28 February 2024, Volume 39 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
The transformation of tourism resource research in the context of high-quality development: New attributes, new framework and new directions
SUN Jiao-jiao
2024, 39 (2):  245-258.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240201
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High-quality development is the primary task of comprehensively building a socialist modernized country. The traditional research paradigm of tourism resources, which mainly focuses on the spatial inventory of existing resources and the economy, cannot meet the development of the tourism industry and national strategic needs in the New Era. It is urgent to clarify the new attributes, frameworks, and directions of tourism resources. Based on this, this study starts from the overall research pattern at home and abroad, analyzes the knowledge graph of tourism resource research based on CiteSpace 6.2.2, compares its research status and trend characteristics, and reveals theoretical needs. Furthermore, based on China's practices and trends, this research explores the model for the transformation of new attributes and categories of tourism resources. With the goal of high-quality development, starting from the new attributes of tourism resources, based on humanistic concepts, driven by technology and culture, and led by innovation and creativity, it explains the new changes in the expansion and research scope of tourism resources. It proposes a research framework for tourism resource innovation guided by high-quality development from the core layer, development layer, system layer (point, line to plane), explaining the innovation of tourism resource connotation, the innovation of tourism resource full chain concept, and the innovation of the "five in one" (it refers to the comprehensive development of economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction, and ecological civilization construction) domain structure. It proposes a research matrix for the intersection and integration of "five in one" and "three levels" of tourism resources, and proposes research directions for the high-quality development of tourism resources from the micro, medium, and macro levels of the five dimensions of economy, politics, culture, society, and ecology. The research aims to promote tourism resource research to undertake the mission of the times, serve national strategies, and use resource research as a lever to promote high-quality development in the New Era.

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Configuration path analysis of tourism resources collaborative development on common prosperity in the New Era
ZHANG Guang-hai, DONG Yue-lei, LIU Er-lian
2024, 39 (2):  259-273.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240202
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This study takes 31 provincial-level regions in China as the research object, constructs the theoretical logic of tourism resources collaborative development to promote common prosperity, and uses the fsQCA method to explore the configuration path of tourism resources collaborative development on common prosperity. The results show that: (1) A single antecedent condition cannot constitute a necessary condition for common prosperity, but the employment boost of human capital is more important than other conditions in promoting common prosperity. (2) The configuration path for high common prosperity levels includes two core models of "production resources - human capital - transportation resource synergy" and "brand resource driven". Furthermore, the configuration path for low common prosperity levels includes two core models of "human capital - brand resource deficiency" and "human capital - technology resource deficiency". (3) There are spatial differences in the development path of tourism resources in the three regions of China. The eastern region has outstanding advantages in production resources, the central region has high-quality tourism brand resources, and the western region is mainly based on the deep integration of human capital and technical resources to create a common prosperity road. The results of the study enrich the research paradigm of collaborative development of tourism resources for common prosperity and provide scientific references for promoting the practice of common prosperity.

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Regular Articles
Research on performance evaluation of spatial development under the system of spatial planning: Framework construction and several reflections
CHENG Yao, WANG Qi-xuan
2024, 39 (2):  274-286.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240203
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After the national territory spatial planning system was established, the relevant work about performance evaluation of spatial development should be carried out scientifically and systematically, and it will become an important support for spatial development and land use control in territory spatial plannings at all levels. Based on the spatial performance evaluation in the existing practice, the study tries to explain the connotation of performance evaluation of spatial development in the context of territory spatial planning system, and then combines the ongoing practices at various levels to propose a framework system and key issues. According to the study, the topic about performance evaluation of spatial development originates from the serious problems existing in traditional spatial development models and the long-term strategic demand for optimizing the spatial pattern. It has become an important research direction in the field of spatial development in new development stage, and will contribute to the optimization and high-quality development of various types of space patterns in territory spatial planning. At the same time, the performance evaluation and improvement of spatial development should be coordinated with territory spatial planning at all levels, forming a multi-level framework from macro- to micro-perspective. The performance evaluation of spatial development can provide comprehensive ideas for guiding the improvement of spatial performance in territory spatial planning, as well as inspiration for the formulation of corresponding policies such as spatial redevelopment.

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The research progress and prospect of marine geoeconomics
GUO Jian-ke, DONG Meng-ru, HAN Zeng-lin, QIN Ya-feng
2024, 39 (2):  287-306.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240204
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On the basis of putting forward the connotation of marine geoeconomics, this paper combs the development process, research hotspots and research priorities of Chinese scholars, summarizes the research characteristics and existing shortcomings of marine geoeconomics, and looks forward to the future research trends. (1) Marine geoeconomics derives from geoeconomics and marine geopolitics, and is influenced by geopolitics. The core theme of the study is the economic and trade linkages of sea related countries. (2) The evolution process of marine geoeconomics thought can be divided into four stages: the embryonic period of thought, the initial formation period, the rise and development period, and the steady exploration period. The hotspots of the research are from the germination of marine geo-thought which stays at the ideological level, to strategic thinking around the struggle for sea power, to the qualitative exploration under the system of geo-economic theory, and to the quantitative analysis which is becoming more diversified and clearer. (3) China's research focus mainly includes marine geo-economic theories, marine geo-economic activities, marine geo-economic relationship, marine strategic resources competition pattern, marine geoeconomic strategies, high seas protected areas, etc. (4) At present, the study of marine geoeconomics in China is still in its initial stage of exploration, and the relevant basic theoretical research and quantitative analysis from multi-scales and multi-perspectives are relatively lacking, and the disciplinary characteristics of geography and resource science have not been fully reflected. However, it has gradually attracted the attention of multidisciplinary scholars, and the research content shows a trend of diversification. In the future, it is necessary to strengthen the research on the theoretical paradigm and decision-making support of marine geoeconomics research, the development, utilization and protection of high seas resources and its spatial effect, the community of human maritime destiny and the sustainable development and utilization of international marine resources, the security of maritime transport channels and the resilience of port and shipping supply chain, and China's marine geoeconomic environment under the background of the construction of a maritime power.

