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  • Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
    ZHU He, GAO Xiang-yu, ZHANG Sheng-rui, ZHANG Tong-yan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(7): 1493-1511. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240701

    The cognition of tourism resources is the basic work of the development of tourism industry. Traditional research and development of tourism resources usually rely on the development of single unit, and neglect the aggregation characteristics and combined value of resources. This study focuses on the regional tourism resources combination, and reorganizes the relevant research basis of regional tourism resources combination under the context of national strategic orientation and tourism development needs in the New Era. For the value transformation and sustainable utilization of tourism resources, the connotation of regional tourism resources combination is analyzed from the aspects of regional characteristics, combined characteristics and value characteristics. Combining with knowledge mapping, text analysis, image analysis and other technologies, this paper puts forward the identification ideas, methods and techniques of regional tourism resources combination. It sums up five key problems of the regional tourism resources combination: the principle and basis of the division, the mode and method, the evaluation system, the path of value transformation, and the guarantee system. Going forward, we will endeavor to advance the theoretical research and practical exploration of regional tourism resource combination.

  • Interview with Experts on New Quality Productive Forces
    WANG Jin-wei, LU Lin, WANG Zhao-feng, WEI Min, SONG Rui, YANG Yong, BAI Kai, LIN Ming-shui, YU Hu, ZHU He
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(7): 1643-1663. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240709

    New quality productive forces are the core driver for building a modern tourism sector and also support the development of a strong tourism nation. In order to deeply understand the scientific connotation of new quality productive forces and clarify the theoretical logic and strategic path of new quality productive forces empowering the high-quality development of tourism industry, several experts on regional economic development, the digital economy, tourism management and geography were interviewed. The interviews were based on the logic of "problem orientation-innovative thinking-path mechanism", focusing on the background, opportunities and challenges, core meanings, drivers, and innovations empowering the high-quality development of tourism new quality productive forces. There were three main conclusions from this research. The first was the strategic opportunities and risks of promoting the high-quality development of tourism through new quality productive forces against a background of rapid and continuous technological change. New quality productive forces optimize resource allocation through scientific and technological innovation, and improve the production efficiency and growth quality of tourism. They also produce new tourism development models and forms of business, constantly generating momentum to drive high-quality economic and social improvements. Especially in rural tourism, the role of new quality productive forces is particularly significant. It promotes the gradual improvement of the rural tourism production network, enhances cooperation among rural tourism stakeholders, helps rural tourism participants evolve new production initiatives, and ultimately reinvigorates rural areas with increased prosperity. However, given globalization and rapid digitalization, innovation in tourism faces a series of challenges. In particular, the lack of systematic development of tourism software and hardware, risks of data security and privacy protection, resistance to change and innovation in traditional tourism, and the "growing pains" brought by the transformation to new technologies deserve attention. The development of new quality productive forces in future tourism must focus on technological innovation, find and prepare a quality tourism workforce, optimize and more closely integrate products and services with human talent, and significantly improve the total factor productivity of tourism. Second, the process of empowering the high-quality development of tourism must encompass technological innovation leading to industrial modernization. Innovation plays a leading role in new quality productive forces and is the core driver of the high-quality development of tourism. The new quality productive forces empowering this tourism development have several specific features. Technological innovation leads the modernization of the tourism sector and is a prerequisite for the high-quality development of tourism. Factor integration and supply-demand matching are the intrinsic requirements for the high-quality development of tourism. Other critical ingredients are digitization, greening and artificial intelligence. The significant improvement of total factor productivity must be the core goal for the high-quality development of tourism. Third, the guidance of national strategy is crucial to the progress and prospects for new quality productive forces empowering the high-quality development of tourism. New quality productive forces are receiving widespread emphasis since their inception and have become a core issue highly valued by the tourism sector in China. In the New Era, modern technology has become a key production factor in tourism. Additionally, the transformation and upgrading of tourism is dynamically advancing, growth is strengthening, and the ability of tourism to serve national economic and social-cultural strategies is becoming more noticeable. However, it should not be overlooked that high-quality tourism development is still faced with serious problems such as weak technological innovation capabilities, uneven regional development, inadequate circulation of factor resources, and insufficient human talent for tourism. To further enhance the beneficial impacts of new quality productive forces in stimulating the high-quality development of tourism, it is necessary to focus on deepening the reform of the system and operations in tourism, optimizing the creative allocation of tourism production factors, accelerating the development of a modern tourism sector, and improving the quality of professional tourism talent. These three recommendations will not only enhance the understanding and application of new quality productive forces to a certain extent, but also provide decision-making support for building China into a leading tourism nation in the world.

  • JIANG Wei-guo, WANG Xiao-ya, LI Zhuo, LING Zi-yan, DENG Ya-wen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(6): 1241-1261. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240601

    Urban wetlands are an important part of the urban system and have very important ecological and social functions. Wetland city is an honorary initiative implemented by the Ramsar Convention to commend cities for their achievements in protecting wetlands. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the key to solving global problems. It is leading and guiding wetland protection and urban development. This study connects the wetland cities with the United Nations Sustainable Development Strategy and attempts to explore new paths for synergy between urban development and wetland protection. (1) It sorted out the development history and certification process of wetland cities comprehensively, and summarized the experience of 13 wetland cities of China. (2) It introduced the three stages of sustainable development, and summarized international initiatives related to wetlands and cities based on Sustainable Development Goals. (3) The future trend should aim to promote the exploration of sustainable development paradigms of wetland cities towards "international convention organization-creation effectiveness monitoring-development indicator evaluation", and to enrich high-quality development practices of wetland cities towards "national strategic needs and local urban construction". This study provides technical support for intelligent decision-making services of urban wetlands focusing on "urban wetland remote sensing monitoring-urban wetland simulation prediction-urban wetland comprehensive assessment and services".

