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  • Interview with Experts
    ZHOU Guo-hua, LONG Hua-lou, LIN Wan-long, QIAO Jia-jun, TAN Hua-yun, YANG Kai-zhong, YUE Wen-ze, YUN Wen-ju, HUANG Xian-jin, LU Han-wen, LI Xun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1919-1940. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230801

    "Three rural issues" (issues concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) is an important mainline of the CPC's centennial course of party building and China's urban-rural development. In order to solve the "three rural issues" in the New Era and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, we hereby invite ten experts in the research field of "three rural issues" and rural revitalization research to conduct interviews. The interview mainly focuses on three perspectives: Historical process and institutional context, urban-rural system and cross scale space, and the integration of policy theory, technical methods, and rural construction practice. It revolves three main lines: The strategic stage and institutional changes of "three rural issues", the essence of "three rural issues" and the ways to solve new "three rural issues", and the rural revitalization mechanism and rural construction practice. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The essence, key areas, and institutional mechanism innovation of the "three rural issues" in the context of spatio-temporal processes and institutional contexts. It is necessary to grasp the laws of "three rural" (agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) and diagnose the "three rural issues" from the perspective of urban and rural regional systems and even the global perspective space. The "three rural issues" is an optimization decision-making problem for improving the functions of rural regional systems within the overall framework of urban and rural regional systems. The imbalance in urban-rural development and insufficient rural development are the concentrated reflection of the "three rural issues" in the New Era. The crux of the "three rural issues" lies in the uncoordinated development of "human, land, and industry". The core goal of China's "three rural issues" in the new development stage is to move towards the common prosperity of farmers and rural areas. The corresponding development system and working mechanism of "agriculture, rural areas, and farmers" need to grasp the two "bottom lines", do a good job in the two "connections", and promote the two "integrations" in key areas such as national food security, farmers' livelihood development, modern agriculture and rural development, rural revitalization, and urban-rural integration development. (2) The theory of rural revitalization and the rural spatial planning under the requirements of urban-rural system interaction and people's common prosperity. The research and solution of China's "three rural issues" are rooted in the geographical theory of territorial system theory of human-environment interaction and location theory, the sector economy theory and the economic cycle theory, as well as the theory of development economics, sociological function theory and social conflict theories. In the research practice of the "three rural issues", land use transformation theory, rural reconstruction theory, rural development multi-body and multi-pole theory, interface theory, rural attraction theory, and rural sustainability have also been developed. The urban-rural integrated development and the common prosperity of the people should be the result of balanced regional development and Chinese path to modernization. The folk expression of "making rural life attractive" and the strategic goal of "basically realizing rural modernization by 2035" are mutually "exterior-interior" relationship, which can be comprehensively explained from the following three aspects: The spatio-temporal differences and path differentiation of rural settlement evolution and multi-functional transformation, and the phenomenon explanation of rural gentrification and the theoretical application of rural attraction in the context of urban-rural interaction, as well as the theoretical significance and practical path of rural modernization under the guidance of rural sustainability science. Improving local quality is an inherent requirement to meet the people's needs for a better life, and it is an essential requirement and general law of rural revitalization driven by innovation. As the edge of the national urban-rural system, rural areas face constraints such as segmentation, remoteness, low density, and insufficient heterogeneity dividends in improving local quality. Therefore, to improve local quality of rural areas, it is necessary to adapt to and alleviate the relative inefficiency of rural geography, and its important promotion paths include the characteristic development based on endowment, digital transformation and rural agglomeration centered around cities and towns. Guided by spatial planning and taking into account the integrated functional development of production-living-ecological spaces in rural areas, as well as the integration of urban and rural space through spatial planning, through promoting the quality of living space through comprehensive land improvement, assisting in the realization of multifunctional value in agricultural space through refined management, ensuring the sustainable use of ecological space through systematic protection and restoration, which is a solid foundation for rural revitalization and the construction of a new urban-rural relationship. (3) The path mechanism and technical support for the comprehensive rural revitalization and rural construction under the new needs of ecological civilization construction and governance modernization. Comprehensive rural revitalization requires the revitalization of industries, the reform of land, the development of human well-being, and the intelligent updating of technology. First, the essence of operating rural areas is the rational allocation of resources as the object of factors. It is necessary to integrate the high-quality development of agriculture with the high-quality and livable rural areas, promote the interaction and integration of urban and rural systems, actively link natural science, engineering technology innovation, and institutional innovation from the perspective of the big food concept, and implement food safety and important agricultural product supply security. Second, facing the new demand of rural sustainable development and governance modernization, we should innovate the property right governance integration mechanism of rural land system, especially actively build a rural green development mechanism with farmers' participation and an external benefit sharing mechanism of ecological environment governance. Third, it is urgent to break through the barriers that farmers share the gains from the appreciation of rural assets, fill the gap between small farmers and modern agriculture, and establish a concept of county governance that meets the needs of Chinese path to modernization. Fourth, rural construction is an organic combination of the governance of public spaces by the state and the daily life practices of farmers. Through the theory and technology of "computational" rural areas, effective connection and information sharing between the state and rural areas can be achieved, promoting coordinated development from micro to macro, and from local to whole. And we should achieve the aim of building livable, suitable for work, and beautiful rural areas, through multi-level main body co-construction, co-governance, and management. To sum up, the interview views can provide theoretical reference and decision-making reference for the "three rural issues" work innovation and rural revitalization practice towards Chinese path to modernization.

  • Property Right System of Natural Resources Asset in the New Era: Reform and Practice
    ZHONG Peng-yu, YUE Wen-ze
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1667-1681. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230701

    The establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution is the core grip to realize the unified planning, storage, supply, development and protection of natural resource assets, which is the important creation of the natural resource management institution with Chinese characteristics. Based on Marxist reserve theory, the logic and practical path of natural resource asset reserve institution are explored from the perspective of capital circulation. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The reserve of natural resource assets occurs during the 'stagnant' phase of different capital forms replacement, and it is a key intermediary for promoting the capitalization of natural resources. Its core connotations include public goods characteristics, government leadership, and value appreciation. (2) The reserve institution covers three basic steps of reserving, managing, and supplying, the core logic of which lies in achieving sustainable accumulation and circulation of capital, with clear property rights, holistic governance, and value realization as the main tasks. (3) The establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution has five key steps in practice, including planning-led approach, centralized storage, systematic governance, efficient allocation, and coordinated funding. In the future, the institution should be gradually advanced through pilot programs to further enhance its framework.

