "three rural issues", land use transformation theory, rural reconstruction theory, rural development multi-body and multi-pole theory, interface theory, rural attraction theory, and rural sustainability have also been developed. The urban-rural integrated development and the common prosperity of the people should be the result of balanced regional development and Chinese path to modernization. The folk expression of "making rural life attractive" and the strategic goal of "basically realizing rural modernization by 2035" are mutually "exterior-interior" relationship, which can be comprehensively explained from the following three aspects: The spatio-temporal differences and path differentiation of rural settlement evolution and multi-functional transformation, and the phenomenon explanation of rural gentrification and the theoretical application of rural attraction in the context of urban-rural interaction, as well as the theoretical significance and practical path of rural modernization under the guidance of rural sustainability science. Improving local quality is an inherent requirement to meet the people's needs for a better life, and it is an essential requirement and general law of rural revitalization driven by innovation. As the edge of the national urban-rural system, rural areas face constraints such as segmentation, remoteness, low density, and insufficient heterogeneity dividends in improving local quality. Therefore, to improve local quality of rural areas, it is necessary to adapt to and alleviate the relative inefficiency of rural geography, and its important promotion paths include the characteristic development based on endowment, digital transformation and rural agglomeration centered around cities and towns. Guided by spatial planning and taking into account the integrated functional development of production-living-ecological spaces in rural areas, as well as the integration of urban and rural space through spatial planning, through promoting the quality of living space through comprehensive land improvement, assisting in the realization of multifunctional value in agricultural space through refined management, ensuring the sustainable use of ecological space through systematic protection and restoration, which is a solid foundation for rural revitalization and the construction of a new urban-rural relationship. (3) The path mechanism and technical support for the comprehensive rural revitalization and rural construction under the new needs of ecological civilization construction and governance modernization. Comprehensive rural revitalization requires the revitalization of industries, the reform of land, the development of human well-being, and the intelligent updating of technology. First, the essence of operating rural areas is the rational allocation of resources as the object of factors. It is necessary to integrate the high-quality development of agriculture with the high-quality and livable rural areas, promote the interaction and integration of urban and rural systems, actively link natural science, engineering technology innovation, and institutional innovation from the perspective of the big food concept, and implement food safety and important agricultural product supply security. Second, facing the new demand of rural sustainable development and governance modernization, we should innovate the property right governance integration mechanism of rural land system, especially actively build a rural green development mechanism with farmers' participation and an external benefit sharing mechanism of ecological environment governance. Third, it is urgent to break through the barriers that farmers share the gains from the appreciation of rural assets, fill the gap between small farmers and modern agriculture, and establish a concept of county governance that meets the needs of Chinese path to modernization. Fourth, rural construction is an organic combination of the governance of public spaces by the state and the daily life practices of farmers. Through the theory and technology of "computational" rural areas, effective connection and information sharing between the state and rural areas can be achieved, promoting coordinated development from micro to macro, and from local to whole. And we should achieve the aim of building livable, suitable for work, and beautiful rural areas, through multi-level main body co-construction, co-governance, and management. To sum up, the interview views can provide theoretical reference and decision-making reference for the "three rural issues" work innovation and rural revitalization practice towards Chinese path to modernization.

  • Property Right System of Natural Resources Asset in the New Era: Reform and Practice
    ZHONG Peng-yu, YUE Wen-ze
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1667-1681. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230701

    The establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution is the core grip to realize the unified planning, storage, supply, development and protection of natural resource assets, which is the important creation of the natural resource management institution with Chinese characteristics. Based on Marxist reserve theory, the logic and practical path of natural resource asset reserve institution are explored from the perspective of capital circulation. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The reserve of natural resource assets occurs during the 'stagnant' phase of different capital forms replacement, and it is a key intermediary for promoting the capitalization of natural resources. Its core connotations include public goods characteristics, government leadership, and value appreciation. (2) The reserve institution covers three basic steps of reserving, managing, and supplying, the core logic of which lies in achieving sustainable accumulation and circulation of capital, with clear property rights, holistic governance, and value realization as the main tasks. (3) The establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution has five key steps in practice, including planning-led approach, centralized storage, systematic governance, efficient allocation, and coordinated funding. In the future, the institution should be gradually advanced through pilot programs to further enhance its framework.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHUANG Shu-rong, YAN Xiang, CHEN Rui-shan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(6): 1651-1666. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230617

    Commons often lead to a "tragedy of the commons" because they can be accessed freely, that is, overexploitation of commons usually leads to resource degradation. Since Garrett Hardin published an article "Tragedy of the Commons" in Science in 1968, there has been an increasing number of studies on commons governance to avert the tragedies. With the development of urbanization, industrialization and increase of population, the overexploitation of natural resources by human activities has become increasingly serious, such as air pollution, carbon emissions, marine pollution, and depletion of mineral resources In order to promote the sustainable use of commons, it is necessary to review the theoretical and practical progress of the "tragedy of the commons" theory and its related study of governance. Therefore, this paper first reviews the theory of "tragedy of the commons". Then, obtaining 43830 paper, documents, etc. from Google Scholar that have cited Harding's articles by the end of 2020, this paper analyzes the keyword time series of these citing literatures, and combines with the development context of the research to summarize the progress of theory. We found the theoretical progress includes five aspects: examination of "Tragedy of the Commons" theory, analyses of the property right system of public resources, multiple governance types of commons, sustainability analysis of Social-Ecological Systems (SES), and governance of global resources. Their inspirations for sustainable governance in China are: (1) There is no "panacea" for resource governance, and it is necessary to explore the "diversification" of the system; (2) Accelerate the improvement of the property rights system for natural resources, and build a property rights system for natural resources owned by all the people, based on China's national conditions; (3) Implement multiple governance types on natural resources and build a collaborative, co-governance and shared environment; (4) Implement systematic governance of natural resources to promote the harmonious coexistence between human and nature; (5) Govern global resources through institutional innovation, and build a community with a shared future for mankind. The review of the development of "the tragedy of the commons" and its governance can provide important theoretical and practical enlightenment for the sustainable development of China's resources and environment and the modernization of governance capabilities. This also indicates an interdisciplinary academic innovation path and proposes potential research directions.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    LIN Ming-shui, HU Xiao-peng, YANG Yong, ZOU Yong-guang, WANG Ren, LIU Hua-jun, CHEN Gang-hua, WANG Xue-ji, CHEN Shi-hua, LIN Juan, ZHANG Hong-lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2237-2262. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230904

