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  • Compilation and Practice
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2150-2162.

    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

  • Expert’s Forum
    XIE Gao-di, ZHANG Cai-xia, ZHANG Lei-ming, CHEN Wen-hui, LI Shi-mei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2015, 30(8): 1243-1254.
    Ecosystem service value is the base of decision-making for ecological protection, ecological regionalization and ecological compensation, and it appears the dynamic spatio-temporal changes which are closely connected with the variations of ecological structure and function. However, it is still lack of a universal and integrated dynamic evaluation method for ecosystem service value in China. Based on literature survey, expert knowledge, statistical data and remote sensing data, using model simulations and GIS spatial analysis method, this paper modified and developed the method for evaluating the value equivalent factor in unit area, and proposed an integrated method for dynamic evaluation on Chinese terrestrial ecosystem service value. This method can realize the comprehensive and dynamic assessment of ecosystem service value for 11 service types of 14 different types of terrestrial ecosystem at monthly and provincial scales in China. The preliminary application indicated that the total ecosystem service value was 38.1×1012 yuan in 2010, in which the value from forest ecosystem was the highest, accounting for about 46%, followed by water body and grassland. Among different ecosystem service types, the contribution from regulation function was the highest, especially the values from hydrological regulation and atmospheric regulation which accounted for about 39.3% and 18.0% of total service value, respectively. Moreover, ecosystem service value presented apparent spatio-temporal patterns in China. Spatially, the ecosystem service value decreased from southeast to northwest and the highest value appeared in southeastern and southwestern regions. Temporally, the ecosystem service value for most of the ecosystems attained the peak in July and reached the trough during December and January except desert, barren and glacier ecosystem. Generally, although this established method still needs to be developed and optimized, it is the first to provide a relatively comprehensive approach for the spatio-temporal dynamic evaluation of ecosystem service value in China, which will be helpful to the scientific decision-making on natural capital rating and ecological compensation.
  • Regular Articles
    WANG Shu-jia, KONG Wei, REN Liang, ZHI Dan-dan, DAI Bin-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2021, 36(3): 793-810.

    With the deepening understanding of the Scientific Outlook on Development, the coupling coordination degree model has become an effective evaluation and research tool for the regional overall balanced development. However, for this model, there are four types of misuses, including writing errors, coefficients loss, weight misuses and model failures, which have significantly affected the scientific nature of academic research. Therefore, this study firstly clarified the normative formula of the traditional coupling coordination degree model. On the basis of discussing the validity of the traditional model in the field of social science research, this study further proposed a modified model of coupling degree. In addition, the coupling coordination degree model has three reliability issues: the subjectivity of index construction, and the volatility and incomparability of coupling results. Taking the ecological and economic system of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example, we proved that the modified coupling coordination degree model has better validity, and the spatial and temporal changes of the research object will affect the reliability of the coupled coordination model.

  • Conversation
    CHENG Sheng-kui, BAI Jun-fei, JIN Zhong-hao, WANG Dong-yang, LIU Gang, GAO Si, BAO Jing-ling, LI Xiao-ting, LI Ran, JIANG Nan-qing, YAN Wen-jing, ZHANG Shi-gang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32(4): 529-538.

    Recently, research on food loss and foodwaste and the related environmental impacts has increased globally. Food loss and food waste occur in all aspects of the food supply chain from farm to table. A better understanding of the scales and trends of food loss and food waste is very important for any mitigation strategies. The food waste reflects directly the civilization of a society, and we need to understand the causes and consequences of food waste from multiple perspectives. Addressing food loss and food waste issue requires a wide range of actions from reducing, to promoting a healthy diet culture, learning from international experience, and building intelligent food systems.

  • Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    LIU Chang-ming, WANG Hong-rui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2003, 18(5): 635-644.
    Water resources serve as the material base of the existence and development of human beings.It is a huge complicated system involving population,economy,society and environment.Water resources and water cycle are the keys in the system.Based on the summarization of the water resources concept and its attribute of nature,economy and society,this paper discusses the relationships between water resources and water cycle,water-balance structure,population,economy,society and environment in details.The paper also emphasizes the interactions of water cycle and water balance,water resources utilization and evaluation,economic activity,and water resources carrying capacity.Given an example of the Yellow River valley,the paper states that there is a closer relationship between water resources,population,economy,society and environment.The author gives a definite concept and connotation of water resources carrying capacity on the base of summing up the former studies.Summarizing the model system of water resources carrying capacity,the author also points out that it is very essential to use the system to depict the complex relationship between water resources and other four aspects,namely population,economy,society and environment.Considering the problem from the viewpoint of the regional sustainable development and alleviating the benefit conflict of distribution of water resources,we should clarify the following aspects:water demands for ecological environment,including rivers,animals,plants and land;water demands for population and social-economic development;and water environment capacity that can tolerate certain amount of pollutants.So,in order to promote the sustainable development of population,economy,society and environment,it is of great significance to simulate and predict the evolvement of the huge complex system with the combination of remote sensing,GIS and modern math theory,seek a reasonable allocation of water resources carrying capacity,and study the enhanced module of water resources carrying capacity.
  • Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    LIU Guo hua, FU Bo jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2001, 16(1): 71-78.
    Human induced greenhouse effects and their impacts on global climate change and eco environments,especially the responses of forests to global climate change,have aroused interests of many scientists.In this paper,the potential effects of future climate change on forest ecosystem structure,species composition,tree and forest distribution and productivity are discussed systematically.In the meanwhile,the fields that must be further studied are advanced.
  • Governance and Policy
    LIN Jian, WU Ting, ZHANG Ye-xiao, ZHAO Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2200-2208.