  • Interview with Experts
    JIN Xiao-bin, YE Chao, YUE Wen-ze, MA Li-bang, LUO Zhen-dong, YANG Ren, LYU Xiao, WANG Cheng, LI Chuan-wu, ZHANG Guo-jun, FAN Ye-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(1): 1-28. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20240101

    Urban-rural integrated development is an important way to coordinate the national strategies of new urbanization and rural revitalization. It is also crucial for Chinese-style modernization. To comprehensively tackle challenges facing the current urban-rural integration in China, explore the path of coordinated urban-rural governance, and clarify the strategies for urban-rural integrated development, experts from various fields were cordially invited to engage in in-depth discussions on pressing issues related to urban-rural iintegrated development. These issues include the trends and pathways of urban-rural integration in contemporary China, Innovation of institutions and mechanisms for urban-rural integration, implementation pathways for territorial spatial planning, emerging rural business models and rural transformation pathways, high-quality development pathways for urban-rural integration in different regions, and the path of promoting urban-rural integrated development through comprehensive land consolidation. These discussions aimed to advance theoretical research and practical planning of urban-rural integrated development in China. Attentions need to be paid in urban-rural integrated development in the New Era on: (1) The primary obstacles and innovative pathways in the institutions and mechanisms of urban-rural integrated development guided by comprehensive coordination and regional interconnectivity. Constructing an infrastructure and public service system that effectively connects and complements urban and rural areas, accelerating the coordinated development of urban and rural areas using counties as the carrier, and promoting the flexible governance of this population while concurrently achieving integrated governance of urban-rural natural and social system. Promoting cross-border governance, encouraging cooperation and assistance between eastern and western regions, and achieving regional-scale coordinated development between urban and rural areas. Underdeveloped regions in both Central and Western China should strengthen the linkage role of counties and small towns. This involves enhancing their attractiveness for the inflow of talent, technology, and capital, and driving the transformation of industrial structures towards digitization, intelligence, and low. In contrast, developed regions in the Eastern China should establish a spatial structure system with multiple focal points, network layout, and clear hierarchies. They should expand the breadth and precision of urban-rural factor mobility, and promote the transformation and upgrade of traditional infrastructure and public services, aiming for inclusive development. (2) Optimizing the allocation of resource elements driven by the "planning-utilization-consolidation" cycle in territorial spatial management to achieve shared urban-rural governance and rural reconstruction. Anchoring the spatial pattern of urban and rural development through territorial spatial planning, optimizing the urban-rural spatial layout during planning implementation. Ultimately, improving the spatial quality organic renewal and driving bidirectional flows of diverse elements between urban and rural regions. Place emphasis on rural functional provision, resource utilization orientation, and industrial development models, uncovering multifaceted rural functions including production, lifestyle, ecology, and landscapes. Exploring regionally adapted industrial integration models that enhance agricultural and rural development vitality through distinctive features and high efficiency gains. We also should enhance the leading role of comprehensive land consolidation policies, incentivize and support active private capital involvement, promote resource integration and value enhancement. Strengthening urban-rural industrial synergy and integrated development, and facilitating the orderly flow of urban-rural resource elements. (3) Enhanced awareness and innovative practices in targeted urban-rural governance and rural transformation supported by digital technology and intelligent platforms. Establishing an urban-rural data sharing platform helps bridge the "digital divide" in urban-rural integrated development and enables refined governance across urban and rural areas. Deeply apply the technologies like 5G, Internet of Things (IoT) to support the transformation and upgrade of conventional infrastructure. Expanding the coverage of digital devices in rural basic facilities, and utilizing digital technology to integrate cultural resources across urban and rural areas. Promoting the deep integration of the digital economy and the physical economy involves linking consumer markets through the internet and digital technology, establishing diverse channels for agricultural product distribution, and stimulating the transformation of consumption patterns and the enhancement of consumption capabilities for both urban and rural residents. Embedding digital technology into rural industry development and social governance processes to facilitate the intelligent transformation of agricultural production, digitalization of rural industry development, smartification of rural administrative affairs, and establishment of a digital grid for rural social governance. The aforementioned viewpoints can provide theoretical support and decision-making foundations for achieving the goal of urban-rural integrated development oriented towards Chinese-style modernization.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    LIN Ming-shui, HU Xiao-peng, YANG Yong, ZOU Yong-guang, WANG Ren, LIU Hua-jun, CHEN Gang-hua, WANG Xue-ji, CHEN Shi-hua, LIN Juan, ZHANG Hong-lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2237-2262. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230904

    In the era of digital economy, the tourism development model based on traditional natural and human resources can no longer effectively meet the diversified and personalized needs of tourists. Some non-traditional tourism resources in digital platforms have attracted a large amount of attention capital and converted into tourism flows, which greatly expands the content and boundaries of tourism resources. The emergence of the flow economy has not only profoundly affected the development model of tourism, but also posed new challenges to the theory and practice of tourism resource development. Interviews show that: First, the formation of the flow economy is not a coincidental phenomenon; although the spread of flow leads to the expansion of attention capital scale and drives tourism development, the core of tourism development lies in tourism resource endowment, tourism service quality, government support and guarantee, etc. Second, the flow economy drives the recombination, agglomeration and diffusion of tourism supply and demand factors, and quickly caters to the individual needs of tourists, while whether the tourism industry can adjust its service supply capacity in response to changes in tourist demand becomes the key path and mechanism for the flow economy to promote tourism development. Third, in order to promote the flow economy to empower the high-quality development of tourism, it is necessary to combine effective market and active government, and to establish the brand of tourism. We can also make full use of the spatial effect of the flow economy to promote the collaborative development of regional tourism. Finally, after the tourism boom triggered by the flow economy, it is also necessary to calmly consider the mismatch of resources, negative environmental effects, cultural conflicts and contradictions between short-term hotspots and long-term investment. Only in this way can tourist destinations follow a sustainable development path.