    In the era of digital economy, the tourism development model based on traditional natural and human resources can no longer effectively meet the diversified and personalized needs of tourists. Some non-traditional tourism resources in digital platforms have attracted a large amount of attention capital and converted into tourism flows, which greatly expands the content and boundaries of tourism resources. The emergence of the flow economy has not only profoundly affected the development model of tourism, but also posed new challenges to the theory and practice of tourism resource development. Interviews show that: First, the formation of the flow economy is not a coincidental phenomenon; although the spread of flow leads to the expansion of attention capital scale and drives tourism development, the core of tourism development lies in tourism resource endowment, tourism service quality, government support and guarantee, etc. Second, the flow economy drives the recombination, agglomeration and diffusion of tourism supply and demand factors, and quickly caters to the individual needs of tourists, while whether the tourism industry can adjust its service supply capacity in response to changes in tourist demand becomes the key path and mechanism for the flow economy to promote tourism development. Third, in order to promote the flow economy to empower the high-quality development of tourism, it is necessary to combine effective market and active government, and to establish the brand of tourism. We can also make full use of the spatial effect of the flow economy to promote the collaborative development of regional tourism. Finally, after the tourism boom triggered by the flow economy, it is also necessary to calmly consider the mismatch of resources, negative environmental effects, cultural conflicts and contradictions between short-term hotspots and long-term investment. Only in this way can tourist destinations follow a sustainable development path.

  • Industrial Development and Rural Revitalization
    BAO Ji-gang, CHEN Yuan-yi, DONG Yu-heng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1941-1954. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230802

    The present study uncovers the mechanisms of rural revitalization through Pu'er tea industry using the case of Yiwu, which is an underdeveloped town in Yunnan province. From the perspective of the industry and social economy, this study investigated the process and mechanisms of rural revitalization through Pu'er tea industry in Yiwu. The tea industry in Yiwu emerged in the Qing Dynasty (over 300 hundred years ago) and has experienced three development stages since then: prosperity, decline, and revival. By adopting semi-structured interviews and participant observations, the present study first analyzed different production organization modes and profit distribution modes formed in the process of revitalization of the Pu'er tea industry in Yiwu. This study then summarized the process and mechanisms of rural revitalization through the Pu'er tea industry. Three major findings can be obtained from this study. First, for rural villages with resource endowments, renewable, sustainable, irreplaceable and scarce natural resources are the most fundamental factors of production. For farmers, ownership of such resources can be an important guarantee for their livelihood and income. Second, resource endowment and transaction cost determined what kind of production organization mode and profit distribution mode the industrial subjects chose in a place. In the construction of the production and management system of modern agriculture, more indigenous tea farmers should be supported to build small and medium-sized processing tea factories to produce and process Pu'er tea. In combination with the Pu'er tea culture, local communities can be guided to transform from agriculture-led to the coordinated development of agriculture, processing industry and service industry, to enhance economic and social resilience through diversified industries. Last but not least, when promoting rural revitalization through industrial development, preferential policies should be formulated to clarify farmers' property rights to resources and improve farmers' capabilities. In the process of agricultural modernization, farmers should be encouraged and trained to improve their abilities and skills, which could help them participate in the processing and circulation, and transform from farmers to operators with the ability to process and sell tea products, so as to increase their incomes while realizing the identity transformation.

  • Modernization of Land Space Governance System and Governance Capability in the New Era
    ZHANG Zhen-long, HOU Yan-zhen, SUN Hong-hu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(6): 1464-1481. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230606

    Low-carbon development of territorial space provides the basis for realizing the strategic goal of the carbon peak and the carbon neutrality. The city region is a key regional unit with dual attributes of target transmission and strategy implementation in territorial space. It is of great significance to promote the realization of the "dual carbon" goal and to reveal the level of carbon emissions and spatial difference of low-carbon development efficiency of territorial spatial in cities for shaping the low-carbon sustainable territorial spatial pattern. This study explored the methodological system for measuring carbon emissions in territorial space, analyzed the characteristics of spatial differences in the efficiency of low-carbon development in city territorial space from economic, social and ecological dimensions based on the measurement results, further proposed a spatial governance-oriented optimization strategy, and finally conducted an empirical analysis using Suzhou city as an example. The results showed that: (1) The built carbon emission measurement method and low-carbonization development model of city territorial space can effectively measure the carbon emission characteristics of Suzhou city and its spatial differences in low-carbonization development efficiency. (2) The total carbon emissions in Suzhou in 2020 were 238 million tons, and the high-value parcels of carbon emissions were concentrated in various industrial agglomerations, while the low-value parcels were dispersedly distributed in the rural areas and the main areas of various carbon sinks. The development efficiency of territorial spatial low-carbonization varied significantly at different scales, mainly reflecting regional differences at the county and district scales and urban-rural differences at the township scale. Meanwhile, regions with relatively high levels of economic and social development had higher economic and social low-carbonization development efficiency, but ecological low-carbonization development efficiency was often lower. (3) According to the different spatial types of districts and townships, this paper promotes the transformation of green development of economy and society, bringing into play the role of territorial spatial planning in emission reduction and carbon sequestration, and building a composite and coordinated, low-carbon and sustainable territorial spatial pattern.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHEN Feng, XI Guang-liang, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2187-2200. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230901