    In recent years, the unification of territorial space use regulations has been upgraded to an unprecedented level of national strategic deployment, which is an extremely important reform task with overall significance. Based on the systematical review on the institutional evolution of territorial space use regulation since 1949, this paper puts an emphasis on summarizing the major features of previous territorial space use regulations in China. In general, we conclude that the key to implement territorial space use regulations is to control the three important aspects which consist of planning, licensing and supervision, to coordinate the utilization of continental space and ocean space and to discriminate the management of construction and non-construction purposes. On the premise of system construction, we propose four suggestions to institution on how to unify the territorial space use regulations: (1) Establishing a unified control line system for territorial space use regulations at the planning level; (2) Building an abundant and effective measure system for territorial space use regulations; (3) Constructing a unified and explicit regulatory system for territorial space use regulations at the supervision level; (4) Improving the legal system to help territorial space use governance at the support level.

  • Experts Interviews
    YANG Ren, WEN Qi, WANG Cheng, DU Guo-ming, LI Bo-hua, QU Yan-bo, LI Hong-bo, XU Jia-wei, HE Yan-hua, MA Li-bang, LI Zhi, QIAO Lu-yin, CAO Zhi, GE Da-zhuan, TU Shuang-shuang, CHEN Yang-fen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(4): 890-910.

    The rural revitalization, as a national strategy in the new era, puts forward the requirements and goals of the thriving industry, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance and prosperity. China is a country with a vast territory, marked by regional differences in resource and economic development levels. What's more, rural areas are complex, diverse, and have many problems. Rural revitalization is a systematic project with comprehensive, complex and regional characteristics. Sixteen young scholars in the field of rural geography across the country have conducted in-depth discussions and reflections on the scientific path of rural revitalization in China. The core points are as follows: (1) In accordance with the law of time-space distribution, we should fully understand the connection between the historical basis of rural development and the practical needs, establish a theoretical and technical system that highlights regional characteristics and has operability, and promote the transformation of rural residential environment, industrial system and governance mode in a classified and orderly manner. (2) Rural revitalization strives for the integration between urban and rural areas to build a compound multi-center network system, which breaks through the village and town systems of traditional linear "central place", and innovate the spatial organization mode of "village cluster". Rural endogenous force, urban radiation force and planning binding force jointly drive rural revitalization. (3) The agriculture has multiple functions such as food safety, social stability, and ecological products. Its development needs to create the whole value chain of agriculture to promote the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. (4) In energy-rich areas, we should fundamentally solve the problem of unbalanced and inadequate rural development under the premise of ensuring the national energy security demand. In Southwest China, we should take advantage of ecology and human resources to build a modern agricultural industry system, remodel the brand of rural tourism, and build landscape rural homes. In Northeast China, rural revitalization must proceed in an orderly and classified way in the process of synergistic promotion of the "northeast revitalization" strategy. In the Yangtze River Delta region, it is necessary to cognize the evolutionary stages from rural industrialization to rural urbanization, and then to rural characteristics with more and more emphasis on the social, cultural and ecological construction of rural areas, seeking a scientific path of rural revitalization. In Northwest China, we propose to effectively improve the ability of "independent poverty alleviation" in rural areas under the premise of ecological protection, and realize the transformation from "transfusing blood" to "producing blood". In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, oriented by equalization of basic public services in urban and rural areas, we will promote the development of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization. In resource-oriented areas, rural industries will replace the industrial system formed around resource exploitation with an efficient agricultural system integrating primary, secondary and tertiary industries. In traditional agricultural areas, it is necessary to optimize the coupling pattern between farmland use transformation and rural labor structure change, which is an important means to achieve rural revitalization. In economically developed areas, villages with "mixed" characteristics need to activate the assets and capital attributes of rural land resources, promote the integration and activation of spatial order, and comprehensively explore the modern rural governance mode with the participation of multiple subjects.