  • Industrial Development and Rural Revitalization
    BAO Ji-gang, CHEN Yuan-yi, DONG Yu-heng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1941-1954. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230802

    The present study uncovers the mechanisms of rural revitalization through Pu'er tea industry using the case of Yiwu, which is an underdeveloped town in Yunnan province. From the perspective of the industry and social economy, this study investigated the process and mechanisms of rural revitalization through Pu'er tea industry in Yiwu. The tea industry in Yiwu emerged in the Qing Dynasty (over 300 hundred years ago) and has experienced three development stages since then: prosperity, decline, and revival. By adopting semi-structured interviews and participant observations, the present study first analyzed different production organization modes and profit distribution modes formed in the process of revitalization of the Pu'er tea industry in Yiwu. This study then summarized the process and mechanisms of rural revitalization through the Pu'er tea industry. Three major findings can be obtained from this study. First, for rural villages with resource endowments, renewable, sustainable, irreplaceable and scarce natural resources are the most fundamental factors of production. For farmers, ownership of such resources can be an important guarantee for their livelihood and income. Second, resource endowment and transaction cost determined what kind of production organization mode and profit distribution mode the industrial subjects chose in a place. In the construction of the production and management system of modern agriculture, more indigenous tea farmers should be supported to build small and medium-sized processing tea factories to produce and process Pu'er tea. In combination with the Pu'er tea culture, local communities can be guided to transform from agriculture-led to the coordinated development of agriculture, processing industry and service industry, to enhance economic and social resilience through diversified industries. Last but not least, when promoting rural revitalization through industrial development, preferential policies should be formulated to clarify farmers' property rights to resources and improve farmers' capabilities. In the process of agricultural modernization, farmers should be encouraged and trained to improve their abilities and skills, which could help them participate in the processing and circulation, and transform from farmers to operators with the ability to process and sell tea products, so as to increase their incomes while realizing the identity transformation.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    WU Mao-ying, ZHANG Mei-qi, WANG Long-jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2097-2116. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230811

    Boosting the internal impetus for rural development is key to promoting high-quality rural development and constructing livable, workable, harmonious and beautiful villages. To this end, existing studies call for neo-endogenous rural development through the collaboration of actors within and outside villages. However, most of the studies discuss this issue at the conceptual level, which still needs a systematic framework to provide action guide. Addressing the gap, this study combines the symbiotic theory and neo-endogenous development pattern, and builds a research framework with three dimensions of the symbiotic unit, symbiotic pattern and symbiotic environment. Taking the "Rural Operation" practice in Lin'an district in Hangzhou as the case, this study identifies the path and mechanisms of the symbiosis of multiple actors within and outside villages to realize neo-endogenous rural development. This study finds that: (1) Local forces, social forces and government forces constitute the basic symbiotic units, respectively assuming the roles of endogenous power, localized intermediary and platform constructor. (2) Neo-endogenous rural development is embedded in a multi-scale symbiotic environment of state, market and local spaces. Multiple action logics, including the state administrative logic, market economic logic and local cultural logic, exist in the environment. (3) In terms of the symbiotic pattern, symbiotic units need to build deep and multiple linkages with each other, establish shared values, and construct a governance system with formal and informal institutions, to enable the stability and sustainability of the symbiotic relationship. This study also provides practical implications for boosting the internal impetus for rural development and promoting rural revitalization, from the perspective of symbiotic theory.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHEN Feng, XI Guang-liang, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2187-2200. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230901

    The rapid development of intelligent technology not only provides new technical means for the monitoring and regulation of urban man-land system, but also has a systematic impact on the element structure, coupling relationship and dynamic evolution of urban man-land system. It is imperative to explore the theory of building a man-land system for smart cities. Based on the interpretation of the connotation of the smart city man-land system, this paper discusses the theoretical basis of the smart city man-land system from the aspects of flow space, technology-man-land coupling and resilience system, and then puts forward the conceptual model of the smart city man-land system. On the one hand, we should explore the spatial scale changes of the interactions among human activities, elemental flows, and geographic environments, and further investigate into the cross-scale collaboration, tele-coupling, and feedback between activity systems and geographic environment systems regulated by intelligent technologies. On the other hand, we should pay attention to temporal elasticity, flexibility and fragmentation of the interactive coupling between residents' activities and urban geographical environment caused by the wide application of intelligent technology. Then it is necessary to carry out the monitoring, management and dynamic optimization with the smart city man-land system. Facing the future, the research on man-land system of smart cities needs to focus on the spatio-temporal coupling process of elements, elemental composition and impact mechanism, modeling methods and evaluation, comprehensive regulation and optimization path, etc. Finally, from the aspects of human behavior patterns and activity changes brought about by smart technology, spatial intelligence, virtual reality correlation, etc., the research prospect of theoretical exploration, analysis method innovation and sustainable regulation of smart city man-land system is proposed. All in all, based on the coupling of people, technology and urban space, we build the theoretical framework of smart city man-land system adapted to China's national conditions in consideration of the trend of high penetration and integration of China's new infrastructure and smart city services in production, living and governmental management. This framework could support the innovation of urban geography theory and method and the practical needs of "smart brain", digital twin city construction.

  • Cultural Heritage and National Cultural Parks
    WANG Ling-en, LI Ke, CUI Jia-sheng, SUN Lin, ZHANG Shu-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2263-2282. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230905

    In recent years, the exacerbation of climate change poses a significant threat to cultural heritage protection in China. It is of both theoretical and practical significance to study the influencing mechanism and response mechanism of climate change influence on cultural heritage protection. This study analyzes the mechanism and process of mutual interaction of climate factors on cultural heritage, evaluates the influence and trend of future climate change on Chinese cultural heritage, and finally explores the interactive relationship among different stakeholders of Chinese cultural heritage protection. The results show the mechanism and process that the changes of various climate factors acting on cultural heritage are complex and diverse. The change of individual climate factors, the chain reaction triggered by the change of climate factor, and the interaction of different climate factors generally have a direct or indirect impact on cultural heritage. Moreover, solar radiation, temperature, humidity, air pollutants, precipitation and other climatic factors have affected Chinese cultural heritage to a certain extent, admittedly, but it is necessary to dialectically explore the impact of future climate change on Chinese cultural heritage. With the intensification of global warming and the appearance of extreme weather, the destruction of cultural heritage caused by the difference in temperature and freezing will be reduced, but the cultural heritage represented by ancient wooden buildings and grottoes will still face severe threats. Finally, the establishment of a network of stakeholders is beneficial to administrative departments, local governments, local communities, enterprises, tourists, researchers, and external pressure groups to play respective roles to jointly protect cultural heritage. Under the dual backgrounds of the intensification of climate change and the strategy of "cultural power", this paper is helpful to deepen the understanding of all circles on cultural heritage protection, and enrich the theoretical discussion about protection and utilization of cultural heritage.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHANG Shan-qi, ZHEN Feng, KONG Yu, ZOU Si-cong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2435-2446. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231001