  • LIU Yu-ting, QIN Meng-lin, OUYANG Hui-ting, JIANG Hong-bo, WU Xin-yu, LUO Ding-ding
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(6): 1358-1383. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240607

    Under the background of vigorously promoting the territorial spatial planning in the New Era, the efficient, sustainable and fair allocation of territorial spatial resources have become the basic research topic that must be carried out. Taking Guangxi, which is located in the core area of ecological barrier in Southern China, as the study subject, this study used the quantitative supply and demand matching process under the accounting of ecosystem service value and the analytical method of PLE-ES supply and demand quadrant matrix. The objective was to analyze the quantitative relationship and spatial matching characteristics of supply and demand for ecosystem services under the process of territorial spatial resource allocation. This study aimed to construct an optimization method for territorial spatial resource allocation centered on the balance of supply and demand for ecosystem services. The results showed that: (1) In 2000, 2010 and 2020, the mean difference between supply and demand of Guangxi's territorial spatial resources support services (Q) was 0.30, the mean difference between supply and demand of regulating services (Q) was 0.33, the mean difference between supply and demand of supply services (Q) was 0.06, and the mean difference between supply and demand of cultural services (Q) was 0.03. The overall performance was that the demand of support services and cultural services exceeded supply, and the supply of regulating services and supply services exceeded demand. In terms of allocation quality, except for the regulating services coordination degree (C), which was 0.16, the other three types of services coordination degree (C) were greater than 0.60, indicating fair and efficient allocation. (2) The supply and demand matching relationship of productive resources in the study area were mainly in the "high-supply low-demand" area, the living resources were mainly in the "low-supply low-demand" area, and the ecological resources were mainly in the "low-supply low-demand" and "high-supply low-demand" areas. (3) Taking the supply and demand balance of ecosystem services as the value orientation, Guangxi was divided into three primary units for resources allocation optimization, namely the resources-rich area in Western Guangxi, the integrated development area in Eastern Guangxi, and the Beibu Gulf Economic area. Identified the supply source and demand destination of territorial spatial resources, and then constructed a "one map" of territorial spatial resources circulation that can promote regional collaboration and rational resources utilization.

  • SHI Chang-liang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(6): 1418-1433. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240610

    Chinese agricultural production is changing from factor input type to efficiency enhancing type. Whether land transfer can drive agriculture into a high-quality development track, the effects and mechanisms have not been effectively demonstrated. Based on the theoretical analysis, the article uses the SBM-GML model to construct green total factor productivity indicators to measure the high-quality agricultural development level in each provincial-level region, and then uses the panel data models with interactive fixed effects to test the land transfer impact on high-quality agricultural development and its mechanism based on the panel data of 30 provincial-level regions of China from 2005 to 2022. The study found that, (1) land transfer significantly contributes to high-quality agricultural development, and this finding still holds in controlling regional omitted variables, systematic GMM estimation, instrumental variable estimation and exogenous shock test. (2) Land transfer mainly promotes high-quality agricultural development by increasing agricultural output, while its effect on reducing agricultural non-point source pollution is unclear. Although land transfer has not significantly promoted large-scale management, it has effectively improved the land and labor utilization efficiency which helps to promote high-quality agricultural development. (3) Different forms of land transfer have heterogeneous impacts on high-quality agricultural development, compared with spontaneous forms of transfer such as exchange or transfer, the market-based forms such as lease or shareholding have a more significant impact on high-quality agricultural development. (4) Different land transfer recipients also have heterogeneous impacts on high-quality agricultural development, compared with transferring land to ordinary farmers, transferring land to new business entities such as family farms, professional cooperatives and enterprises can significantly contribute to high-quality agricultural developmentt.

  • HAN Yu-fei, WU Feng-ping, WANG Wei, JI Ying-wen, WANG Rui-fang, WANG Xiao-yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(6): 1450-1472. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240612

    Reclaimed water allocation is an important policy to cope with the problem of water resources shortage and water environment pollution. At present, China urgently needs to establish a set of theoretical system of reclaimed water allocation in line with China's national conditions and water resources characteristics. This study summarizes the main experience of recycled water utilization in the United States, Japan, Singapore and Israel. Three basic elements of reclaimed water allocation in China are proposed: price mechanism, supply and demand situation and allocation relationship. The theoretical model is constructed based on the basic elements: First, comprehensively consider the cost of reclaimed water utilization, supply and demand sides of the shadow price of reclaimed water, to build a reclaimed water comprehensive price model; secondly, comprehensively consider the use of reclaimed water in the industry sector, and the driving factors of the demand for reclaimed water in various industries, to build a reclaimed water demand forecasting model; thirdly, in accordance with the requirements of the target in a top-down system, establish the interval two-layer planning models of reclaimed water allocation, in order to achieve the "region-industry" at different levels of the allocation of reclaimed water. This study aims to enhance the systematic and pioneering nature of the theory of reclaimed water allocation, and to provide reference for the implementation of wastewater resource utilization.

  • WANG Fang, LIU Yong, HE Jin-sheng, HU Xie, QIN Yue, WANG Le-ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(5): 997-1007. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240501

    In the complex human and water adaptation process, river basins have become the containers and links that nurture human civilization and witness the evolution of urban and rural areas. River basin habitats refer to the adaptive systems formed by the interaction and coevolution of river basin and human settlement, characterized by integrity, dynamism, and synergy. From the multi-disciplinary common problems, the river basin habitats (riv-habitats) science encompasses three key issues: element coupling, scale correlation, and system evolution. It refines the theoretical model of the "node-setting-connection" structural theory and the "locality-adaptation" evolutionary theory and also improves a new paradigm of interdisciplinary approach and artificial intelligence for river basin habitats. As an interdisciplinary field that adapts to the needs of the times and that aims at the sustainable development goal of harmonious coexistence between humans and nature, riv-habitats science comprehensively applies the knowledge and methods of multiple disciplines to carry out interdisciplinary systematic research on river basin habitats, which will contribute to the ecological civilization and high-quality development and construction of river basins in the New Era.

  • WANG Tian-yu, YUE Wen-ze
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(5): 1008-1021. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240502

    The patterns of territorial spatial development determine the dynamic carbon balance in regional terrestrial ecosystems. In the context of global "carbon neutrality" and China's new urbanization transformation, it is urgent to establish development patterns that enhance terrestrial ecosystems' carbon sink capacity. To this end, the study establishes a systematic cognitive framework for the carbon balance effects of land use under urbanization. It proposes a "direct-indirect-potential" typology for the impact of urbanization-induced land use changes on terrestrial ecosystems' carbon cycling. To achieve the goal of carbon sequestration and increase in terrestrial ecosystems, the study explores the inherent logic of low-carbon optimization in territorial spatial layout. It also deconstructs the governance dimensions of low-carbon optimization in territorial spatial layout concerning "quantity, spatial layout, and spatial utilization". Finally, the study proposes policy instruments and improvement suggestions for supporting low-carbon adjustments in territorial spatial layout. In conclusion, the study's first contribution is the enhancement of low-carbon thinking in territorial spatial development and utilization. Secondly, it broadens the research path for low-carbon optimization in territorial space. The study highlights the positive role of territorial spatial layout optimization and governance in achieving regional "carbon neutrality" goals.

  • Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
    MA Xue-feng, ZHAO Jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(4): 749-767. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240401

    In the context of Chinese-style modernization, the common prosperity effect of tourism resource development is explored to point out the direction of exploration for accelerating the high-quality development of tourism industry and realizing the goal of common prosperity. This study clarifies the mechanism of tourism resource development through the income growth effect, infrastructure enhancement effect, culture communication effect and factor flow effect to promote the realization of common prosperity, and constructs a comprehensive evaluation system of tourism resource development in terms of scale and quality. The spatial econometric modeling is applied to empirically test the impact of mountain tourism resource development on the common prosperity based on the relevant data at the district and county level of the Western Hunan Area from 2007 to 2021. Ultimately, it proposes targeted development model optimization strategies based on the real needs of enhancing the value of resources, promoting rural revitalization and contributing to the common prosperity. The results show that: (1) The overall level of tourism resource development in Western Hunan Area shows a gentle growth trend, but the spatial difference is obvious, in which Yongding district and Fenghuang county are always the dominant parties, while Luxi county is in a relatively disadvantageous position. (2) The level of common prosperity in Western Hunan Area continues to improve, but there are still imbalances between districts and counties, with Yongding district, Jishou city and Hecheng district, where the municipal administrative center is located, in the top three. (3) Tourism resource development has a significant positive spatial spillover effect on common prosperity, that is, it can enhance the level of common prosperity in the region and adjacent regions. Both tourism scale and tourism quality can be effective in empowering common prosperity, and the positive effect of tourism quality on common prosperity is better than that of tourism scale. The impact of tourism resource development on common prosperity varies significantly in different regions, with Zhangjiajie city having the largest common prosperity effect of tourism resource development, followed by Huaihua city and Xiangxi prefecture. Guided by the goal of common prosperity, the models of sustainable utilization, quality upgrading, and regional integration for the development of mountain tourism resource are proposed.

  • Regular Articles
    HUANG Yi-jing, ZHANG Shan-qi, LIN Yun, ZHEN Feng, ZHAO Sai-shuai, LI Lu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(4): 823-841. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240405

    In the context of digital transformation, establishing and improving the monitoring mechanism for the implementation of territorial spatial planning is an important key to enhance the efficiency of spatial governance as well as national governance. The implementation monitoring of territorial spatial planning in the New Era involves long-term and dynamic monitoring of the planning process and the spatial changes influenced by development, utilization, and protection. It serves as a necessary prerequisite for understanding the real-time status of spatial planning and promoting real-time feedback for planning optimization. This article systematically reviews the development of China's related work on planning implementation monitoring, and summarizes the shortcomings of existing work from positioning, content and technical framework, and transmission mechanism. Based on the analysis above, it clarifies the connotation of "continuous monitoring" and the positioning of "comprehensive supporting" for the implementation monitoring of territorial spatial planning. Furthermore, with the case of Ningbo city in Zhejiang province, it constructs the content framework of implementation monitoring for territorial spatial planning from three aspects: the implementation of planning requirements, the external effects of planning, and the adjustment of planning during processes. Also, it improves the monitoring indicators and builds flexible units for monitoring analysis and predicting models for future warning. All in all, it provides references for conducting comprehensive implementation monitoring methods of territorial spatial planning on city level.

  • Regular Articles
    YUAN Yuan, WANG Ya-hua, XU Ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(4): 942-959. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240412

    The fundamental guarantee of national food security lies in cultivated land. In the background of territorial and spatial use control, the single control of cultivated land quantity from the past has turned to the implementation of "storing grain in the land" strategy nowadays, and the "integrated food security thought" has also given a new connotation to the national food security strategy. The governance of "non-grain" in the new era needs to explore the response logic of cultivated land use control and thus construct a theoretical framework system. By reviewing the implementation of "non-grain" governance policies and the current dilemma between public goods and autonomous management, standard identification and policy implementation, consumption transformation and social service, this paper points out that the response logic of cultivated land use control should be focused on the three different dimensions of governance perspectives, namely bottom-line control, dynamic development and value realization. Aiming at each perspective, analysis of relationships should focus on the following aspects, protecting national and personal interests from the perspective of security and efficiency coordination, dealing with the self-sufficiency of rations and the upgrading of consumption from the perspective of supply and demand matching, realizing the priority and versatility of cultivated land utilization from the perspective of resource and asset transformation. The theoretical framework should refer to the principles of multi-level planning targets, refined zoning management, life cycle process and differentiated rule system. Further, the establishment of the use control framework consists of four core contents, regulation basis, pattern, section and methods. The regulation basis should refine the rules of "transfer-in" and "transfer-out" of cultivated land, which is helpful to improve the rule of law. The regulation pattern should make good use of the combination of partition, element and behavior, and carry out differentiated control measures mainly according to "three areas and three lines". The regulation section should highlight the "non-grain" governance of life cycle process, which needs to strengthen the role of use control in all aspects of investigation, registration, planning, restoration, utilization and supervision. The regulation methods should focus on innovation in aspects of administrative, social, economic and technical fields. In conclusion, this study can provide reference for the policy design of preventing "non-grain" and improving China's most stringent system of cultivated land protection.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    YANG Zhen-shan, YANG Hang, YANG Lin-sheng, GE Quan-sheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(3): 489-507. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240301

    Assessment and monitoring are an essential part of promoting the achievement of the sustainable development. Currently, theoretical research and localized program around the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been in full swing, but the relevant assessment and practice process is still lacking in the consideration of target constraints and hierarchical transmission. To this end, the study establishes a sustainable development assessment oriented towards the SDGs and concerned on the systematicity and openness, which can be deconstructed and applied in multiscale spatial units. The results show that, at the national and regional levels, the gap between SDGs and the current level in 2020 regarding to the dimensions of safe ecology, pleasant environment and green development is rapidly narrowing. On the contrary, there is still a large gap on the dimension of harmony society, though the index experiences a steady growth, which can be interpreted as the uneven income distribution and large urban-rural differences. It is crucial to identify the priorities of different regions and the synergies and trade-off between indicators in different scaled objectives to promote the implementation of the SDGs. The proposed assessment program supports the diagnosis of regional problems of sustainable development and the understanding of interrelationships between different regions and goals. It also facilitates the active participation of different levels and actors in the cause of sustainable development within an open framework, and helps to systematically assess and monitor the process of realizing SDGs.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHANG Yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(3): 508-527. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240302

    Territorial and spatial use regulation can correct market failure, but its policy externality may widen the development gap between regions and affect the overall high-quality development of China's economy. It is of vital significance to clarify and validate the practical effects of territorial and spatial use regulation on high-quality economic development and the underlying theoretical logic. Marginal analysis and geographical detector methods were adopted in this study. Based on provincial panel data from 2010 to 2021, this paper analyzes and verifies the effects of territorial and spatial use regulation on high-quality economic development in China from two dimensions: regulation intensity and regulation validity. Research findings: (1) From a national perspective, the influencing factors of high-quality economic development are opening-up, technology investment, validity of territorial and spatial use regulation, capital stock, human capital, and intensity of territorial and spatial use regulation. (2) There is regional heterogeneity in the impact of human capital and technology investment on high-quality economic development. (3) There is an inverted U-shaped curve relationship between the intensity of territorial and spatial use regulation and the level of high-quality economic development. With the increase in the intensity of territorial and spatial use regulation, the level of high-quality development of regional economy first increases and then decreases. (4) The validity of territorial and spatial use regulation is significantly and positively correlated with the level of high-quality economic development. The factor contribution of the validity of territorial and spatial use regulation to high-quality economic development is 0.406. The following conclusions can be drawn: Scientific implementation of territorial and spatial use regulation can promote high-quality economic development in China. The study proposes suggestions and enlightenments on promoting high-quality development of the China's economy, such as maintaining the optimal range of territorial and spatial use regulation intensity, improving the compensation mechanism, enhancing the validity of territorial and spatial use regulation, and formulating targeted implementation plans for high-quality economic development in different regions.