  • Compilation and Practice
    ZHANG Nian-guo, WANG Na, YIN Jian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2175-2185.

    Before the institutional reform of the State Council, the "Three Control Lines" of ecological protection red line, permanent basic farmland and urban development boundary were delineated by different ministries, which resulted in insufficient coordination and overlapping results, and difficulties in implementing management. After the institutional reform of the State Council, the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for establishing a spatial planning system. It requires that the three control lines be delineated from top to bottom on the basis of the evaluation of the urban capacity of resources and environment and the suitability of territorial spatial development. This paper summarizes the manifestations and causes of contradictions and conflicts in the delimitation of the three control lines in Shenyang as a pilot city, constructs relationships between the three control lines and the three spaces of ecology, agriculture and cities, establishes the management system and adjustment rules, and explains the adjustment and optimization practices within the scope of the city. The study found that it is difficult to distinguish the functions of the three control lines overlapped in space, mainly because permanent basic farmland undertakes the mission of restricting urban spatial spread, and the index can not be adjusted across administrative regions, which results in some permanent basic farmland having to be arranged in cities; different definitions leading to some urban parks are classified as ecological protection redline; some cultivated land in ecological protection redline was previously classified as permanent basic farmland. The paper puts forward the optimization proposals of three control lines under the background of territorial spatial planning: First, we highlight the characteristics of both the policy line and the technical line, and delimit them from top down and bottom up; second, the country needs to carry on the innovation to the basic farmland adjustment policy and system; third, we will establish a hierarchical management mechanism to properly reserve the flexibility of local administrative power.

  • Theory and Concept
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2073-2086.

    Resource and environment carrying capacity is the scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper combs the development of the concept, theory and practical application of carrying capacity, and points out the existing problems in research and application, such as concept's obscurity boundary, evaluation biased index calculation, and insufficient research on carrying capacity transmission mechanism. The reform of the spatial planning system and the changes in production modes, lifestyles and development modes in the new era have put forward new demands on spatial planning. It is necessary to explore and innovate the carrying capacity evaluation which is supporting the spatial planning: (1) Further clarify the conceptual connotation of carrying capacity and form a concept set; (2) Study the internal mechanism of carrying capacity and clarify the formation mechanism of carrying capacity; (3) Construct a multi-space scale, multi-evaluation unit's carrying capacity evaluation system to meet the needs of multi-level spatial planning. In practice, it should provide a scientific basis for determining the main indicators and main tasks of spatial planning according to spatial planning and spatial governance changes, supporting new goals of spatial planning, adapting to new modes of spatial governance, and taking new approaches to spatial governance.

  • Resource Utilization and Management
    TAN Yong-zhong, HE Ju, YUE Wen-ze, ZHANG Liang, WANG Qing-ri
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32(2): 186-197.
    The quantity of the cultivated land is related to the food security and the basic national conditions of China as well as many macro decisions, and thus it has received great concerns from home and abroad. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the protection of cultivated land, makes it as a basic national policy, and sets up a Cultivated Land Protection Red Line of 0.12 billion hectare (1.8 billion mu). However, the area of the China’s cultivated land remains a mystery, especially when the Second National Land Survey released in 2013 disclosed an increase of more than 13.33 million hectare (0.2 billion mu) under the background that the area of cultivated land has been declining for decades. In this paper, we carry out comparative analysis on the data of the cultivated land area before and after the Second National Land Survey at different spatial scales from the dimensions of the total area of the cultivated land and the area of different types of cultivated land. The results show that: 1) At the regional scale, the increased 13.33 million hectares (0.2 billion mu) of cultivated land in the Second National Land Survey mainly distribute in the Northeast China, the North China, and the Northwest China, that nearly half of the increase are in the Northeast region. The South China is the only region with cultivated land area reduction. At the provincial scale, the cultivated land area increased in 26 provinces, especially in the three provinces in Northeast China, Xinjiang and the Inner Mongolia. Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong and Shaanxi had decline of cultivated land area, especially Guangdong and Jiangsu. At the municipal scale, the spatial agglomeration of cultivated land increase is significant. The cities with increase of cultivated land concentrate in the Northeast China, and the cities with reduction of cultivated land concentrate in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta. At the county scale, the spatial agglomeration of cultivated land is obvious. Counties units with cultivated land increase are centralized in the Northeast China, and the counties with reduction of cultivated land concentrate in provinces of Guangdong, Jiangsu and Yunnan. 2) Three types of cultivated land have increased. The dry land increased the most (53%), and the paddy field increased the least (10%). The paddy field and the irrigated land are increasing in the North and decreasing in the South, and the number provinces with increased land and decrease land are almost the same. Both the increase and the decrease of the dry land mainly distributed in the North. The spatial distribution of changes is very concentrate, that most increase occurred in the northeast and most decrease appeared in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The center of the cultivated land continues to move northward, which exacerbate the spatial incoordination of water and soil resources and thus do harm to the quality of the cultivated land. In the future, the Chinese government should pay close attention to not only the quantity of cultivated land change, but also the improvement and protection of the quality of the cultivated land. The increased area of the cultivated land in the Second National Land Survey resulted from a variety of reasons. The main reason is that the technology and methods adopted in the Second National Land Survey disclosed the concealed area in the false report of the local government.
  • Methodology and Technology
    QIN Xiao, ZHEN Feng, LI Ya-qi, CHEN Hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2134-2149.