    The community is the space unit most closely related to the daily life of residents. Developments in information and communication technology (ICT) have affected the daily activity patterns of urban residents and the way they use community service amenities. A new form of community life circle characterized by the interaction of virtual and physical spaces has emerged. Against this backdrop, it is urgent to innovate planning methods of community life circles, and explore the approaches of evaluating and optimizing the layout of community life circle amenities based on the interaction between virtual and physical spaces. These explorations will help tackle with practical challenges related to insufficient community amenities facilities, low efficiency of public service and mismatch between service provision and the needs of local residents. This paper first reviews the research progress regarding quantitative approaches of evaluating and optimizing community life circle amenities. Future research directions regarding the planning of communitiy life circle based on the perspective of virtual-physical space interactions are then proposed. Specifically, future research should focus on the mechanisms of how virtual service impact residents' activities and community space, the dynamic evaluation method of amenities based on the interaction of virtual and real space and the simulation method for optimizing the spatial layout of service amenities. This paper will enrich our understanding of community life circle and facilitate the empirical research and the practice of planning community life circle from the new perspective.

  • Ecological Products Value Realization in Natural Resources: Theory and Practice
    XIE Hua-lin, LI Zhi-yuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(12): 2933-2949. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231201

    The realization of the value of ecological products in the field of natural resources is a key path to implement the transformation concept of "two mountains" and promote ecological benefits and economic development. The existing ecological product value realization mechanism and local practice mode have problems such as single governance subject and insufficient driving force of participating subject. Therefore, this paper analyzes the theoretical logic of ecological product value realization in the field of natural resources with the help of multi-agent collaborative governance theory. Based on this, a multi-agent collaborative mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products in the field of natural resources is designed with the "production-supply-sales" mechanism, the value co-creation mechanism of ecological products in the field of natural resources and the information exchange mechanism of ecological products in the field of natural resources as the core elements. This will help expand the value realization model of land resource ecological products, water resource ecological products, forest resource ecological products, wetland resource ecological products. Guided by the multi-subject cooperative mechanism of ecological product value realization in the field of natural resources, we create a new pattern of ecological product value realization with multi-subject co-governance.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHAO Xue-yan, SU Hui-zhen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2217-2236. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230903

    As the ecological foundation for building a beautiful China and achieving harmonious coexistence and modernization between humans and nature, national parks are an important content and implementation path for China's ecological civilization construction. However, most of China's national parks are located in relatively remote and impoverished rural areas, facing severe conflicts between livelihood development and ecological protection. Building sustainable livelihoods has become an urgent theoretical proposition and task of the times. With the help of CiteSpace knowledge map analysis, we reveal the change process and research characteristics of sustainable livelihood research topics in national parks at home and abroad, and tease out the research status of the major topics, which include the livelihood conflicts between the residents and wild animals, the residents' livelihood dependence on resources, the impact of the construction of the national park on the residents' livelihood and the alternative livelihood in the national park. In response to the new requirements of sustainable livelihood research in Chinese national parks in the New Era, we construct a research framework for sustainable livelihoods in national parks and propose that the research on sustainable livelihood of national parks in the New Era should integrate multidisciplinary theories and technical methods, strengthen data driven and scientific and technological empowerment, focus on some key issues, such as dynamic monitoring and evaluation of the livelihoods sustainability, the relationship and mechanism between livelihoods and ecology, and the implementation path and mechanism of sustainable livelihoods in national parks.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    ZHONG Yang, LI Jia-qi, SUN Ming-yue, LI Jia-ming, LU Na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2076-2096. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230810

    Identifying the spatial structure of the rural regional system scientifically and systematically is the premise of proposing differentiated rural revitalization strategies. This is of important practical significance for thoroughly implementing the rural revitalization strategy and accelerate the integrated development of urban-rural areas. This paper takes Changsha county, Hunan province as the research area, constructs a rural development evaluation index system based on the rural regional multi-body system and the multi-level goals of rural revitalization, and integrates research methods such as gravity model, K-Means clustering, geographic detectors and spatial autocorrelation. Quantifying and identifying the spatial structure, including poles of rural revitalization, fields of village-town space, zones of rural development and urban- rural infrastructure networks, is composed of 137 administrative villages in Changsha county. The results show that: (1) The spatial differentiation of rural development level in the study area is the result of a combination of factors, which presents a circle structure weakening from the center of the town core to the periphery, and the spatial agglomeration effect is significant. (2) The closeness of supply and demand between regions is an important factor affecting the strength of spatial linkage, and the intensity of spatial connection based on factors can better express the needs and complementary pattern of regional development. (3) The "Pole-Field-Zone-Network" multidimensional analysis framework has strong applicability for the identification and division of the spatial structure of the rural regional system in the suburbs of the urban area. Finally, 11 rural revitalization poles, 3 village space fields, and 7 rural development areas were specifically determined and divided, and an urban-rural infrastructure network based on the "pole-field-zone" network structure was constructed. According to the spatial structure, this paper puts forward differentiated suggestions for promoting rural revitalization and urban-rural integration development.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHAO Xiao-wei, ZHANG Hong-bo, LI Tong-fang, YE Zhao-xia, XUE Chao-wei, ZHANG Yu-rou, YANG Zhi-fang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2619-2636. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231013

    This study creates an evaluation index system for the degree of urban water scarcity based on the results of previous research and uses principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the level of water scarcity in 32 major cities in China from 2011 to 2020. The types and distribution characteristics of water scarcity are identified, along with the dominant physical meaning of the principal components, using the group-based multi-trajectory modeling (GBMTM) method. In addition, the types of scarcity and the potential risks of managing water resources during the process of urban expansion are discussed. The results showed that: (1) Significant regional variability exists in the water resource deficit, as demonstrated by the fact that it worsens gradually from the southeast to the northwest and is constrained by resource endowment. There, most cities with water scarcity are distributed in Northern China. (2) Resource-engineering coupling-constrained water scarcity is prevalent in major cities of Northwest China, resource-constrained and management-constrained water scarcity is prevalent in most parts of North and Northeast China; engineering-constrained and water-quality-constrained water scarcity is prevalent in many cities of Southern China. (3) The complexity of the urban water scarcity problem increases with the severity of the water deficit. Also, the motivating factors change over time. For instance, the intertwined impact of urban growth and GDP growth frequently results in the conversion of urban water scarcity types or the dominant position and can even cause the risk of urban water scarcity to materialize. (4) The likelihood of management-constrained water scarcity increases with the increase of city size and GDP. Also, the pace at which management-constrained water scarcity contributes to urban development is proportionate. The study also discovered that the GBMTM model can accurately distinguish separate clusters from various development trajectories. It can be utilized as a crucial tool for tracking the evolution of dynamic data in hydrology and water resources fields.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    ZHOU Gui-peng, LONG Hua-lou
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2447-2463. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231002