    The rapid development of intelligent technology not only provides new technical means for the monitoring and regulation of urban man-land system, but also has a systematic impact on the element structure, coupling relationship and dynamic evolution of urban man-land system. It is imperative to explore the theory of building a man-land system for smart cities. Based on the interpretation of the connotation of the smart city man-land system, this paper discusses the theoretical basis of the smart city man-land system from the aspects of flow space, technology-man-land coupling and resilience system, and then puts forward the conceptual model of the smart city man-land system. On the one hand, we should explore the spatial scale changes of the interactions among human activities, elemental flows, and geographic environments, and further investigate into the cross-scale collaboration, tele-coupling, and feedback between activity systems and geographic environment systems regulated by intelligent technologies. On the other hand, we should pay attention to temporal elasticity, flexibility and fragmentation of the interactive coupling between residents' activities and urban geographical environment caused by the wide application of intelligent technology. Then it is necessary to carry out the monitoring, management and dynamic optimization with the smart city man-land system. Facing the future, the research on man-land system of smart cities needs to focus on the spatio-temporal coupling process of elements, elemental composition and impact mechanism, modeling methods and evaluation, comprehensive regulation and optimization path, etc. Finally, from the aspects of human behavior patterns and activity changes brought about by smart technology, spatial intelligence, virtual reality correlation, etc., the research prospect of theoretical exploration, analysis method innovation and sustainable regulation of smart city man-land system is proposed. All in all, based on the coupling of people, technology and urban space, we build the theoretical framework of smart city man-land system adapted to China's national conditions in consideration of the trend of high penetration and integration of China's new infrastructure and smart city services in production, living and governmental management. This framework could support the innovation of urban geography theory and method and the practical needs of "smart brain", digital twin city construction.

  • Ecological Products Value Realization in Natural Resources: Theory and Practice
    XIE Hua-lin, LI Zhi-yuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(12): 2933-2949. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231201

    The realization of the value of ecological products in the field of natural resources is a key path to implement the transformation concept of "two mountains" and promote ecological benefits and economic development. The existing ecological product value realization mechanism and local practice mode have problems such as single governance subject and insufficient driving force of participating subject. Therefore, this paper analyzes the theoretical logic of ecological product value realization in the field of natural resources with the help of multi-agent collaborative governance theory. Based on this, a multi-agent collaborative mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products in the field of natural resources is designed with the "production-supply-sales" mechanism, the value co-creation mechanism of ecological products in the field of natural resources and the information exchange mechanism of ecological products in the field of natural resources as the core elements. This will help expand the value realization model of land resource ecological products, water resource ecological products, forest resource ecological products, wetland resource ecological products. Guided by the multi-subject cooperative mechanism of ecological product value realization in the field of natural resources, we create a new pattern of ecological product value realization with multi-subject co-governance.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHANG Yu-shuo, LIU Bo-yu, BI Xu, WANG Bin, SUI Ren-jing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1300-1317. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230512

    As the coproducers and beneficiaries of ecosystem services, stakeholders play an important role in the supply, demand and decision-making of ecosystem services, and are crucial for exploring the social relevance and potential social effect of ecosystem services. It is important to evaluate ecosystem services from the perspective of stakeholder's perception, reveal the influencing factors, and balance the multiple ecological benefits of different stakeholders. Based on the theoretical framework and practical progress of ecosystem services at home and abroad, we summarized the concepts of stakeholder and perception, introduced the application of stakeholder's perception in ecosystem service research. Then, we analyzed the characteristics of identifying stakeholders, data acquirement and evaluation methods. Furthermore, we explained the influencing factors and mechanism of stakeholder's perception of ecosystem services. Under the guidance of the concept of social equity, decision-making participation and sustainable development of ecosystem services, we built a research framework taking stakeholders as core elements for the interaction and integration of social perception assessment, social effect analysis and policy-making application, and then effectively linked the natural ecosystem and human social system. In the future, we should focus on: (1) clarifying the diversified social needs and differences of ecosystem services, (2) deepening the role of multi-source big data in multi-scale ecosystem service perception assessment, (3) expanding the application of spatial analysis methods, and (4) revealing the influential mechanism of ecosystem service perception differences.

  • Modernization of Land Space Governance System and Governance Capability in the New Era
    BAI Ting, DENG Shi-quan, XIONG Hua, SUN Kai-min, LI Wang-bin, LIU Jun-yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(6): 1517-1531. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230609

    At present, the urban renewal action of Wuhan has changed from large-scale demolition and construction to the era of "retaining, replacing and dismantling". The transformation mode has also changed from local transformation to continuous renewal. In the current era, it is particularly important to identify urban "retained, replaced and demolished" units intelligently. Recently, the combination of AI and remote sensing has been widely used for the identification of typical surface features of natural resources, cultivated land protection, and law enforcement supervision. In this paper, we combine AI and remote sensing to identify "retention, reconstruction and demolition" units. First, we establish training samples of the "retention, replacement and demolition" unit, then use the deep learning network to establish the artificial intelligent model, and finally select the remote sensing data to carry out the identification of "retention, replacement and demolition" unit in Wuhan. The integration of remote sensing and deep learning improves work efficiency of the identification of "retaining, replacing and dismantling" units, and provides scientific basis for solving the pain points in urban renewal.

  • Regular Articles
    WANG Jiang, WANG Peng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1334-1348. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230514

    Inter-government ecological collaborative governance is an important means to promote the modernization of the ecological governance system and governance capacity in the basin, but the justification logic of its superiority over the traditional territorial governance model is not clear, which makes local governments lack confidence in the effectiveness of ecological collaborative governance. The implementation of the inter-governmental ecological collaborative governance mechanism faces the problems of lack of legal norms, lack of governance subjects and lack of endogenous power. Taking the cost-benefit as the driving analysis frame, this paper constructs the game model of ecological territorial governance and the game model of inter-governmental ecological cooperative governance, which can clarify the behavior logic and influencing factors of the local government in the river basin ecological governance. The study found that the central government is an effective leading force in promoting the implementation of the ecological collaborative governance model; the added benefit of ecological governance created by inter-governmental synergy also proved that the ecological collaborative governance model can improve the overall ecological quality of the river basin; maximizing the benefits of ecological governance and ensuring the fair distribution of benefits, which is as dual goals of watershed ecological governance.