    In the new era, the core goal of territorial spatial planning is to meet the people's needs for a better life and also to protect natural resources. As a new type of planning, the method of territorial spatial planning is generally lacking. Based on the endowment of natural resources, scholars use data based on statistics and surveys, as well as methods of statistical analysis, spatial analysis and deduction to evaluate the carrying capacity and suitability of land space at the national and provincial levels, and make a static delimitation of the ecological red line, prime farmland protection line and urban development boundary. However, the existing studies rarely consider the dynamic impact of human activities on the use of land space, and lack the scientific arrangement of ecological space, agricultural space and urban space under the new development trend. This paper introduces the big data which can directly reflect the temporal and spatial changes of human activities. It mainly discusses the direction and specific methodological framework of the application of big data from the four parts of territorial spatial suitability evaluation, ecological spatial planning, agricultural spatial planning and urban spatial planning. Meanwhile, it emphasizes the scientific path of territorial spatial planning compilation under the interaction of "natural space" and "social and economic activities".

  • Theory and Concept
    ZHEN Feng, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao, XI Guang-liang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2060-2072.

    The Communist Party of China's 19th National Congress Report has clearly set the goal of "smart society" and put forward new requirements for the current development of territorial spatial planning. Nowadays, the empowerment of information technology based on the Internet, big data, cloud computing, etc. is the main driving force and development focus of the current practices of smart territorial spatial planning. How to understand and promote the development of smart society is the foundation of the compilation and implementation of smart territorial spatial planning. This paper emphasizes the importance of human-land relationship and the theory of urban life organism to the planning and governance of territory in a smart society. It points out that the overall conceptualization of smart territorial spatial planning should be transformed from informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment, which includes technological empowerment and innovative empowerment. The paper constructs a smart territorial spatial planning framework-EPTI-based on the ideas of ecological civilization, people-oriented, technology integration application and institutional innovation, and discusses the paths toward smart compilation and implementation of territorial spatial planning.