    Land use transitions are the processes of pursuing the maximization of land use benefits. Using theoretical analysis, literature research and case study method, the land use, mechanism of land use transitions, the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution mode of land use morphology and the optimization effects of land use transitions on territorial spatial development patterns are discussed from the perspective of the spatial functions of land use benefits. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The spatial function of land use benefits reflects the pattern of output of regional land use benefits. The spatial function of land use benefits of each land use type jointly determines the benefits relative advantage areas of each land use type. (2) The action path of regional land use transitions from underlying to surface can be summarized as "three-dimensional original driving forces-recessive morphology changes-benefits functions changes-spatial conflict and coordination-dominant morphology changes". Land use transitions pursue not only the optimal coupling between the recessive morphology of regional land use and the "natural environment-economic society-management system" (recessive morphology optimization), but also the optimal coupling between the dominant morphology of land use and the spatial functions of land use benefits (dominant morphology optimization), thus transforming the strong spatial conflicts of land use types into weak conflicts (coordination), and close to achieving the maximum total benefits of land use morphology (benefits optimization). (3) The changes of the spatial functions of land use benefits are the upper reaches and driving link of the "coordination-conflict-coordination" alternating evolution of land use morphology, the final benefits output of land use is its downstream response, and land use transitions are the long-term result of the above alternating evolution. The total benefits output of regional land use morphology is the bond and link between specific land use morphology and specific socio-economy development stage. (4) Land use transitions have service advantages for the optimization of territorial spatial patterns in smaller regions and scales, and need to interact and connect with the larger scale of territorial spatial planning to realize the optimization effects.

  • Marine Geo-economy and Sustainable Use of Ocean Resources
    MA Xue-guang, JIANG Ce
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(11): 2687-2703. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231101

    The deepening development of globalization and the transformation of regionalization are driving the continuous reshaping of the global political and economic pattern, while overseas strategic pivots, with their prominent geographical influence, play a supporting role in a country's global strategic deployment. This research combined geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory to reveal the impact mechanism and logical framework of spatial selection of China's overseas strategic pivots (COSPs) at different scales. On this basis, it preliminarily constructed the spatial selection model of COSPs, and then proposed an action path to put the model into practice from the perspective of actors. The results show that: (1) Geopolitical theory, new state space theory and location theory respectively dominate the spatial selection of COSPs at higher scale, mesoscale and lower scale. Specifically, the five underlying motivations derived from the three-dimensional perspective of "power-capital-space" have driven the rimland between land and sea powers to become the soil for cultivating COSP regions and countries; as a specific form of state spatial selectivity, COSP areas should be selected from strategic functional areas in COSP countries that are deeply supported by state spatial projects and strategies; owing to superior location conditions and location demand, coastal or border hub cities, international ports and parks in COSP countries have become the spatial selection range of COSP cities, ports and parks. (2) Each of the above three theories has its own emphasis, that is, they respectively dominate the spatial selection logic of COSPs at different scales; and they are also nested with each other, which means that the spatial selection of COSPs at various scales will inevitably be influenced by the geopolitical environment, state spatial selectivity and location conditions, thus shaping the logical framework of spatial selection. (3) The spatial selection model of COSPs has the characteristics of interlocking and multi-directional flow. In practice, the basic concept of "government domination and multiple actors initiation" should be adopted to strengthen top-level design, decision-making assistance and technical breakthroughs. The results can enrich the strategic pivot research framework and provide theoretical reference and policy inspiration for enhancing China's geopolitical influence.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    XIE Xian-sheng, CHEN Shao-zhi, ZHAO Rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2504-2522. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231006

    Ecological product value realization is not only an important bridge for the transformation of the "Two Mountains", but also an effective tool for accelerating new urbanization and rural rejuvenation. It is important to clarify its practical logic to achieve the Chinese path to modernization and promote the construction of ecological civilization. Based on 87 typical cases in the field of natural resources, using the grounded theory method, this study analyzes the process of ecological product value realization according to the procedure of "Open coding-Axial coding-Selective coding". Finally, a general explanatory framework for it is constructed. The results show that the internal logic of the whole process of ecological product value realization is "Identifying the resource base-Synergizing multiple mechanisms-Producing comprehensive benefits". The identification of the resource base is to clarify the direction of development. The synergy of the preparation mechanism, implementation mechanism, and guarantee mechanism is the driving force to convert and enhance the value of ecological products. Ultimately, the organic unity of ecological co-governance, ecological co-prosperity, and ecological co-sharing is realized through the production of ecological benefits, economic benefits, and social benefits. The study is a useful attempt to explore the theory of ecological product value realization, which can provide a constructive reference for improving the mechanism and implementation path of regional ecological product value realization.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHONG Shun-chang, WANG Wen-zhu, YAN Cheng-li
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1896-1918. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230717

    The change of construction land use is an important reason for the change of carbon source/sink. How to optimize the spatial allocation of urban construction land in China's provincial-level regions to drive carbon emission reduction is an important topic under the background of the dual carbon strategy. In this paper, the proportion of the first city and Herfindahl index are used to measure the concentration degree of spatial allocation of construction land, and the carbon emission level is characterized by the carbon emissions per unit of construction land area. Based on China's provincial panel data from 2000 to 2020, this paper uses two-way fixed effect model to test the impact mechanism of the concentration of spatial allocation of construction land on carbon emissions. The results show that: (1) The centralized spatial allocation of urban construction land in provinces has significant carbon emission reduction effect. (2) From the perspective of functional land, the centralized spatial allocation of industrial, residential, and service land can reduce carbon emissions. From the perspective of action intensity, industrial and service land is larger, while residential land is slightly smaller. (3) Energy efficiency is an important mechanism for the centralized spatial allocation of provincial urban construction land and its functional land to affect carbon emissions. (4) The coupling and coordination of the centralized spatial allocation of various types of functional land will have a multiplier effect on carbon emission reduction by enhancing energy efficiency.