  • Regular Articles
    CHENG Yao, WANG Qi-xuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(2): 274-286. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240203

    After the national territory spatial planning system was established, the relevant work about performance evaluation of spatial development should be carried out scientifically and systematically, and it will become an important support for spatial development and land use control in territory spatial plannings at all levels. Based on the spatial performance evaluation in the existing practice, the study tries to explain the connotation of performance evaluation of spatial development in the context of territory spatial planning system, and then combines the ongoing practices at various levels to propose a framework system and key issues. According to the study, the topic about performance evaluation of spatial development originates from the serious problems existing in traditional spatial development models and the long-term strategic demand for optimizing the spatial pattern. It has become an important research direction in the field of spatial development in new development stage, and will contribute to the optimization and high-quality development of various types of space patterns in territory spatial planning. At the same time, the performance evaluation and improvement of spatial development should be coordinated with territory spatial planning at all levels, forming a multi-level framework from macro- to micro-perspective. The performance evaluation of spatial development can provide comprehensive ideas for guiding the improvement of spatial performance in territory spatial planning, as well as inspiration for the formulation of corresponding policies such as spatial redevelopment.

  • Regular Articles
    GUO Jian-ke, DONG Meng-ru, HAN Zeng-lin, QIN Ya-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(2): 287-306. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240204

    On the basis of putting forward the connotation of marine geoeconomics, this paper combs the development process, research hotspots and research priorities of Chinese scholars, summarizes the research characteristics and existing shortcomings of marine geoeconomics, and looks forward to the future research trends. (1) Marine geoeconomics derives from geoeconomics and marine geopolitics, and is influenced by geopolitics. The core theme of the study is the economic and trade linkages of sea related countries. (2) The evolution process of marine geoeconomics thought can be divided into four stages: the embryonic period of thought, the initial formation period, the rise and development period, and the steady exploration period. The hotspots of the research are from the germination of marine geo-thought which stays at the ideological level, to strategic thinking around the struggle for sea power, to the qualitative exploration under the system of geo-economic theory, and to the quantitative analysis which is becoming more diversified and clearer. (3) China's research focus mainly includes marine geo-economic theories, marine geo-economic activities, marine geo-economic relationship, marine strategic resources competition pattern, marine geoeconomic strategies, high seas protected areas, etc. (4) At present, the study of marine geoeconomics in China is still in its initial stage of exploration, and the relevant basic theoretical research and quantitative analysis from multi-scales and multi-perspectives are relatively lacking, and the disciplinary characteristics of geography and resource science have not been fully reflected. However, it has gradually attracted the attention of multidisciplinary scholars, and the research content shows a trend of diversification. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the theoretical paradigm and decision-making support of marine geoeconomics research, the development, utilization and protection of high seas resources and its spatial effect, the community of human maritime destiny and the sustainable development and utilization of international marine resources, the security of maritime transport channels and the resilience of port and shipping supply chain, and China's marine geoeconomic environment under the background of the construction of a maritime power.

  • Regular Articles
    FENG Lin, LEI Guo-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(2): 426-445. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240212

    The typical black soil areas of Northeast China is facing problems such as degradation of ecosystem service functions, fragmented landscape patterns and conflicts between agriculture and ecological space. The scientific formulation of guiding framework for the delineation and optimization of ecological protection redline in black soil areas is of great significance in ensuring food security and ecological safety. This study clarified the meaning of ecological protection redline based on the perspective of ecological security pattern, and proposed the idea of systemic ecological protection redline delineation based on the importance of ecological protection, coordination of agriculture and ecological space, and coordination of natural and social system, and identified ecological protection redline optimization areas by considering the fragmentation and connectivity of ecosystem. The results show that: (1) On the premise of guaranteeing that no high-quality cropland was allocated (the threshold value was 10%), 69646.00 km2 of the preliminary delineation area of the ecological protection redline were determined by overlaying extremely important areas for ecosystem services, extremely sensitive areas for ecological environment, and areas with mismatch between supply and demand of ecosystem services, and extracting 34760.16 km2 of ecological source land; (2) A total of 10980.90 km2 of ecological corridors and 77 ecological nodes were identified based on the ecological source and construction of a comprehensive ecological resistance surface, and their buffer zones and ecological protection areas together constituted an ecological protection redline area of 76234.54 km2; (3) Based on the optimization thresholds of fragmentation (0.20) and connectivity (80), approximately 25.48% of the ecological redline area was in urgent need of optimization. The results of the study improve the scientific and systematic nature of ecological protection redline delineation and optimization, and provide an important basis for the precise control of land space and strengthening ecosystem sustainability management in typical black soil areas of Northeast China, as well as important guidance for small and medium-scale regions with highly intensive land use and scarce ecological space.

  • Interview with Experts
    JIN Xiao-bin, YE Chao, YUE Wen-ze, MA Li-bang, LUO Zhen-dong, YANG Ren, LYU Xiao, WANG Cheng, LI Chuan-wu, ZHANG Guo-jun, FAN Ye-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(1): 1-28. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240101