  • Resource Evaluation
    JIANG Lei, BAI Ling, WU Yu-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32(5): 788-799.
    For the purpose of transition of economic development pattern, China’s social-economic sustainable development depends on the harmonious development of economy, resources and environment. Coupling and coordinating degrees are designed to measure the interaction and mutual influence of two or more systems. Coupling degree is highly explainable and operational. Hence, it has been widely used in recent years. However, in many empirical studies, coupling degree formula was usually not used correctly. As a consequence, the range of the coupling degree could not be in the interval [0, 1]. One aim of this paper is to discuss and revise the coupling degree formula. A revised coupling degree formula is obtained and extended to n systems. This paper uses the revised coupling degree formula to calculate the coupling and coordinating degrees of three systems of 31 provinces in mainland China after comprehensive evaluation of provincial economic development, resources endowment and eco-environment. Then, it highlights the spatial analysis of the coupling and coordinating degrees in 31 provinces. The main results are the following. During the period of 2003-2014, generally the coupling degree had an increasing trend. Similarly, the coordinating degree grew up over time. From the spatio-temporal perspective, there was little variation in spatial distribution of coupling degrees of 31 provinces. Moreover, there was significant evidence of spatial autocorrelation of provincial coupling degrees of 31 provinces while provincial coordinating degrees of 31 provinces showed random spatial distribution.
  • Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    XIE Gao-di, LU Chun-xia, LENG Yun-fa, ZHENG Du, LI Shuang-cheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2003, 18(2): 189-196.
    Based on a series of1∶1000000maps of natural resources of China,6categories of ecological assets were divided,which included forest,grassland,farmland,wetland,water body and desert.By means of GIS,the1∶4000000Ecological Assets Map of Tibetan Plateau was compiled and the relative data were calculated.According to partial global ecosystem services value evaluation results obtained by Costanza et al.(1997)along with responses of ecological questionnaire s from specialists of China,this paper established the ecosystem services value unit area of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems.We used the ecological assets value table as a basis and also adjusted price value by biomass and then,the ecological assets value of the Tibetan Plateau was estimated.The results indicated that ecosystem services value of Tibetan Plateau is some 9363.9×108 yuan annually,accounting for17.68%of annual ecosystem services value of China and0.61%of the world.The value of soil formation and disposition provided by ecosys-tem s is the highest,which occupies19.3%of the total ecosystem services value and then,the value of waste treatment takes up16.8%,water conservation value,16.5%and biodiversity,16%.The forest and the grassland ecosystem s offered the main ecosystem services value,being31.3%and48.3%of the total value provided by different ecosystem types,respectively.
  • Resource Evaluation
    WANG Xiao-jun, WU Jin-xue, JIANG He-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32(5): 864-876.
    Objectively assessing rural eco-environmental quality and predicting its development trend have important theoretical and practical significance for food security, sustainable development of rural economy, and harmonious relationship between economic growth and ecological environment. Based on the framework of PSR model, the paper constructed an evaluating index system to assess the dynamic changes of rural eco-environment during 2000-2015. And the GM grey system theory model was applied to predict the evolution trend of rural eco-environment during the 13rd Five-Year Plan period. The results showed: 1) The quality of rural eco-environment had been falling in the past 15 years. The comprehensive evaluated score of rural eco-environment decreased from 0.669 in 2000 to 0.387 in 2015. The pollutions emission in rural areas was increasing, but the input to environmental protection was low. The continuing growth of Chinese rural economy was at the cost of ecological and environmental deterioration. 2) According to the past growth mode of rural economics, rural eco-environmental quality will continue deteriorating during 2016-2020, far from the expectation of green development during the 13rd Five-Year Plan. We need to change the mode of rural production as soon as possible in order to ease the pressure on rural soil and water imposed by fertilizers and pesticides, and enhance investment in rural environmental protection as much as possible.
  • LIU Xiao-jie, JIN Xiao-bin, LUO Xiu-li, ZHOU Yin-kang, XIAO Ren-rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2024, 39(6): 1299-1319.

    Urban-rural integration is a crucial avenue for the low-carbon transformation of national spaces, particularly in understanding its mechanisms for low-carbon land use within the context of regional integration. Employing the ESTDA framework and spatial econometric models, we quantified the spatio-temporal dynamics of urban-rural integration's impact on low-carbon land use in the Yangtze River Delta. This involved assessing the development level of urban-rural integration and the efficiency of low-carbon land use. Our analysis revealed the following findings: (1) Between 2005 and 2020, the Yangtze River Delta experienced a fluctuating upward trend in both urban-rural integration development level and low-carbon land-use efficiency, with notable regional disparities and a spreading pattern centered around the region's central cities. (2) A significant positive spatial correlation was observed between urban-rural integration and low-carbon land use efficiency, with an increasing spatial dependence. Local patterns remained stable, showing spatial clustering convergence for both high-high (HH) and low-low (LL) types. (3) In contrast to the evolution of low-carbon land use patterns, urban-rural spatial integration exhibited weak correlations, with local patterns and dynamic transitions displaying path-dependent and spatially locked features. (4) Urban-rural integration emerged as a key factor influencing low-carbon land use, with each 1% increase in its development level resulting in a 0.2% increase in local low-carbon land use efficiency. Among the control factors, the direct effects of technological inputs and the degree of opening up were positive, while the direct effects of financial and ecological pressures were negative. Fiscal stress, environmental regulation, public service facilities, and land marketization showed no significant spatial spillover effects. The results of our study provide references for formulating low-carbon and efficient land-use policies, promoting high-quality development through the integration of urban and rural areas.

  • Theory and Concept
    CAO Xiao-shu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2051-2059.