  • Modernization of Land Space Governance System and Governance Capability in the New Era
    LIN Jian, GAO Yuan, ZHAO Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(6): 1393-1402. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230601

    National territory spatial governance is an essential part of national governance, and spatial development rights are the critical content of national territory spatial governance. The reforms of national territory spatial planning, the regulation of territorial use control, and the property rights system of natural resource assets are advancing simultaneously. This has become a proposition of fundamental significance both theoretically and practically to examine national territory spatial governance from the perspective of spatial development rights. Based on the analysis of the basic connotation and main operation fields of national territory spatial governance, this paper dives deep into the formation basis and critical characteristics of spatial development rights and accordingly proposes the operation logic of territory spatial governance based on spatial development rights. The main findings include: (1) The main operation fields of national territory spatial governance lie in the whole life cycle of the development and protection of territorial space, which is tightly related to the allocation, regulation and realization of spatial development rights. (2) In China, spatial development rights originated from the unique two-level land development rights system. They are consisting of the changes in land use type and the intensity among the construction and non-construction land, as well as within the smaller land types. Furthermore, they have also formed a two-level structure and are implicitly rooted in the current laws and regulations, and are related to the whole process of development and protection of the whole territorial space and all kinds of natural resource types. (3) The crux of the successful operation of national territory spatial governance is the allocation and regulation of spatial development rights, as well as the interaction and coordination among multiple subjects. We suggest that further research and practice should focus on the theory of spatial development rights, the market of graded trading of spatial development rights, and the integrated coordination system, thus advancing the system's modernization and governance capacity and the reforms of the property rights of natural resource assets.

  • Innovations of Theory and Practice in Heritage Sites Protection and Inheritance for the New Era
    CUI Feng, WANG Zhe-zheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1119-1134. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230501

    As an important part of dynamic protection and adaptive management of agricultural heritage, the early-warning is of great significance to the maintenance of agricultural heritage values and the sustainable development of agricultural heritage sites. In view of the current situation that the theoretical research and practical work on the early-warning of agricultural heritage protection are lagging behind, on the basis of defining the concept of early-warning of agricultural heritage protection, and conbined with the analysis of attributes and characteristics of agricultural heritage, the paper offers the basic principles of constructing the early-warning evaluation system of agricultural heritage protection. Based on the "Pressure-State-Response" model (PSR) and the Delphi method, we selected three first-grade indicators, 11 second-grade indicators and 21 third-grade indicators of the early-warning evaluation. Because of the fuzziness of early-warning evaluation of agricultural heritage protection, the study puts forward the technical route of early-warning evaluation by using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and divides the early-warning level into four scales (no warning, light warning, medium warning, and severe warning) according to the determined warning degree range, and comprehensively uses the principles of air pollution warning classification and traffic signal warning lights to intuitively reflect the warning situation by blue color, yellow color, orange color and red color. The results show that the given index system and method of evaluation can effectively and quantitatively evaluate the early-warning status of agricultural heritage protection, and thus lay the theoretical and methodological foundations of establishing scientific early-warning system and mechanism for agricultural heritage protection.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHOU Gui-peng, LONG Hua-lou
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2447-2463. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231002

    Land use transitions are the processes of pursuing the maximization of land use benefits. Using theoretical analysis, literature research and case study method, the land use, mechanism of land use transitions, the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution mode of land use morphology and the optimization effects of land use transitions on territorial spatial development patterns are discussed from the perspective of the spatial functions of land use benefits. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The spatial function of land use benefits reflects the pattern of output of regional land use benefits. The spatial function of land use benefits of each land use type jointly determines the benefits relative advantage areas of each land use type. (2) The action path of regional land use transitions from underlying to surface can be summarized as "three-dimensional original driving forces-recessive morphology changes-benefits functions changes-spatial conflict and coordination-dominant morphology changes". Land use transitions pursue not only the optimal coupling between the recessive morphology of regional land use and the "natural environment-economic society-management system" (recessive morphology optimization), but also the optimal coupling between the dominant morphology of land use and the spatial functions of land use benefits (dominant morphology optimization), thus transforming the strong spatial conflicts of land use types into weak conflicts (coordination), and close to achieving the maximum total benefits of land use morphology (benefits optimization). (3) The changes of the spatial functions of land use benefits are the upper reaches and driving link of the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution of land use morphology, the final benefits output of land use is its downstream response, and land use transitions are the long-term result of the above alternating evolution. The total benefits output of regional land use morphology is the bond and link between specific land use morphology and specific socio-economy development stage. (4) Land use transitions have service advantages for the optimization of territorial spatial patterns in smaller regions and scales, and need to interact and connect with the larger scale of territorial spatial planning to realize the optimization effects.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHANG Shan-qi, ZHEN Feng, KONG Yu, ZOU Si-cong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2435-2446. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231001

    The community is the space unit most closely related to the daily life of residents. Developments in information and communication technology (ICT) have affected the daily activity patterns of urban residents and the way they use community service amenities. A new form of community life circle characterized by the interaction of virtual and physical spaces has emerged. Against this backdrop, it is urgent to innovate planning methods of community life circles, and explore the approaches of evaluating and optimizing the layout of community life circle amenities based on the interaction between virtual and physical spaces. These explorations will help tackle with practical challenges related to insufficient community amenities facilities, low efficiency of public service and mismatch between service provision and the needs of local residents. This paper first reviews the research progress regarding quantitative approaches of evaluating and optimizing community life circle amenities. Future research directions regarding the planning of communitiy life circle based on the perspective of virtual-physical space interactions are then proposed. Specifically, future research should focus on the mechanisms of how virtual service impact residents' activities and community space, the dynamic evaluation method of amenities based on the interaction of virtual and real space and the simulation method for optimizing the spatial layout of service amenities. This paper will enrich our understanding of community life circle and facilitate the empirical research and the practice of planning community life circle from the new perspective.