    Urban-rural integrated development is an important way to coordinate the national strategies of new urbanization and rural revitalization. It is also crucial for Chinese-style modernization. To comprehensively tackle challenges facing the current urban-rural integration in China, explore the path of coordinated urban-rural governance, and clarify the strategies for urban-rural integrated development, experts from various fields were cordially invited to engage in in-depth discussions on pressing issues related to urban-rural iintegrated development. These issues include the trends and pathways of urban-rural integration in contemporary China, Innovation of institutions and mechanisms for urban-rural integration, implementation pathways for territorial spatial planning, emerging rural business models and rural transformation pathways, high-quality development pathways for urban-rural integration in different regions, and the path of promoting urban-rural integrated development through comprehensive land consolidation. These discussions aimed to advance theoretical research and practical planning of urban-rural integrated development in China. Attentions need to be paid in urban-rural integrated development in the New Era on: (1) The primary obstacles and innovative pathways in the institutions and mechanisms of urban-rural integrated development guided by comprehensive coordination and regional interconnectivity. Constructing an infrastructure and public service system that effectively connects and complements urban and rural areas, accelerating the coordinated development of urban and rural areas using counties as the carrier, and promoting the flexible governance of this population while concurrently achieving integrated governance of urban-rural natural and social system. Promoting cross-border governance, encouraging cooperation and assistance between eastern and western regions, and achieving regional-scale coordinated development between urban and rural areas. Underdeveloped regions in both Central and Western China should strengthen the linkage role of counties and small towns. This involves enhancing their attractiveness for the inflow of talent, technology, and capital, and driving the transformation of industrial structures towards digitization, intelligence, and low. In contrast, developed regions in the Eastern China should establish a spatial structure system with multiple focal points, network layout, and clear hierarchies. They should expand the breadth and precision of urban-rural factor mobility, and promote the transformation and upgrade of traditional infrastructure and public services, aiming for inclusive development. (2) Optimizing the allocation of resource elements driven by the "planning-utilization-consolidation" cycle in territorial spatial management to achieve shared urban-rural governance and rural reconstruction. Anchoring the spatial pattern of urban and rural development through territorial spatial planning, optimizing the urban-rural spatial layout during planning implementation. Ultimately, improving the spatial quality organic renewal and driving bidirectional flows of diverse elements between urban and rural regions. Place emphasis on rural functional provision, resource utilization orientation, and industrial development models, uncovering multifaceted rural functions including production, lifestyle, ecology, and landscapes. Exploring regionally adapted industrial integration models that enhance agricultural and rural development vitality through distinctive features and high efficiency gains. We also should enhance the leading role of comprehensive land consolidation policies, incentivize and support active private capital involvement, promote resource integration and value enhancement. Strengthening urban-rural industrial synergy and integrated development, and facilitating the orderly flow of urban-rural resource elements. (3) Enhanced awareness and innovative practices in targeted urban-rural governance and rural transformation supported by digital technology and intelligent platforms. Establishing an urban-rural data sharing platform helps bridge the "digital divide" in urban-rural integrated development and enables refined governance across urban and rural areas. Deeply apply the technologies like 5G, Internet of Things (IoT) to support the transformation and upgrade of conventional infrastructure. Expanding the coverage of digital devices in rural basic facilities, and utilizing digital technology to integrate cultural resources across urban and rural areas. Promoting the deep integration of the digital economy and the physical economy involves linking consumer markets through the internet and digital technology, establishing diverse channels for agricultural product distribution, and stimulating the transformation of consumption patterns and the enhancement of consumption capabilities for both urban and rural residents. Embedding digital technology into rural industry development and social governance processes to facilitate the intelligent transformation of agricultural production, digitalization of rural industry development, smartification of rural administrative affairs, and establishment of a digital grid for rural social governance. The aforementioned viewpoints can provide theoretical support and decision-making foundations for achieving the goal of urban-rural integrated development oriented towards Chinese-style modernization.

  • Regular Articles
    LANG Yu, WANG Gui-xia
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(1): 29-48. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240102

    Following the concept of system integrated development of "mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, grasslands, and sands" to revitalize the value of rural ecological resources is the key to promoting comprehensive rural revitalization in the New Era. On the basis of revealing the three-stage development connotation of "cultivation of ecological resource value, deepening of ecological resource capital, and realization of ecological resource value" that ecological resource value has gone through, this paper elaborates on the logical relationship between activation of ecological resource value and rural revitalization, and deeply analyzes the three-stage logical mechanism of ecological resource value activation promoting rural revitalization, and explores the typical regional models for promoting rural revitalization, as well as the regional and common practical difficulties that need to be overcome in the process of promoting rural revitalization. Based on the perspectives of logical development, regional difficulties, and common difficulties, a breakthrough path for the activation of ecological resources value to promote rural revitalization is proposed, providing scientific basis and theoretical guidance for revitalizing the value of ecological resources and promoting comprehensive rural revitalization.

  • Ecological Products Value Realization in Natural Resources: Theory and Practice
    XIE Hua-lin, LI Zhi-yuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(12): 2933-2949. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231201

    The realization of the value of ecological products in the field of natural resources is a key path to implement the transformation concept of "two mountains" and promote ecological benefits and economic development. The existing ecological product value realization mechanism and local practice mode have problems such as single governance subject and insufficient driving force of participating subject. Therefore, this paper analyzes the theoretical logic of ecological product value realization in the field of natural resources with the help of multi-agent collaborative governance theory. Based on this, a multi-agent collaborative mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products in the field of natural resources is designed with the "production-supply-sales" mechanism, the value co-creation mechanism of ecological products in the field of natural resources and the information exchange mechanism of ecological products in the field of natural resources as the core elements. This will help expand the value realization model of land resource ecological products, water resource ecological products, forest resource ecological products, wetland resource ecological products. Guided by the multi-subject cooperative mechanism of ecological product value realization in the field of natural resources, we create a new pattern of ecological product value realization with multi-subject co-governance.

  • Ecological Products Value Realization in Natural Resources: Theory and Practice
    YOU He-yuan, ZHANG Jin-rong, XIA Shu-yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(12): 2950-2965. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231202

    Land use optimization in comprehensive land consolidation can meet the different demands for land under different objectives and alleviate potential land use conflicts. The national pilot project of comprehensive land consolidation in Danzhou city in Hainan province is selected as a case in this study. This paper sets two scenarios for comprehensive land consolidation including ecological value priority and realization potential of ecological product value priority under the trade-off between the increasing ecological value and realization potential of ecological product value. And the land use optimization is based on the third national land resource survey of the pilot project. Then the multi-objective programming model and GeoSOS-FLUS model are employed to optimize the land use structure and land use layout under two scenarios in comprehensive land consolidation. The results show that: (1) Compared to the land use status in 2019, the areas of mangrove forest and paddy field significantly increase under the ecological value priority scenario in the pilot project zone. The overall landscape exhibits a high level of polymerization, while evenness and fragmentation levels are relatively high. (2) Compared to the ecological value priority scenario, the areas of mangrove forest and paddy field decrease under the realization potential of the ecological product value priority scenario in the pilot project zone. And the areas of commercial and service land significantly increase. The level of landscape fragmentation of the overall landscape increases as well. (3) There are similarities and differences between the land use layout under the two scenarios and the construction project layout of comprehensive land consolidation in the Implementation Plan for the National Pilot Project of Comprehensive Land Consolidation in the Starting Zone of Danzhou City. Therefore, the areas and spatial layout of different types of land for increasing ecological value and realizing the potential of ecological product value should be considered overall in the comprehensive land consolidation. Meanwhile, we should pay attention to the effects of land use optimization on the landscape.