    The geosystem mainly studies the interaction mechanism between human and natural system on the surface of the earth, emphasizing the integration of human-land use relationship, natural and human factors, namely the human-land use coupling systems. Applications of the geosystem in the land space is mainly composed of geodecisions-making, geosimulation and geoengineering, and the interactions among these constitute geogovernance. Land space is the material carrier of the common practice of nature and human, the extent to which human shaped by nature is no less than that of opposite transformation, therefore, geosystem theory with the core of Coupled Human and Natural Systems has become the theoretical basis of land spatial planning and renovation. Based on the coupled human and natural systems, the remodeling of land space is ultimately reflected in various activities of human acting on the natural environment with the form of geogovernance. With the development of reform and opening-up for 40 years, Chinese land space has been basically in a relatively stable pattern and mainly consists of economic zones, poor areas and small towns, which is different from that of developed countries. We are in a state of "three-dimension-transformation coupling", i.e. urbanization, townization and ruralization. Thus, we must attach importance to the studies of strategic areas based on the Belt and Road Initiative, such as the Pan-Third Pole, the South China Sea Rim, and the Northeast Asia-Arctic. According to the theory of Coupled Human and Natural Systems and the value equilibrium of land space, the basic scientific problem of land space remodeling is the evolution and driving mechanisms of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Land spatial planning can be divided into three types: Development planning, controlling planning and restoration planning. The protection and management of land space includes the whole area renovation with the core of land use, the systematic restoration with the core of ecological civilization, and the comprehensive management with the core of social harmony. The development goal of human activity system is to establish a community of shared future for mankind, correspondingly, that of the natural system is to establish a sustainable system, so the ultimate development goal of Coupled Human and Natural Systems is to form a community of shared destiny with the interaction between human and nature.

  • Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    XIE Gao-di, ZHEN Lin, LU Chun-xia, XIAO Yu, CHEN Cao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2008, 23(5): 911-919.
    Valuation of global ecosystem services by R Costanza(1997)has attracted attention of the Chinese ecological researchers over the years. And many Chinese scientists have been using the methods to valuate the ecosystem services for forest, grassland and farmland ecosystems. However, it has been turned out that there are several shortcomings in direct adaptation of the methods, for instance, some ecosystem services have been insufficiently valuated or even ignored via using Costanza’s method. To fill this gap, we have, on the basis of Costanza’s method, developed a new method or 'unit value’ based method for assessment of ecosystem services. Expert interviews with structured questionnaire were contacted in 2002 and 2007 respectively, and altogether 700 Chinese ecologists were involved in the interviews for testing the method. It has been found that the values of ecosystem services from expert knowledge based unit value method and biomass based method are comparative. Therefore, expert knowledge based assessment of ecosystem services could be used as a method for assessing ecosystem services with known land use areas, and a good result could be generated within a short period of time. However, for scientifically sound and concrete results, the spatial disparity of ecosystem services should be taken into account.
  • Methodology and Technology
    LIU Chun-fang, WANG Yi-xuan, HE Rui-dong, WANG Chen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2113-2122.

    Ecological-production-living space (EPLS) is not only the basic carrier of human economic and social activities, but also the spatial reflection of human spiritual and cultural needs. Identifying the scope, understanding residents' demand, adjusting the supply and coordinating the functions of EPLS, are the core of the content of the territorial space planning, as well as the important premise of realizing the modernization of governance capacity and high-quality development in the new era. Based on the requirement of compiling the current territorial spatial planning, and the theoretical methods of behavioral science and behavioral geography, this paper explores the theoretical relationship between ecological-production-living behavior and ecological-production-living space. According to the principle of "demand analysis and spatial identification-problem diagnosis and goal determination-mechanism and coupling relationship-spatial optimization and policy suggestions", an optimization analysis framework of EPLS based on residents' behavior is constructed. This study combines residents' behavior research with space supply and demand, and provides a theoretical framework and new ideas of "humanization" for land and space planning.

  • Articles
    WANG Jun, YING Ling-xiao, ZHONG Li-na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2020, 35(1): 26-36.

    As the national land space and ecosystems are affected by global change nowadays, ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning must be the positive responses of China in the new era. Great achievements have been made in the restorations of ecological space and ecosystems through projects for land consolidation and ecological restoration. However, the degradation of some regional ecosystems still exists, and the interference of unreasonable traditional human activities has not been completely eliminated in China. Meanwhile, China faces a large number of challenges in the economic and social developments of the new era. The transformation and improvement of land consolidation and ecological restoration therefore become the inevitable requirement. Through introducing the concepts, connotations of land consolidation, ecological restoration and relationships between them in the new era, this paper suggested that the transformation should be determined by the variations and complexities of regional ecological and environmental issues, the new requirements of ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning. We also indicated the four shortcomings of land consolidation and ecological restoration at present, including working perception, theoretical basis, technological system, and institutional construction. Specifically in recent practices, the integrated and comprehensive concepts are lagging behind, the key theoretical systems are deficient, the technological supports are instable, and the related institutions are insufficient. Therefore, we proposed the strategies for the corresponding transformation, which mainly included: (1) intensifying the systematic thinking and concept to promote the implementation of land consolidation and ecological restoration on a regional basis; (2) upgrading the theoretical system to stimulate the new motivation for land consolidation and ecological restoration; (3) enhancing the technical support to improve the effectiveness of land consolidation and ecological restoration works; (4) improving the institution construction to reinforce the support foundation for land consolidation and ecological restoration implementations.