  • Innovations of Theory and Practice in Heritage Sites Protection and Inheritance for the New Era
    YANG Li-guo, HU Ya-li, WU Xu-feng, HU Jia
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1164-1177. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230504

    Traditional villages are an important field for the inheritance and protection of Chinese traditional culture. As the core carrier for the continuation of local cultural lineage and the presentation of regional characteristics, cultural landscape genes are continuously produced in the process of socio-economic development and cultural renewal. Taking the Dong minority chorus of Huangdu village as an example, this paper adopts the qualitative research method of participatory observation and in-depth interview, and constructs an analytical framework of "landscape gene-space production" to study the process and mechanism of traditional village cultural landscape gene production. The research shows that: (1) The production of the Dong minority chorus in Huangdu village can be divided into three stages: "prototype generation", "structural reorganization" and "meaning restoration". The cultural landscape gene shows a process of change from following the perception of original values to fulfilling the transformation of tourism consumption and finally conforming to cultural identity. (2) The production of cultural landscape gene presents the structural mechanism of "shell-intermediary-core", the capital circulation of government and market in time and space scales promotes representations of space as the shell, the power behavior of elite groups in daily life supports representational spaces as an intermediary, and local villagers, as the main body of the village, carry the core of production to realize the expression of cultural authentic practice. (3) Capital goes through resource capitalization, capital spatialization and space capitalization in production to realize its triple cycle; power under the influence of elite groups, completes the construction of behavior logic through discourse representation, skill discipline and identity; villagers focus more on the practical expression of endogenous actions, from simple participation under intergenerational inheritance to resistance and protest under tourism consumption, and finally play a cooperative role under the call for heritage conservation.

  • Regular Articles
    LIN Jun-fan, ZHANG Zi-ang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1178-1193. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230505

    Under the background of global food security issues, food waste has become the focus of all countries. Household is one of the significant sources of food waste. Along with the aims to achieve carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals and promote the construction of ecological civilization, the reduction of household food waste is of substantially economic, social and ecological significance. Noted that domestic research on household food waste is still weak, systematic review of domestic and international research on household food waste can offer important theoretical and practical insights. A systematic literature review was conducted, following a thread of concept, theoretical framework, measurement methods, sub-themes. This review aims to summarize the shifts in connotation, advances in methods and theory concerning household food waste. This study argues that China's household food waste has its own characters owing to its historical and social factors, food culture and urban-rural divide. Academic research should be carried out in relation to the Chinese society, culture and institutions. The paper figures out the research prospects on food waste in Chinese families under the backgrounds of new environment and new technology. They include the difference between urban and rural household food waste, the influence of regional food cultures on China's household food waste, the relationship between Chinese family characteristics and food waste in the New Era, the influence of Chinese socio-cultural psychology on household food waste.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHONG Shun-chang, WANG Wen-zhu, YAN Cheng-li
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1896-1918. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230717

    The change of construction land use is an important reason for the change of carbon source/sink. How to optimize the spatial allocation of urban construction land in China's provincial-level regions to drive carbon emission reduction is an important topic under the background of the dual carbon strategy. In this paper, the proportion of the first city and Herfindahl index are used to measure the concentration degree of spatial allocation of construction land, and the carbon emission level is characterized by the carbon emissions per unit of construction land area. Based on China's provincial panel data from 2000 to 2020, this paper uses two-way fixed effect model to test the impact mechanism of the concentration of spatial allocation of construction land on carbon emissions. The results show that: (1) The centralized spatial allocation of urban construction land in provinces has significant carbon emission reduction effect. (2) From the perspective of functional land, the centralized spatial allocation of industrial, residential, and service land can reduce carbon emissions. From the perspective of action intensity, industrial and service land is larger, while residential land is slightly smaller. (3) Energy efficiency is an important mechanism for the centralized spatial allocation of provincial urban construction land and its functional land to affect carbon emissions. (4) The coupling and coordination of the centralized spatial allocation of various types of functional land will have a multiplier effect on carbon emission reduction by enhancing energy efficiency.

  • Marine Geo-economy and Sustainable Use of Ocean Resources
    MA Xue-guang, JIANG Ce
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(11): 2687-2703. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231101

    The deepening development of globalization and the transformation of regionalization are driving the continuous reshaping of the global political and economic pattern, while overseas strategic pivots, with their prominent geographical influence, play a supporting role in a country's global strategic deployment. This research combined geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory to reveal the impact mechanism and logical framework of spatial selection of China's overseas strategic pivots (COSPs) at different scales. On this basis, it preliminarily constructed the spatial selection model of COSPs, and then proposed an action path to put the model into practice from the perspective of actors. The results show that: (1) Geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory respectively dominate the spatial selection of COSPs at higher scale, mesoscale and lower scale. Specifically, the five underlying motivations derived from the three-dimensional perspective of "power-capital-space" have driven the rimland between land and sea powers to become the soil for cultivating COSP regions and countries; as a specific form of state spatial selectivity, COSP areas should be selected from strategic functional areas in COSP countries that are deeply supported by state spatial projects and strategies; owing to superior location conditions and location demand, coastal or border hub cities, international ports and parks in COSP countries have become the spatial selection range of COSP cities, ports and parks. (2) Each of the above three theories has its own emphasis, that is, they respectively dominate the spatial selection logic of COSPs at different scales; and they are also nested with each other, which means that the spatial selection of COSPs at various scales will inevitably be influenced by the geopolitical environment, state spatial selectivity and location conditions, thus shaping the logical framework of spatial selection. (3) The spatial selection model of COSPs has the characteristics of interlocking and multi-directional flow. In practice, the basic concept of "government domination and multiple actors initiation" should be adopted to strengthen top-level design, decision-making assistance and technical breakthroughs. The results can enrich the strategic pivot research framework and provide theoretical reference and policy inspiration for enhancing China's geopolitical influence.