  • Marine Geo-economy and Sustainable Use of Ocean Resources
    MA Xue-guang, JIANG Ce
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(11): 2687-2703. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231101

    The deepening development of globalization and the transformation of regionalization are driving the continuous reshaping of the global political and economic pattern, while overseas strategic pivots, with their prominent geographical influence, play a supporting role in a country's global strategic deployment. This research combined geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory to reveal the impact mechanism and logical framework of spatial selection of China's overseas strategic pivots (COSPs) at different scales. On this basis, it preliminarily constructed the spatial selection model of COSPs, and then proposed an action path to put the model into practice from the perspective of actors. The results show that: (1) Geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory respectively dominate the spatial selection of COSPs at higher scale, mesoscale and lower scale. Specifically, the five underlying motivations derived from the three-dimensional perspective of "power-capital-space" have driven the rimland between land and sea powers to become the soil for cultivating COSP regions and countries; as a specific form of state spatial selectivity, COSP areas should be selected from strategic functional areas in COSP countries that are deeply supported by state spatial projects and strategies; owing to superior location conditions and location demand, coastal or border hub cities, international ports and parks in COSP countries have become the spatial selection range of COSP cities, ports and parks. (2) Each of the above three theories has its own emphasis, that is, they respectively dominate the spatial selection logic of COSPs at different scales; and they are also nested with each other, which means that the spatial selection of COSPs at various scales will inevitably be influenced by the geopolitical environment, state spatial selectivity and location conditions, thus shaping the logical framework of spatial selection. (3) The spatial selection model of COSPs has the characteristics of interlocking and multi-directional flow. In practice, the basic concept of "government domination and multiple actors initiation" should be adopted to strengthen top-level design, decision-making assistance and technical breakthroughs. The results can enrich the strategic pivot research framework and provide theoretical reference and policy inspiration for enhancing China's geopolitical influence.

  • Marine Geo-economy and Sustainable Use of Ocean Resources
    PENG Fei, WANG Hao-ran, LIU Chun-tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(11): 2704-2721. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231102

    With the continuous improvement of human production innovation, the ontological cognition of ocean as a resource has gradually expanded from 'territorial' ocean to the field of high seas. The sustainable development of marine resources in the high seas is facing multiple threats. The delineation of protected areas on the high seas has become an important issue of global marine governance. From the perspective of human-ocean relationship, this paper studies the geo-setting system of high seas protected areas under the BBNJ, and puts forward the analytical thoughts and methods of high seas protected areas with geographical characteristics that China needs at present. First of all, this study deconstructs the human-ocean relationship in the high seas protected areas into the bottom layer and the operation layer. It reveals the human domain behavior of repair, maintenance and potential competition in the bottom layer, as well as the attributes of public, volumetric and dynamic ocean ontology. We simulate the human-ocean interaction process in the high seas protected areas in the operation layer, deconstruct the three links in the interaction process: foundation and support of human-ocean interaction, core of human-ocean interaction, premise and reflection of human-ocean interaction, and cover four subsystems: natural system, artificial system, relational system, and conceptual system. This leads to the marine geo-setting system of the high-seas protected areas, which is the core of human-ocean interaction. Secondly, this paper analyzes the marine geo-setting system of the high seas protected areas. According to the multiple interactions between human territorialization behavior and marine ontological attributes of the high seas protected areas, the paper summarizes the characteristics of the marine geo-setting system of the high seas protected areas into four aspects: subject diversity, spatial limitation, complex sensitivity and pattern variability and proposes that the marine environment is the supporting force; rules and institutions are the driving force; marine geo-relationships and geo-structure are the powering force; marine technology is the guarantee capability of evolution mechanism. Finally, according to the contents discussed in this study, combined with the current situation and the actual needs of China's participation in global marine governance, the policy suggestions for China's involvement in the demarcation of high seas protected areas are put forward.

  • Marine Geo-economy and Sustainable Use of Ocean Resources
    MA Teng, LI Yi-jie, DU De-bin, HU Zhi-ding
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(11): 2722-2740. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231103

    The analysis of geo-economic relations from an industrial scale provides valuable insights into comprehending the formation of the prevailing international industrial division of labor pattern and the distribution of interests among nations. Therefore, it becomes imperative to introduce a more microscopic industrial scale into geo-economic analysis to gain a deeper understanding of these dynamics. Taking the nations surrounding the South China Sea as the research object, using national trade data, based on the geo-economic tightness model and the industrial structure similarity coefficient model, this paper calculates the geo-economic connection tightness and industrial coopetition relationship on the national and industrial scales of the nations surrounding the South China Sea from 2003 to 2021, and uses the fixed-effect model to analyze the potential influencing factors. The results reveal several significant findings. Firstly, the overall geo-economic tightness among the nations surrounding the South China Sea exhibits an upward trend, accompanied by a gradual shift in the core area from the southern to the northern region. Within the context of the industrial scale, the tightness of geo-economic relations displays an overall growth trajectory; however, notable variations in growth rates are observed across different industries. Notably, the machinery and transport equipment industry experiences a substantially higher growth rate compared to other sectors. Moreover, the geo-economic tightness within the marine industry presents a three-core pattern, characterized by opposing dynamics between the northern, southern, and eastern regions. Secondly, the industrial competition and cooperation relationship between nations surrounding the South China Sea demonstrates a multipolar development trend, with significant disparities observed among nations. The coopetition relationships across various industries exhibit relative stability on the whole, lacking any evident trend towards competition or cooperation. Nevertheless, there exists an upward trend in the disparities among industries. Furthermore, the coopetition relationship within the marine industry displays notable variations among nations, with the overall level remaining relatively high; however, the scope for geo-economic cooperation remains limited. Finally, this paper emphasizes the influence of spatial factors, natural endowment factors, institutional factors, and cultural factors on geo-economic tightness and industrial coopetition relationships across different scales and industries. It is important to note that these factors exhibit distinct variations and exert varying degrees of impact in different contexts.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHANG Shan-qi, ZHEN Feng, KONG Yu, ZOU Si-cong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2435-2446. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231001

    The community is the space unit most closely related to the daily life of residents. Developments in information and communication technology (ICT) have affected the daily activity patterns of urban residents and the way they use community service amenities. A new form of community life circle characterized by the interaction of virtual and physical spaces has emerged. Against this backdrop, it is urgent to innovate planning methods of community life circles, and explore the approaches of evaluating and optimizing the layout of community life circle amenities based on the interaction between virtual and physical spaces. These explorations will help tackle with practical challenges related to insufficient community amenities facilities, low efficiency of public service and mismatch between service provision and the needs of local residents. This paper first reviews the research progress regarding quantitative approaches of evaluating and optimizing community life circle amenities. Future research directions regarding the planning of communitiy life circle based on the perspective of virtual-physical space interactions are then proposed. Specifically, future research should focus on the mechanisms of how virtual service impact residents' activities and community space, the dynamic evaluation method of amenities based on the interaction of virtual and real space and the simulation method for optimizing the spatial layout of service amenities. This paper will enrich our understanding of community life circle and facilitate the empirical research and the practice of planning community life circle from the new perspective.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHOU Gui-peng, LONG Hua-lou
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2447-2463. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231002