  • Resource Utilization and Management
    CAO Rui-fen, ZHANG An-lu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2017, 32(5): 715-726.
    With the unbalanced development opportunities of farmland as research object, we constructed model to measure unbalanced land development from the perspective of land structure and financial rights and responsibility of land respectively. After giving weights to the two aspects based on their contribution to the unbalance degree of economic development, we calculated the comprehensive unbalance degree of land development with method of weighted summation. Then, by employing provincial panel data in China during 2009-2013, an empirical analysis was made to explore the spatial and temporal differences of the unbalance degree of land development. The results showed that the overall unbalance degree of land development in China was high, which was 1.156, but it decreased year by year, from 1.235 in 2009 to 1.083 in 2013 with average annual decrease rate of 3.07%; at provincial level, the regional difference of the unbalance degree was significant, and the unbalance degree showed growth trend from the eastern coastal developed regions to central regions, and then to southwest, northeast and northwest regions. Among which, Shanghai got the lowest unbalance degree of land development which was only 0.178, while Heilongjiang got the highest unbalance degree of up to 3.148. Besides, we analyzed the sensitivity of unbalance degree to fiscal transfer payment, so as to provide a theoretical basis for reform of fiscal transfer payment. The results show that fiscal transfer payment system helps decrease the unbalance degree of land development, and the sensitivities of unbalanced degree to fiscal transfer payment were different significantly in different areas. The study attempts to quantify the unbalance degree of land development, which may lay a theoretical foundation for relieving the unbalanced land development and balancing the regional development.
  • Articles
    FANG Ying, WANG Jing, HUANG Long-yang, ZHAI Tian-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2020, 35(1): 190-203.

    Ecosystem preservation and restoration of Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grass System is very important for national ecological security. Current researches on ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning lack the determination and identification of key areas from a perspective of ecosystem integrity and landscape connectivity. Due to wetland degradation and homogeneity of habitat types that resulted in the low ecosystem resilience, it is urgent for in Yantai, a typical bay city in China, to restore degraded ecosystem and preserve natural resources. In the study, a regional ecological security pattern was proposed and key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration including pinch points, barrier points, break points and fragmented ecological functional land were identified using habitat quality model, habitat risk assessment model, granularity inverse method, minimum cumulative resistance model and circuit theory. The results showed that the ecological hubs covered an area of 668.85 km2, with a total of 1548.36 km corridors between them, and most of the hubs were water body and forests. All of them constructed a "two horizontal and two vertical" ecological security pattern. Key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration were identified based on the ecological security pattern, including a total of 13 ecological pinch points, 8 ecological barrier points, 39 ecological break points, and 1308.66 km2 of fragmented ecological land. Suggestions of restoration were proposed, with a combination of the spatial distribution characteristics and land use status of various key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration. It would help to provide scientific guidance for identifying key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning and sustainable ecosystem management.

  • Theory and Concept
    ZHANG Jing-xiang, XIA Tian-ci
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2040-2050.

    From the perspective of intergovernmental relations and government-market relations, this paper, based on the governance theory, analyzes the development process and overall trend of both Western developed countries' and China's spatial planning system under the influence of national governance changes. While spatial planning has become an important institutional reform and reconstruction system for China's ecological civilization construction, this paper hold the opinion that, under the goal of modern national governance, the reconstruction of the future spatial planning system should pay more attention to the following three questions: (1) The multi-attribute nature of "land space" should be fully understood, while the overall balance of spatial planning for multiple objectives should be emphasized; (2) A spatial planning system that corresponds to government affairs should be established; (3) Planning researches and non-statutory planning should be integrated into the spatial planning system to enhance the scientific nature of spatial planning.

  • Editorial
    ZHEN Feng, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2019, 34(10): 2037-2039.
  • Special Forum of“Food Security”
    LIU Li-tao, LIU Xiao-jie, LUN Fei, WU Liang, LU Chun-xia, GUO Jin-hua, QU Ting-ting, LIU Gang, SHEN Lei, CHENG Sheng-kui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2018, 33(6): 927-939.
    Food is one of the basic human needs. Achieving food security is one of the important goals of “The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”. However, there is lack of system review of mutual influence between safeguarding food security and global climate change. Accordingly, this paper reports a critical review of the existing researches related to interactions between ensuring food security and global climate change. Effects of global climate change on the food system, impacts of ensuring food security on global climate change and adapting food security strategies against global climate change were systematically reviewed. The results indicated that, firstly, global climate change had increased uncertainty in the food system which had great impact on China’s food production. Secondly, demand for food was one of the main drivers of global climate change, and the reconfiguration of crop production elements exacerbated global climate change. Thirdly, a synthetic approach is required for food security adaption strategies against global climate change, specifically, in the micro-level promoting technological progress and scientific management, in the meso-level strengthening resources and environment protection, and in the macro-level adhering to the laws of market and improving food policy system. Moreover, under the background of global climate change, research on ensuring food security presents two major trends: one is the change from single discipline, one dimension and single means into multi-disciplinary, multi-scale, multi-factor, comprehensive and integrated approach; the other is to turn a high-carbon food system into a low-carbon and high-efficient food system.
  • Integrated Urban-Rural Development
    HUANG Zhen-fang, ZHANG Yuan-gang, JIA Wen-tong, HONG Xue-ting, YU Run-zhe
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2021, 36(10): 2615-2633.