  • Regular Articles
    XU Bao-chang, LI Han, GUO Yu-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(11): 2899-2918. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231114

    The establishment of cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot zones is an important initiative for China to promote a high level of opening up to the outside world and to strengthen economic and cultural exchanges between countries internationally, and its prosperous economic activities provide an opportunity for the development of inbound tourism at the same time. The article uses the establishment of cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot zones (hereafter Pilot Zones) as a quasi-natural experiment to systematically assess the impact of the establishment of the Pilot Zones on the development of inbound tourism using a multi-stage double difference method based on balanced panel data for 282 prefecture-level cities in China from 2010 to 2019. The study finds that the establishment of the Pilot Zones significantly promotes the development of inbound tourism. Compared with the cities in the non-cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot zones, the inbound tourism foreign exchange income of the cities set up as the pilot zones increased by about 15.4% on average. This conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests, such as parallel trend test, placebo test, replacement of explained variables, and winsorization. Besides, the Pilot Zones have promoted the development of inbound tourism through two mechanisms of opening up effect and Internet construction effect. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the promotion effect of the establishment of the pilot zones on inbound tourism, and its policy effect is more significant in provincial capitals, but not in megacities and supercities. The study provides an empirical basis for exploiting the welfare effects of China's cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot zones policy to achieve an efficient recovery of inbound tourism in the new development phase. At the same time, it provides strong support for the implementation of the decision-making and deployment of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) for Tourism Development and provides policy reference for better exerting the promoting effect of the Pilot Zones on inbound tourism development, summarizing regional advantages and promoting advanced experience.

  • Industrial Development and Rural Revitalization
    YANG Ren, LIN Yuan-cheng, LIU Rui-tong, DENG Ying-xian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 1968-1988. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230804

    As a new type of agriculture, urban agriculture is related to the flow of urban-rural food elements and energy conversion, and it has become a new format for coordinating urban-rural integrated development. Based on the perspective of urban-rural integration and the flow of elements, the paper takes the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) as the research area, aiming to explore the process and mechanism of urban agriculture's type differentiation, functional evolution and spatial transformation, and to compare and analyze the logical mechanism between different typical types of urban agriculture. The results show that: (1) The three typical types of urban agriculture in the GBA, namely, community supported agriculture, migrant agriculture and leisure agriculture, have differentiated spatial functions, transformation processes, and spatial effects. (2) Community supported agriculture strengthens ecological functions through ecological planting and breeding, and realizes economic functions through short-chain sales, cooperative production, and live broadcast delivery, which leads to the improvement of space quality and the transformation of urban consumption of space. (3) Migrant agriculture emphasizes the economic function, and the transformation process of its material space is reflected in the non-grainization and concentration of cultivated land and the differentiation of community living space, which in turn brings about group exclusion and spatial isolation in social space. (4) Leisure agriculture emphasizes the social security function and the experience and emotional needs of urban groups, and reflects the differences and imbalances in social development in terms of spatial transformation, which further exacerbates the complexity of social relations and the differentiation of spatial benefits. (5) The functional evolution and spatial transformation of typical types of urban agriculture are affected by the comprehensive effects of multiple subjects such as the market, government, enterprises and individuals, and factors such as urban and rural economy, society, technology and culture have an important impact on the direction and degree of spatial differentiation of urban agriculture, and provide new pathways and new models for urban-rural integration through food, community and industrial linkages.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    DING Jian-jun, WAN Hang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2041-2058. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230808

    Digital village is an important driving force for agricultural and rural modernization. It is not only the strategic direction of rural revitalization, but also an important part of the construction of digital China. On the basis of analyzing the spatial characteristics of Chinese digital villages, we match CHFS database with Digital Rural County Index, and use the threshold regression method to identify the income increase effect of rural households. The results show that: (1) The development of digital villages in China is unbalanced, presenting a decreasing trend from east to middle and west, but there is little difference between the north and the south; (2) The development level of the four sub-dimensions of digital villages is in the descending order of rural digital infrastructure, rural governance digitization, rural economy digitization and rural life digitization, and there is a large east-west difference between rural economy digitization and rural life digitization. At the same time, the total development level of digital villages and each sub-dimension are significantly correlated in space, and the HH and LL clustering characteristics are prominent. (3) Digital villages promote farmers' income through rural digital infrastructure, rural economy digitalization, rural governance digitalization and rural life digitalization, among which the income increase effect of rural economic digitalization is the largest. (4) The income increase effect of rural households is related to the education and income level of rural households, that is, the income increase effect of rural households with higher education is more significant, while that with lower income is not obvious, and even has a restraining effect. In addition, considering the development stage of the digital villages itself and the level of regional economic development, the digital village has a nonlinear impact on the increase of farmers' income.

  • Ecological Products Value Realization in Natural Resources: Theory and Practice
    SHI Min-jun, CHEN Ling-nan, WANG Jin-nan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1784-1796. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230710

    With the practical exploration of the transformation mechanism of "Green is Gold" in local communities, the development of ecological industries has gradually become an important component of the construction of ecological civilization. Some scholars proposed that eco-products should be defined as the "fourth sector" of products parallel to agricultural products, industrial products and service products, and put forward the concept of the quaternary industry of ecological products. However, since the quaternary industry of ecological products is a new concept, its concept connotation, scope boundary and accounting framework still need to be further clarified. Based on the essential characteristics of the quaternary industry of ecological products, which focuses on ecological resources as the key input factor, this paper extends the Romer production function which describes the industrial production process by separating out the ecological resources from the input factors, and discusses the connotation of the concept of the quaternary industry of ecological products on the basis of the new production function. This paper suggests that the products of the quaternary industry of ecological products are the final goods or services created by the combined inputs of ecological resources, manufactured capital, human capital, labor and other factors, among which ecological resources are the key input factor that is difficult to be replaced. The quaternary sector focuses on the contribution of ecological resources inputs to the value of the final goods and services, and therefore the ecological products that take the final form of operational products are the major focus of the quaternary sector. On this basis, this paper discusses the relationship between Gross Ecosystem Product (GEP), Inclusive Wealth (IW) and the quaternary sector of ecological products. In addition, this paper proposes an idea for the construction of the quaternary sector accounting framework based on the System of Environmental Economic Accounting (SEEA) and the input-occupancy-output technique. We add rows and columns to the input-occupancy-output table and separate the quaternary sector, so as to quantify the flow and stock forms of the new production function, which will be useful for us to calculate the contribution from ecological resource inputs as part of the value of eco-products.

  • Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
    SUN Jing-wen, LU Yu-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2201-2216. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230902

    Urban-rural integration development is a comprehensive process of reshaping the spatial system and functional value of urban-rural regional system. Comprehensive land consolidation can optimally coordinate the human-environment relationship, and effectively crack the main contradictions and problems of unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development. The paper analyzes the current realistic problems of the circulation of urban-rural development factors, the connection of urban-rural spatial structures and the integration of urban-rural functions, and explores the theoretical logic of comprehensive land consolidation to effectively promote balanced urban-rural factor allocation, urban-rural spatial structure adjustment and urban-rural functional value unification from the perspective of "human, land, industry and rights" factor synergy. The empirical analysis of Zhejiang province using the geo-detector model further reveals the mechanism by which comprehensive land consolidation effectively drives urban-rural integration development through the interaction of multiple factors. Based on this, the optimization path of consolidation oriented to urban-rural integration is explored from three dimensions: market allocation of land elements, spatial reshaping of modern industrial development, and value sharing of multi-subject participation. The study provides theoretical references for deepening the scientific cognition of new urban-rural relationship and human-environment system, promoting the practice of comprehensive land consolidation, and urban-rural integration decisions.

  • Property Right System of Natural Resources Asset in the New Era: Reform and Practice
    LI Hui-bin, HUANG Zhao, WU Jia-ping, ZOU Chao-hui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1708-1718. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230704

    In order to establish the method system and institutional norms for the state-owned natural resource assets inventory (SNRSI) physical quantity update, and explore the application of its achievements in the principal-agent mechanism, this paper clarifies the concepts of SNRSI and the lack of theory research for various natural resources assets update. The method of the SNRSI's physical quantity update and application scenarios was expounded. By taking the state-owned agricultural land, state-owned construction land, and state-owned forest resources assets in City A as examples, we tested the methods of incremental update and full update. The research results showed that the physical quantity update of different resource types need to adopt corresponding methods. Among them, the incremental update method is more suitable for the state-owned agricultural and construction lands. The state-owned forest resource assets should adopt the method of full change+patch identification to realize the update of quality indicators and reflect their changes. The research results will provide theoretical reference for the establishment of the method system and application of the results for the SNRSI's physical quantity update.

  • Rural Regional System and Rural Development
    QIAO Wei-feng, HE Tian-qi, CHEN Yuan, JIA Kai-yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2027-2040. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230807

    Urban-rural integration is a new era proposition in the context of the backwardness of rural development. Optimizing the town-village construction pattern is a fundamental way to address rural development problems, which is of immense theoretical and practical significance. This paper adopts a comprehensive approach using the fracture point model, social network analysis method, and field energy model from the perspective of urban-rural symbiosis to restructure the town-village construction pattern in Guanyun county, located in northern Jiangsu province. The results demonstrate that: (1) The comprehensive quality of villages and towns is the symbiotic substrate, and the time and distance cost of interaction and communication between them is the symbiotic interface under the perspective of urban-rural symbiosis. The symbiotic substrate and interface of villages and towns can be combined for symbiotic selection to guide the optimization of the town-village construction pattern. (2) Based on town quality, centrality, and network cohesion subgroups, the grading of villages and towns in Guanyun is determined. The improved field energy model is utilized to establish town symbionts by calculating the spatial field energy of the county and each town, forming a county-town-village hierarchy of mutual urban-rural symbiosis. (3) The village gravity matrix is reconstructed, and a directed connection line is established between villages. It is observed that 25 villages, including Houbu, Shengou, and Dongxu, have weak connections with other villages, which require further adjustments. Based on urban radiation range and village gravity connections, an optimization adjustment plan is developed to optimize the town-village construction pattern.

  • Property Right System of Natural Resources Asset in the New Era: Reform and Practice
    PAN Chu-yuan, SU Shi-peng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1682-1697. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230702

    State-owned natural resource assets are important national wealth and have a profound impact on socio-economic development, ecological civilization construction, protection of people's rights and interests, and realization of political advantages. It is of great practical significance and value to systematically grasp the theoretical logic of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the practical logic of natural resources, and to analyze and clarify the overall logic of the reform of China's state-owned natural resource asset management system. Guided by Xi Jinping's thought of ecological civilization and practice of the concept of "two mountains", the paper analyzes and proposes the functional positioning and target requirements of state-owned natural resource asset management, and expounds the characteristic facts and challenges of management system reform based on the institutional efficiency support of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the institutional construction requirements of ecological civilization construction and the basic attributes of state-owned natural resource assets. Focusing on the core issues such as management objectives, departmental responsibilities, revenue models, and supervision methods, and on the basis of comparing and learning from the experience of two different types of countries, the paper proposes to clarify the boundary of authority and responsibility of government departments under the commission-agent relationship, foster the participation of multiple subjects in management, promote the sharing of asset management benefits among all people and inter-generational owners, and realize the independence and standardization of supervision of natural resource asset management.

  • Cultural Heritage and National Cultural Parks
    ZOU Tong-qian, HAN Quan, CHANG Dong-fang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(9): 2283-2295. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230906

    National parks and national cultural parks are great practices to protect natural heritage and cultural heritage, explore long-term mechanism of biodiversity conservation and create important symbols of Chinese culture in China. This paper used systematic literature review to sort out the background and history of national parks and national cultural parks development in China. From the perspective of management system, this research compared and analyzed these two parks' management regimes, regulations, funding and regional coordination mechanism, and summarized the differences in conservation principles, functional zoning and operation mechanism from the perspective of sustainable operation. Finally, based on the problems faced by national parks and national cultural parks in China, such as overlap management, unclear zoning boundaries, ambiguous rights and responsibilities, declined species richness, and conflicts between protection and development, this paper proposed to establish a biodiversity protection system with national parks as the main part and a cultural heritage protection system with national cultural parks as the subject, and adhere to the development principles of integrated conservation and compatible operation, so as to contribute to global biodiversity and cultural heritage conservation with Chinese solutions.