    Land use transitions are the processes of pursuing the maximization of land use benefits. Using theoretical analysis, literature research and case study method, the land use, mechanism of land use transitions, the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution mode of land use morphology and the optimization effects of land use transitions on territorial spatial development patterns are discussed from the perspective of the spatial functions of land use benefits. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The spatial function of land use benefits reflects the pattern of output of regional land use benefits. The spatial function of land use benefits of each land use type jointly determines the benefits relative advantage areas of each land use type. (2) The action path of regional land use transitions from underlying to surface can be summarized as "three-dimensional original driving forces-recessive morphology changes-benefits functions changes-spatial conflict and coordination-dominant morphology changes". Land use transitions pursue not only the optimal coupling between the recessive morphology of regional land use and the "natural environment-economic society-management system" (recessive morphology optimization), but also the optimal coupling between the dominant morphology of land use and the spatial functions of land use benefits (dominant morphology optimization), thus transforming the strong spatial conflicts of land use types into weak conflicts (coordination), and close to achieving the maximum total benefits of land use morphology (benefits optimization). (3) The changes of the spatial functions of land use benefits are the upper reaches and driving link of the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution of land use morphology, the final benefits output of land use is its downstream response, and land use transitions are the long-term result of the above alternating evolution. The total benefits output of regional land use morphology is the bond and link between specific land use morphology and specific socio-economy development stage. (4) Land use transitions have service advantages for the optimization of territorial spatial patterns in smaller regions and scales, and need to interact and connect with the larger scale of territorial spatial planning to realize the optimization effects.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    GU Tian-wei, PENG Jian, JIANG Hong, HE Can-fei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2464-2474. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231003

    Territorial ecological restoration highly emphasizes ecosystem integrity. For watersheds, complete natural geographical units, territorial ecological restoration will play an important role in the construction of ecological civilization in the new era. According to the context of "one core-two dimensions-three connections", the theoretical cognition of watershed-based territorial ecological restoration is deepened. Among them, "one core" refers to "water" as the core element of watershed ecological protection and restoration. "Two dimensions" includes two scales of time and space, among which temporal scale focuses on the balance in the short term and long term, and the dynamic adaptation, while the spatial scale emphasizes regional integration and inter-regional cooperation. "Three connections", proposed from the perspective of "social-ecological systems", refers to the coordination of ecological functions and human well-being, the coordination of natural boundaries and administrative boundaries, and the coordination of natural restoration and artificial restoration. Combined with the systematic cognition of watershed-based territorial ecological restoration, four key points of watershed ecological restoration planning are proposed, including quantitative characterization of the relationship between human and water, clarity on connection between spatial and temporal scales, implement governance by zoning and classification, and strengthening of planning sustainability by nature-based solutions. The research results can provide scientific support for the construction of sustainable pattern of watershed territorial development and protection.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    LI Yan-ping, CHEN Yi-yang, LIU Da-hai, FAN Ming-lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2475-2489. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231004

    With the extensive promotion of the practice of three-dimensional and stratified utilization of sea areas in various regions, the focus of sea area management has shifted from mode exploration to space management. Because most of the three-dimensional and layered uses of sea areas come from different sea use subjects, the coordination of space conflicts has become the core issue of three-dimensional management of sea areas. The purpose of this study is to deconstruct the main body of space use of sea use activities, excavate the spatio-temporal behavior rules and key influencing factors of sea use activities, analyze their space use characteristics at different implementation stages, reveal the formation mechanism of space conflict in the three-dimensional and layered use of sea space, and then propose a feasible coordination path to provide support for the three-dimensional management of sea space. Methods of inductive deduction and logical deduction were employed. The results show that: (1) The starting point of the three-dimensional stratified utilization of the sea area is the rational allocation of the vertical space, the mutual exclusion of the vertical space is the basic premise, and the spatial use characteristics of the sea use activities are the key influencing factors of the three-dimensional stratified utilization of the sea area. (2) The spatial conflict of the three-dimensional and stratified use of sea areas is the problem of overlapping of the spatial scope of different sea use activities under the framework of the principle of spatial exclusivity, and the reduction of the safety and feasibility of sea use activities caused by the pursuit of space efficiency. (3) The space conflict of the three-dimensional and layered utilization of the sea area arises from the construction or maintenance period of the sea use project, including space invasion, space deprivation and space restriction. (4) The mobility of space users, the standardization of sea area development and utilization activities, and the space scope of sea use activities are the key factors that affect the formation of space conflicts. In conclusion, to coordinate the space conflict of the three-dimensional and layered utilization of the sea area, we should strengthen the construction control during the construction and maintenance period, enhance the coordination of stakeholders, unify the three-dimensional sea area definition standard of the sea use activities, and optimize the marine space planning and use control.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHEN Feng, XI Guang-liang, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2187-2200. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230901

    The rapid development of intelligent technology not only provides new technical means for the monitoring and regulation of urban man-land system, but also has a systematic impact on the element structure, coupling relationship and dynamic evolution of urban man-land system. It is imperative to explore the theory of building a man-land system for smart cities. Based on the interpretation of the connotation of the smart city man-land system, this paper discusses the theoretical basis of the smart city man-land system from the aspects of flow space, technology-man-land coupling and resilience system, and then puts forward the conceptual model of the smart city man-land system. On the one hand, we should explore the spatial scale changes of the interactions among human activities, elemental flows, and geographic environments, and further investigate into the cross-scale collaboration, tele-coupling, and feedback between activity systems and geographic environment systems regulated by intelligent technologies. On the other hand, we should pay attention to temporal elasticity, flexibility and fragmentation of the interactive coupling between residents' activities and urban geographical environment caused by the wide application of intelligent technology. Then it is necessary to carry out the monitoring, management and dynamic optimization with the smart city man-land system. Facing the future, the research on man-land system of smart cities needs to focus on the spatio-temporal coupling process of elements, elemental composition and impact mechanism, modeling methods and evaluation, comprehensive regulation and optimization path, etc. Finally, from the aspects of human behavior patterns and activity changes brought about by smart technology, spatial intelligence, virtual reality correlation, etc., the research prospect of theoretical exploration, analysis method innovation and sustainable regulation of smart city man-land system is proposed. All in all, based on the coupling of people, technology and urban space, we build the theoretical framework of smart city man-land system adapted to China's national conditions in consideration of the trend of high penetration and integration of China's new infrastructure and smart city services in production, living and governmental management. This framework could support the innovation of urban geography theory and method and the practical needs of "smart brain", digital twin city construction.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    SUN Jing-wen, LU Yu-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2201-2216. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230902