  • Regular Articles
    FAN Meng-juan, XIONG Sheng-xu, GUO lin-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1318-1333. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230513

    Through a review of research literature on the forest resources balance sheet, it is found that there are still problems of completeness, such as controversial measurement of resource liabilities and missing measure of ecological product values, and operational problems, such as unclear compilation subjects, ambiguous reporting cycles, and difficulty in replicating and promoting the statements. Therefore, this study follows the principle of "complete content, high quality, and easy operation". First, from two aspects of the economy and the public welfare, we count the value of ecological products, which complements the connotation of resource liabilities from the perspective of intergenerational equity and sustainable development, and systematically summarizes the pricing methods of each item of forest resources to break through the accounting difficulties. Second, this study combines the four levels of the administrative system in China: provincial, municipal, county, and township, and constructs the system of "bottom table+auxiliary table+main table+general table", which comprehensively explains the process of report preparation, responsible units, reporting time and publication cycle. Finally, to serve the fiduciary responsibility of forest resource management of governments at all levels, the balance sheet of forest resource and the statement of changes are explored in Hubei province as an example.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    SUN Jing-wen, LU Yu-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2201-2216. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230902

    Urban-rural integration development is a comprehensive process of reshaping the spatial system and functional value of urban-rural regional system. Comprehensive land consolidation can optimally coordinate the human-environment relationship, and effectively crack the main contradictions and problems of unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development. The paper analyzes the current realistic problems of the circulation of urban-rural development factors, the connection of urban-rural spatial structures and the integration of urban-rural functions, and explores the theoretical logic of comprehensive land consolidation to effectively promote balanced urban-rural factor allocation, urban-rural spatial structure adjustment and urban-rural functional value unification from the perspective of "human, land, industry and rights" factor synergy. The empirical analysis of Zhejiang province using the geo-detector model further reveals the mechanism by which comprehensive land consolidation effectively drives urban-rural integration development through the interaction of multiple factors. Based on this, the optimization path of consolidation oriented to urban-rural integration is explored from three dimensions: market allocation of land elements, spatial reshaping of modern industrial development, and value sharing of multi-subject participation. The study provides theoretical references for deepening the scientific cognition of new urban-rural relationship and human-environment system, promoting the practice of comprehensive land consolidation, and urban-rural integration decisions.

  • Regular Articles
    SONG Yang, HE Can-fei, XU Yang, QU Jun-xi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1194-1209. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230506

    Based on the panel data of park green space and social economy of 284 prefecture- level Chinese cities since 2000, we examined the spatio-temporal patterns and driving mechanism of supply and demand of park green space, using the coefficient of variation, exploratory spatial data analysis methods and econometric models. The results show that: (1) The total area of China's urban park green space increased significantly since the beginning of the 21st century. The average level of park green space per capita has been significantly improved, with obvious differentiation in cities with different regions. (2) The difference degree of supply and demand of park green space converged significantly. After 2010, the supply of park green space in Western China has increased significantly. The lower per capita area of some small and medium-sized cities in Northeast, Central and Western China was the main inducement to block the equalization of park green space. (3) The spatio-temporal evolution of supply and demand of urban park green space was comprehensively driven by multi-dimensional factors such as urban background, social economy and public policy. Both the level of urban population agglomeration and land development had negative impact. The improvement of economic development, industrial structure upgrading and optimal allocation of residential land played an important promotive role. The public financial support, improvement of transportation infrastructure and level of environmental protection had significant positive impact. The driving mechanism of each factor however was obvious heterogeneous. We should increase the total supply of park green space according to the local conditions of different cities, innovate the supply mode and supply form, and improve the operation and maintenance system of park green space. The research results can provide references for improving the supply and demand of urban park green space, and solving the unbalanced and insufficient supply of park green space.

  • Modernization of Land Space Governance System and Governance Capability in the New Era
    WANG Wei, HU Ye-cui, ZHANG Yan-yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(6): 1403-1414. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230602

    The purpose of this study is to put forward the regulation innovation logic and path based on practices of territory space use conversion permits in China. The territory space use conversion permits include permits of resources allocation and permits of risk control. The problems and challenges of the territory space use conversion permits include: unclear setting of the permit conditions, incomplete legislative integration and incomplete supervision of permit procedures. The Chinese government should standardize laws, optimize procedures, and diversify mechanisms for territory space use conversion permits. These approaches are inevitable innovative logic for protecting the common interests of natural resource owners, implementing protection, restoration and management systematically, and improving the governance ability of territory space use conversion permits. This study suggests that the government innovation permits regulation should focus on four directions: enriching basic conditions of territory space use conversion permits, paying attention to connection of key process procedures, innovating tools of permits, and optimizing authority and responsibility for administrative review and decisions.

  • Modernization of Land Space Governance System and Governance Capability in the New Era
    LU Yi-fan, LIN Jin-yao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(6): 1532-1549. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230610

    The purposes of this study are to explore the zoning of grain production regions based on systematic conservation planning method, to analyze the encroachment of urban agglomeration expansion on high-quality farmland under the two scenarios of coordinated development and independent development of cities within the urban agglomeration, and to provide reference for regional grain production functional area identification, resource allocation optimization and spatial layout planning. The research methods are as follows. Based on the urban flow theory and PLUS model, the expansion of Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration in 2030 under the two development scenarios is simulated and predicted. Based on the concept of system conservation, the functional areas and reserve areas of grain production are identified, and the encroachment of different expansion results on grain production regions is analyzed. The results indicate that: (1) The simulation results of urban agglomeration expansion under the scenario of coordinated development of various cities in the Pearl River Delta are more consistent with the actual development trend. (2) Based on the concept of systematic conservation planning, the farmland in the study area is divided into functional areas for grain production, reserve areas for grain production, and other areas. (3) Compared with the independent development scenario, the expansion of urban agglomeration based on urban interaction will encroach less grain production functional areas and grain production reserve areas. In conclusion, the zoning method of grain production functional regions can coordinate the multiple goals of socio-economic development, farmland protection and food security, and can provide suggestions and basis for optimizing the development and protection pattern of territory space under the background of urban regionalization.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    WU Mao-ying, ZHANG Mei-qi, WANG Long-jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2097-2116. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230811