  • Property Right System of Natural Resources Asset in the New Era: Reform and Practice
    ZHANG Xian-chun, CHEN Yu-chao, LUAN Xiao-fan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1730-1742. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230706

    This article aims to probe the development process and its underlying mechanisms of spatial reconstructions amidst the land-driven development mode through the lens of regional coordinated development. Grounded in the 'projects of cooperation between mountainous and coastal areas in Zhejiang province', this study investigates the unfolding spatial reconstruction processes and mechanisms of the land-driven development mode among the positive or reverse enclaves. Key findings of an examination of Longquan-Xiaoshan Industrial Cooperation Park and Quzhou Overseas Talents Innovation Park are as follows: firstly, the spatial reconstruction of the land-driven development mode is a networked process. The multi-level governments propelled land-centric economic developmental model based upon re-arranging their administrative powers. Secondly, within the positive or reverse enclaves, the land-driven developmental mode has embodied the various paths for spatial reconstruction, which are subject to the effects of path lock-in. Hereto, it is urgent to develop a spatial re-distribution mechanism for land development rights at regional scale. Finally, the continuous construction of a land-driven development mode is the institutional task for achieving cooperation between mountainous and coastal areas in it, and the designs for inverted enclaves are a future direction which is beneficial to the path adjustment. This study unfolds that the proper optimization of the land-driven development mode has been a crucial starting point for forging regional coordination. And multi-level governments could play the dual roles of regulation and empowerment based on the regional collaborations for land property rights.

  • Regular Articles
    CAO Rui-fen, ZHANG An-lu, YUAN Shao-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(7): 1880-1895. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230716

    The fiscal transfer payment system for cultivated land protection could realize the balance between cultivated land protection and economic development by compensating the relevant stakeholders with restricted development due to their responsibility for cultivated land protection. Taking the fees for newly increased construction land in Zhejiang province as an example, we construct a new fiscal transfer payment system for cultivated land protection on the basis of the principle of matching fiscal revenue and responsibility from the perspective of local government, which is of great significance for improving the efficiency of fiscal fund utilization and promoting the protection of cultivated land resources. The results show that Zhejiang is in deficit of cultivated land among 31 provincial-level regions nationwide generally, and cannot participate in the distribution of fiscal transfer payment funds from the central government. Within the provincial scope, there are 50 county-level administrative units such as the main urban area of Jiaxing, Zhuji city, and Shangyu district, etc., which have spillover of cultivated land protection responsibility and can be compensated by fiscal funds distribution in 64 research units in Zhejiang. Among which, the main urban area of Jiaxing has the highest spillover level and the corresponding distribution is up to 76.87 million yuan. Meanwhile, 14 research units without spillover cannot participate in the distribution of fiscal transfer payment funds from the province, which includes the main urban area of Hangzhou, the main urban area of Wenzhou, Xiaoshan district, and Yiwu city, etc. Moreover, the optimal distribution on the basis of the principle of matching fiscal revenue and responsibility is compared with that in practice. It is found that the funds distribution of the new fiscal transfer payment system has a stronger inclination to the regions with heavy cultivated land protection tasks. The regression results show that, the coefficient under the optimal distribution model is higher than that in practice. The study is of great significance to further improve the fiscal management system of China especially below the provincial level, and to make full use of the fiscal incentive and restraint mechanism to achieve the goal of cultivated land protection.

  • County Development and Urban Rural Integration
    YAO Jiang-chun, ZHU Jiang, JIANG Hao, LI Xiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(8): 2169-2183. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20230815

    Urban-rural integration is an important support for achieving common prosperity and moving towards Chinese path to modernization. Ecotype regions have long fallen into the dilemma of lack of development power, low-level circulation and decline of villages and towns. Urban-rural integration faces greater challenges. Exploring the path of urban-rural integration in ecotype regions is of great significance. This article proposes an innovative theoretical framework for realizing the value of ecological products to promote urban-rural integration. To build the urban-rural integration path of the combination of "value chain-supply chain-factor chain", this paper takes the Northern Guangdong Ecological Development Zone as an example to put forward specific strategies: first, build a full-chain value chain of ecological products, establish ecological material products, ecological regulation products The value realization path of ecological cultural products; The second is to build a cross-regional and urban-rural vertical division of ecological product supply chain, and establish a three-level spatial supply system of "the central city of Dawan district - counties and cities in Northern Guangdong - villages and towns in Northern Guangdong"; Third, establish the factor chain of production factor circulation and trade, and promote the urban-rural convection of population and land factors around the supply chain of ecological products. This paper has theoretical guidance significance for conducting researches in specific urban-rural areas, and provides an example for realizing ecological products' value and developping urban-rural areas in ecotype regions.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHUO Rong-rong, YANG Li-xia, XU Meng, GU Qiu-shi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2023, 38(10): 2554-2568. https://doi.org/10.31497/zrzyxb.20231009

    It has been increasingly recognized that rural life space is playing an important role in the implementation of rural revitalization strategy in China. The imbalance between urban and rural development and insufficient rural development are the prominent manifestations of the main contradictions in society in the new era, and the urban-rural integration development and the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy have intensified the transformation of rural life space. The current rural life space research lacks attention to multiple spaces and mixed subjects, which is not conducive to restoring the transformation characteristics and internal mechanisms of rural life space, and it is difficult to put forward corresponding countermeasures for rural spatial governance. This study aims to propose a research framework for rural life space transformation based on the conceptual model, followed by the transformation characteristics and influencing mechanism of rural life space. The results are as follows: (1) Rural life space is a spatial complexity composed of rural residents' activity space, including housing, working, consuming, and leisure spaces. Based on the three-fold model, rural life space can be divided into three subspaces: physical life space at the macro level, social life space at the meso level, and daily activities space at the micro level. In this respect, the three-fold model features rural life space as multi-level, multilateral, multi-agent spaces. (2) Under the effect of exogenous drivers such as globalization, urbanization, industrialization and marketization and their endogenous response factors of rural areas, government policies, capital, technology, population, culture and other factors are mobilizing drastically between urban and rural areas, giving rise to the transformation of rural life space. Furthermore, we introduced the transformation degree to analyze the coordination relations between physical life space, social life space, and daily activities space, which orients to uncovering the process and spatial pattern of rural life space transformation. (3) For the rural life space transformation mechanism, we propose three aspects, including multi-level spatial conduction, the interaction effects between multilateral spaces, and the hybrid effects from rural agents. The study on the transformation of rural life space with multiple spatial cognition as the starting point will help enrich the theoretical perspective of rural geography in China, and provide scientific reference for the urban-rural integration and rural revitalization.