    Urban-rural integration development is a comprehensive process of reshaping the spatial system and functional value of urban-rural regional system. Comprehensive land consolidation can optimally coordinate the human-environment relationship, and effectively crack the main contradictions and problems of unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development. The paper analyzes the current realistic problems of the circulation of urban-rural development factors, the connection of urban-rural spatial structures and the integration of urban-rural functions, and explores the theoretical logic of comprehensive land consolidation to effectively promote balanced urban-rural factor allocation, urban-rural spatial structure adjustment and urban-rural functional value unification from the perspective of "human, land, industry and rights" factor synergy. The empirical analysis of Zhejiang province using the geo-detector model further reveals the mechanism by which comprehensive land consolidation effectively drives urban-rural integration development through the interaction of multiple factors. Based on this, the optimization path of consolidation oriented to urban-rural integration is explored from three dimensions: market allocation of land elements, spatial reshaping of modern industrial development, and value sharing of multi-subject participation. The study provides theoretical references for deepening the scientific cognition of new urban-rural relationship and human-environment system, promoting the practice of comprehensive land consolidation, and urban-rural integration decisions.

  • Interview with Experts
    ZHOU Guo-hua, LONG Hua-lou, LIN Wan-long, QIAO Jia-jun, TAN Hua-yun, YANG Kai-zhong, YUE Wen-ze, YUN Wen-ju, HUANG Xian-jin, LU Han-wen, LI Xun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1919-1940. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230801

    "Three rural issues" (issues concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) is an important mainline of the CPC's centennial course of party building and China's urban-rural development. In order to solve the "three rural issues" in the New Era and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, we hereby invite ten experts in the research field of "three rural issues" and rural revitalization research to conduct interviews. The interview mainly focuses on three perspectives: Historical process and institutional context, urban-rural system and cross scale space, and the integration of policy theory, technical methods, and rural construction practice. It revolves three main lines: The strategic stage and institutional changes of "three rural issues", the essence of "three rural issues" and the ways to solve new "three rural issues", and the rural revitalization mechanism and rural construction practice. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The essence, key areas, and institutional mechanism innovation of the "three rural issues" in the context of spatio-temporal processes and institutional contexts. It is necessary to grasp the laws of "three rural" (agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) and diagnose the "three rural issues" from the perspective of urban and rural regional systems and even the global perspective space. The "three rural issues" is an optimization decision-making problem for improving the functions of rural regional systems within the overall framework of urban and rural regional systems. The imbalance in urban-rural development and insufficient rural development are the concentrated reflection of the "three rural issues" in the New Era. The crux of the "three rural issues" lies in the uncoordinated development of "human, land, and industry". The core goal of China's "three rural issues" in the new development stage is to move towards the common prosperity of farmers and rural areas. The corresponding development system and working mechanism of "agriculture, rural areas, and farmers" need to grasp the two "bottom lines", do a good job in the two "connections", and promote the two "integrations" in key areas such as national food security, farmers' livelihood development, modern agriculture and rural development, rural revitalization, and urban-rural integration development. (2) The theory of rural revitalization and the rural spatial planning under the requirements of urban-rural system interaction and people's common prosperity. The research and solution of China's "three rural issues" are rooted in the geographical theory of territorial system theory of human-environment interaction and location theory, the sector economy theory and the economic cycle theory, as well as the theory of development economics, sociological function theory and social conflict theories. In the research practice of the "three rural issues", land use transformation theory, rural reconstruction theory, rural development multi-body and multi-pole theory, interface theory, rural attraction theory, and rural sustainability have also been developed. The urban-rural integrated development and the common prosperity of the people should be the result of balanced regional development and Chinese path to modernization. The folk expression of "making rural life attractive" and the strategic goal of "basically realizing rural modernization by 2035" are mutually "exterior-interior" relationship, which can be comprehensively explained from the following three aspects: The spatio-temporal differences and path differentiation of rural settlement evolution and multi-functional transformation, and the phenomenon explanation of rural gentrification and the theoretical application of rural attraction in the context of urban-rural interaction, as well as the theoretical significance and practical path of rural modernization under the guidance of rural sustainability science. Improving local quality is an inherent requirement to meet the people's needs for a better life, and it is an essential requirement and general law of rural revitalization driven by innovation. As the edge of the national urban-rural system, rural areas face constraints such as segmentation, remoteness, low density, and insufficient heterogeneity dividends in improving local quality. Therefore, to improve local quality of rural areas, it is necessary to adapt to and alleviate the relative inefficiency of rural geography, and its important promotion paths include the characteristic development based on endowment, digital transformation and rural agglomeration centered around cities and towns. Guided by spatial planning and taking into account the integrated functional development of production-living-ecological spaces in rural areas, as well as the integration of urban and rural space through spatial planning, through promoting the quality of living space through comprehensive land improvement, assisting in the realization of multifunctional value in agricultural space through refined management, ensuring the sustainable use of ecological space through systematic protection and restoration, which is a solid foundation for rural revitalization and the construction of a new urban-rural relationship. (3) The path mechanism and technical support for the comprehensive rural revitalization and rural construction under the new needs of ecological civilization construction and governance modernization. Comprehensive rural revitalization requires the revitalization of industries, the reform of land, the development of human well-being, and the intelligent updating of technology. First, the essence of operating rural areas is the rational allocation of resources as the object of factors. It is necessary to integrate the high-quality development of agriculture with the high-quality and livable rural areas, promote the interaction and integration of urban and rural systems, actively link natural science, engineering technology innovation, and institutional innovation from the perspective of the big food concept, and implement food safety and important agricultural product supply security. Second, facing the new demand of rural sustainable development and governance modernization, we should innovate the property right governance integration mechanism of rural land system, especially actively build a rural green development mechanism with farmers' participation and an external benefit sharing mechanism of ecological environment governance. Third, it is urgent to break through the barriers that farmers share the gains from the appreciation of rural assets, fill the gap between small farmers and modern agriculture, and establish a concept of county governance that meets the needs of Chinese path to modernization. Fourth, rural construction is an organic combination of the governance of public spaces by the state and the daily life practices of farmers. Through the theory and technology of "computational" rural areas, effective connection and information sharing between the state and rural areas can be achieved, promoting coordinated development from micro to macro, and from local to whole. And we should achieve the aim of building livable, suitable for work, and beautiful rural areas, through multi-level main body co-construction, co-governance, and management. To sum up, the interview views can provide theoretical reference and decision-making reference for the "three rural issues" work innovation and rural revitalization practice towards Chinese path to modernization.