    Boosting the internal impetus for rural development is key to promoting high-quality rural development and constructing livable, workable, harmonious and beautiful villages. To this end, existing studies call for neo-endogenous rural development through the collaboration of actors within and outside villages. However, most of the studies discuss this issue at the conceptual level, which still needs a systematic framework to provide action guide. Addressing the gap, this study combines the symbiotic theory and neo-endogenous development pattern, and builds a research framework with three dimensions of the symbiotic unit, symbiotic pattern and symbiotic environment. Taking the "Rural Operation" practice in Lin'an district in Hangzhou as the case, this study identifies the path and mechanisms of the symbiosis of multiple actors within and outside villages to realize neo-endogenous rural development. This study finds that: (1) Local forces, social forces and government forces constitute the basic symbiotic units, respectively assuming the roles of endogenous power, localized intermediary and platform constructor. (2) Neo-endogenous rural development is embedded in a multi-scale symbiotic environment of state, market and local spaces. Multiple action logics, including the state administrative logic, market economic logic and local cultural logic, exist in the environment. (3) In terms of the symbiotic pattern, symbiotic units need to build deep and multiple linkages with each other, establish shared values, and construct a governance system with formal and informal institutions, to enable the stability and sustainability of the symbiotic relationship. This study also provides practical implications for boosting the internal impetus for rural development and promoting rural revitalization, from the perspective of symbiotic theory.

  • Cultural Heritage and National Cultural Parks
    WANG Ling-en, LI Ke, CUI Jia-sheng, SUN Lin, ZHANG Shu-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2263-2282. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230905

    In recent years, the exacerbation of climate change poses a significant threat to cultural heritage protection in China. It is of both theoretical and practical significance to study the influencing mechanism and response mechanism of climate change influence on cultural heritage protection. This study analyzes the mechanism and process of mutual interaction of climate factors on cultural heritage, evaluates the influence and trend of future climate change on Chinese cultural heritage, and finally explores the interactive relationship among different stakeholders of Chinese cultural heritage protection. The results show the mechanism and process that the changes of various climate factors acting on cultural heritage are complex and diverse. The change of individual climate factors, the chain reaction triggered by the change of climate factor, and the interaction of different climate factors generally have a direct or indirect impact on cultural heritage. Moreover, solar radiation, temperature, humidity, air pollutants, precipitation and other climatic factors have affected Chinese cultural heritage to a certain extent, admittedly, but it is necessary to dialectically explore the impact of future climate change on Chinese cultural heritage. With the intensification of global warming and the appearance of extreme weather, the destruction of cultural heritage caused by the difference in temperature and freezing will be reduced, but the cultural heritage represented by ancient wooden buildings and grottoes will still face severe threats. Finally, the establishment of a network of stakeholders is beneficial to administrative departments, local governments, local communities, enterprises, tourists, researchers, and external pressure groups to play respective roles to jointly protect cultural heritage. Under the dual backgrounds of the intensification of climate change and the strategy of "cultural power", this paper is helpful to deepen the understanding of all circles on cultural heritage protection, and enrich the theoretical discussion about protection and utilization of cultural heritage.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    DING Jian-jun, WAN Hang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2041-2058. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230808

    Digital village is an important driving force for agricultural and rural modernization. It is not only the strategic direction of rural revitalization, but also an important part of the construction of digital China. On the basis of analyzing the spatial characteristics of Chinese digital villages, we match CHFS database with Digital Rural County Index, and use the threshold regression method to identify the income increase effect of rural households. The results show that: (1) The development of digital villages in China is unbalanced, presenting a decreasing trend from east to middle and west, but there is little difference between the north and the south; (2) The development level of the four sub-dimensions of digital villages is in the descending order of rural digital infrastructure, rural governance digitization, rural economy digitization and rural life digitization, and there is a large east-west difference between rural economy digitization and rural life digitization. At the same time, the total development level of digital villages and each sub-dimension are significantly correlated in space, and the HH and LL clustering characteristics are prominent. (3) Digital villages promote farmers' income through rural digital infrastructure, rural economy digitalization, rural governance digitalization and rural life digitalization, among which the income increase effect of rural economic digitalization is the largest. (4) The income increase effect of rural households is related to the education and income level of rural households, that is, the income increase effect of rural households with higher education is more significant, while that with lower income is not obvious, and even has a restraining effect. In addition, considering the development stage of the digital villages itself and the level of regional economic development, the digital village has a nonlinear impact on the increase of farmers' income.

  • Interview with Experts
    JIN Xiao-bin, YE Chao, YUE Wen-ze, MA Li-bang, LUO Zhen-dong, YANG Ren, LYU Xiao, WANG Cheng, LI Chuan-wu, ZHANG Guo-jun, FAN Ye-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(1): 1-28. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240101