    This paper summarizes the research process of rural tourism in China through systematic literature review, which contains three stages: primary application research (1992-2005), diversified expansion research (2006-2015), and integration deepening research (2016-), as well as analyzes the background and research value orientation of each stage. Based on the analysis of knowledge map by CiteSpace, it reveals the changing process and characteristics of research topics. Combining the rural revitalization strategy and tourism development needs in the New Era, the research expounds the basic characteristics of rural tourism, constructs the research framework of rural tourism in the New Era, puts forward the main scientific issues, and proposes the research trends and academic innovations of rural tourism research. Moreover, the research emphasizes that rurality and recreation constitute the fundamental characteristics of rural tourism. Future research should focus on the national strategy and high-quality development requirements of the New Era, as well as keeping up with the international academic frontiers. Meanwhile, based on the local practice of rural tourism research in China, relevant research should concentrate on the "five-sphere integrated plan" basic framework for rural tourism, taking industry, ecology, culture, governance, and livelihood as the core elements. Under this research framework, it is essential to focus on the rural area system with its complexity and key tourism scientific issues, to strengthen research platforms and professional talents, to integrate multidisciplinary theories and technology methods, as well as to reinforce the ideas of data-driven and science-technology energization. It is also necessary to reveal the process, patten, mechanism, and rule of rural revitalization pushed by rural tourism in a deep-going way, to explore the development model and path of rural tourism revitalization with distinct Chinese characteristics, to continuously promote the deepening of theoretical research, practical application innovation and the development of rural tourism discipline, besides, to improve the academic research, innovation ability, service value, and internalization level of rural tourism.

  • JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2013, 28(9): 1649-1650.
    由中国自然资源学会土地资源研究专业委员会、中国地理学会农业地理与乡村发展专业委员会主办,青海民族大学公共管理学院承办的"2013全国土地资源开发利用与生态文明建设学术研讨会", 于2013年7月22—23日在夏都西宁隆重召开。来自全国27个省份(含港台地区)的正式代表共160余人参会,大会交流学术论文115篇。会议开幕式由青海民族大学公共管理学院院长卓玛措教授主持,青海民族大学副校长索端智教授致欢迎词,中国自然资源学会土地资源研究专业委员会、中国地理学会农业地理与乡村发展专业委员会主任、中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所刘彦随研究员致开幕词。
  • Special Column:Celebration of the 70th Anniversary of IGSNRR, CAS
    HU Zhen-peng, HU Song-tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES. 2006, 21(4): 638-644.
    The "Pig-Raising,Methane-Generating and Fruit-Growing" eco-agricultural system is a pattern of recycling economy.The system structure and work mechanism are analyzed and results of scientific experiment are summarized for the development of recycling economy in this paper.The system integrates a series of complex biological and chemical reactive process based on the methane-generating.This leads to simultaneous accomplishment of upgrading structural hierarchy for traditional cultivation pattern,making full use of material in multiple hierarchies,making effective conversion of energy,and bringing economic,social and ecological benefits.Some 103.87 million methanegenerating pits and 250 big methane-generating projects have been constructed in Jiangxi Province.Because firewood gathering has been replaced by methane,more than 6×106 m3 of woods are saved every year,and 74×103 ha of forest has been projected.The residues in methane-generating can be returned to farmland,so that fertilizer use efficiency increased by 20% in contrast to the traditional pattern and the soil quality can be improved,for example the organic materials increased by three times and the dissolve nitrogen increased by more than one times.The "Pig-Raising,Methane-Generating and Fruit-Growing" eco-agricultural system has been widely used in tackling small catchment in a comprehensive way,reducing environmental pollution by area source in rural areas,predicting the pollution-free foods and controlling schistosomiais.The results of the theoretical research and scientific experiment show that development of recycling economy should maintain the direction in the theory and methodology of the system science,take the motive force of science and technology as a guidence and laws and policies as a support.