    Urban-rural integrated development is an important way to coordinate the national strategies of new urbanization and rural revitalization. It is also crucial for Chinese-style modernization. To comprehensively tackle challenges facing the current urban-rural integration in China, explore the path of coordinated urban-rural governance, and clarify the strategies for urban-rural integrated development, experts from various fields were cordially invited to engage in in-depth discussions on pressing issues related to urban-rural iintegrated development. These issues include the trends and pathways of urban-rural integration in contemporary China, Innovation of institutions and mechanisms for urban-rural integration, implementation pathways for territorial spatial planning, emerging rural business models and rural transformation pathways, high-quality development pathways for urban-rural integration in different regions, and the path of promoting urban-rural integrated development through comprehensive land consolidation. These discussions aimed to advance theoretical research and practical planning of urban-rural integrated development in China. Attentions need to be paid in urban-rural integrated development in the New Era on: (1) The primary obstacles and innovative pathways in the institutions and mechanisms of urban-rural integrated development guided by comprehensive coordination and regional interconnectivity. Constructing an infrastructure and public service system that effectively connects and complements urban and rural areas, accelerating the coordinated development of urban and rural areas using counties as the carrier, and promoting the flexible governance of this population while concurrently achieving integrated governance of urban-rural natural and social system. Promoting cross-border governance, encouraging cooperation and assistance between eastern and western regions, and achieving regional-scale coordinated development between urban and rural areas. Underdeveloped regions in both Central and Western China should strengthen the linkage role of counties and small towns. This involves enhancing their attractiveness for the inflow of talent, technology, and capital, and driving the transformation of industrial structures towards digitization, intelligence, and low. In contrast, developed regions in the Eastern China should establish a spatial structure system with multiple focal points, network layout, and clear hierarchies. They should expand the breadth and precision of urban-rural factor mobility, and promote the transformation and upgrade of traditional infrastructure and public services, aiming for inclusive development. (2) Optimizing the allocation of resource elements driven by the "planning-utilization-consolidation" cycle in territorial spatial management to achieve shared urban-rural governance and rural reconstruction. Anchoring the spatial pattern of urban and rural development through territorial spatial planning, optimizing the urban-rural spatial layout during planning implementation. Ultimately, improving the spatial quality organic renewal and driving bidirectional flows of diverse elements between urban and rural regions. Place emphasis on rural functional provision, resource utilization orientation, and industrial development models, uncovering multifaceted rural functions including production, lifestyle, ecology, and landscapes. Exploring regionally adapted industrial integration models that enhance agricultural and rural development vitality through distinctive features and high efficiency gains. We also should enhance the leading role of comprehensive land consolidation policies, incentivize and support active private capital involvement, promote resource integration and value enhancement. Strengthening urban-rural industrial synergy and integrated development, and facilitating the orderly flow of urban-rural resource elements. (3) Enhanced awareness and innovative practices in targeted urban-rural governance and rural transformation supported by digital technology and intelligent platforms. Establishing an urban-rural data sharing platform helps bridge the "digital divide" in urban-rural integrated development and enables refined governance across urban and rural areas. Deeply apply the technologies like 5G, Internet of Things (IoT) to support the transformation and upgrade of conventional infrastructure. Expanding the coverage of digital devices in rural basic facilities, and utilizing digital technology to integrate cultural resources across urban and rural areas. Promoting the deep integration of the digital economy and the physical economy involves linking consumer markets through the internet and digital technology, establishing diverse channels for agricultural product distribution, and stimulating the transformation of consumption patterns and the enhancement of consumption capabilities for both urban and rural residents. Embedding digital technology into rural industry development and social governance processes to facilitate the intelligent transformation of agricultural production, digitalization of rural industry development, smartification of rural administrative affairs, and establishment of a digital grid for rural social governance. The aforementioned viewpoints can provide theoretical support and decision-making foundations for achieving the goal of urban-rural integrated development oriented towards Chinese-style modernization.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    ZHONG Yang, LI Jia-qi, SUN Ming-yue, LI Jia-ming, LU Na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2076-2096. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230810

    Identifying the spatial structure of the rural regional system scientifically and systematically is the premise of proposing differentiated rural revitalization strategies. This is of important practical significance for thoroughly implementing the rural revitalization strategy and accelerate the integrated development of urban-rural areas. This paper takes Changsha county, Hunan province as the research area, constructs a rural development evaluation index system based on the rural regional multi-body system and the multi-level goals of rural revitalization, and integrates research methods such as gravity model, K-Means clustering, geographic detectors and spatial autocorrelation. Quantifying and identifying the spatial structure, including poles of rural revitalization, fields of village-town space, zones of rural development and urban- rural infrastructure networks, is composed of 137 administrative villages in Changsha county. The results show that: (1) The spatial differentiation of rural development level in the study area is the result of a combination of factors, which presents a circle structure weakening from the center of the town core to the periphery, and the spatial agglomeration effect is significant. (2) The closeness of supply and demand between regions is an important factor affecting the strength of spatial linkage, and the intensity of spatial connection based on factors can better express the needs and complementary pattern of regional development. (3) The "Pole-Field-Zone-Network" multidimensional analysis framework has strong applicability for the identification and division of the spatial structure of the rural regional system in the suburbs of the urban area. Finally, 11 rural revitalization poles, 3 village space fields, and 7 rural development areas were specifically determined and divided, and an urban-rural infrastructure network based on the "pole-field-zone" network structure was constructed. According to the spatial structure, this paper puts forward differentiated suggestions for promoting rural revitalization and urban-rural integration development.

  • Innovations of Theory and Practice in Heritage Sites Protection and Inheritance for the New Era
    JU Ying-ying, CHENG Li
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(5): 1135-1149. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230502

    Tourism community residents are the ultimate guardians of heritage, but their heritage responsibility behavior has not been concerned. Based on the fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) method, this paper constructed a complex causal model of residents' heritage responsibility behavior with internal driving factors and social embedding factors as dependent variables. This paper took the Pingyao ancient city community as an example and made an empirical analysis based on the questionnaire survey results. The results show that: (1) There are eight condition configurations that can promote the formation of residents' heritage responsibility behaviors, among which residents' heritage responsibility behavior attitude, place attachment, relational embeddedness, political embeddedness, and cultural embeddedness are the necessary conditions for the formation of heritage responsibility behaviors. The above variables have more substantial explanatory power for residents' heritage responsibility behaviors than other variables. (2) Five modes can drive residents to form high-level heritage responsibility behavior, and a single variable cannot achieve high-level heritage responsibility behavior. The formation mechanism is characterized by multiple configurations and systems. The original coverage of the core existence mode of behavioral attitude, place attachment, political embeddedness, and cultural embeddedness is the highest. The original coverage of the configuration with missing minor conditions is lower than that of the configuration without missing minor conditions. (3) The factors affecting residents' heritage responsibility behavior are complicated and interactive. The lack of a single factor is not the bottleneck to form heritage responsibility behavior. Subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and structure embeddedness in different paths have different effects on heritage responsibility behavior. When subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and structural embeddedness are insufficient, the implementation of heritage responsibility behavior can be improved by promoting residents' place attachment, political embeddedness and cultural embeddedness. Finally, this paper has important practical guiding significance to perform heritage protection for the government and managers of cultural heritage sites.