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Progress towards the research on the doughnut-shaped framework as a novel roadmap for sustainable development assessment
CHEN Xian-peng, FANG Kai
2024, 39 (2):  307-318.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240205
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Sustainable development is a hot topic of universal concern and heated discussion among all humanity. As an extension of the planetary boundaries framework to the socio-economic field, the doughnut-shaped framework provides new ideas for sustainable development assessment across the globe. This paper provides a systematic review and in-depth analysis of the concept, theoretical basis, localization expansion, existing problems, and improvement directions of the doughnut-shaped framework. The research has shown that the doughnut-shaped framework organically integrates environmental boundaries and basic socio-economic needs, thereby incorporating environmental sustainability and socio-economic development into the same analytical framework. This framework is based on the theory of steady-state economy, emphasizing the need for both a certain amount of man-made capital to meet human's socio-economic needs and a constant amount of natural capital to maintain environmental sustainability. The localization expansion applications of the doughnut-shaped framework mainly focus on the evaluations of environmental sustainability and socio-economic development respectively, lacking in-depth explanation of internal interaction mechanisms. In order to enhance the scientific understanding of the transmission mechanisms between environmental boundaries and socio-economic boundaries, it is urgent to strengthen research on the interactions between environmental boundaries, ecosystem services, and socio-economic boundaries based on ecosystem units. The guiding value of the doughnut-shaped framework for global and regional sustainable development needs to be further enhanced. Due to its high compatibility with China's development philosophy of balancing ecological protection red line and socio-economic bottom line, the doughnut-shaped framework has great potential for application in the field of sustainable development in China.

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Prospects for integrating cultural ecosystem services assessment into territorial planning
2024, 39 (2):  319-335.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240206
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The incorporation of Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES) assessment into territorial planning facilitates a better understanding of the value of ecosystem services and enhances the optimization of ecological spatial arrangement. However, a systematic synthesis and future prospects regarding the application of CES in spatial planning are lacking, thereby impeding its effective implementation in territorial planning. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the advancements made in CES assessment within spatial planning, both domestically and internationally, over the past decade. The findings indicate that: (1) The theoretical explanation of CES formation is further enhanced from the perspective of relationship and interaction, which considers CES as the manifestation and outcome of human-nature interplay, specifically manifested in the flow of CES among suppliers, producers, demanders, and consumers. (2) The concepts pertaining to CES have undergone refinement, thereby facilitating the development of a more operational and normative theoretical framework for CES assessment. (3) The current approaches for CES assessment primarily encompass three categories: evaluation of ecosystem services, appraisal of ecosystem benefits, and estimation of ecosystem services value. The assessment methods mainly consist of three types: spatial scale-based data acquisition methods, spatial location-based data acquisition methods, and integrated spatial analysis and assessment methods. (4) The combination of CES assessment and planning preparation encompasses two approaches: preceding planning preparation and integrating throughout the entire process of planning preparation. This paper highlights the necessity of integrating CES assessment into China's territorial planning, emphasizing the overall concept and specific application purposes and methods at different planning stages. Furthermore, it anticipates the potential benefits brought by digital transformation.

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"Separation of farmers and cropland" and "resources reorganization":Research on cropland abandonment and industrial assistance modes after poverty alleviation relocation
LEI Xin-yuan, ZHANG Yi-tong, QIU Huan-guang, YANG Xiao-ting
2024, 39 (2):  336-351.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240207
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After poverty alleviation relocation, promoting the development of diverse industries is the key way to solve the problem of cropland abandonment caused by "separation of farmers and cropland" and to promote the "resource reorganization" of the relationship between farmers, land, and industry in the out-migration village. However, there is limited research on the utilization of cropland and industrial development issues related to out-migration villages. Firstly, this paper clarifies that the research object is the out-migration village with production functions. Furthermore, from the theoretical level, a framework of farmer-land-industry relations is constructed, and three industrial assistance modes are summarized from the two dimensions of the degree of separation between farmers and cropland and the degree of resource restructuring, including self-cultivation by relocated households, indirect participation by new business entities, and complete agency by new business entities. Secondly, based on the data of 846 relocated households in eight provincial-level regions in Central and Western China, this paper uses OLS regression to analyze the impact of relocation distance on cropland abandonment behavior, and discusses the moderating effect of industrial assistance modes. The results show that the "separation of farmers and cropland" problem exacerbated by poverty alleviation relocation has intensified cropland abandonment behavior. And participating in industrial assistance can effectively reduce cropland abandonment behavior, and also alleviate the impact of land distance on cropland abandonment behavior, and all types of industrial assistance modes can play a certain role. Finally, this paper provides policy recommendations from three aspects: revitalizing out-migration village resources, promoting new business entities, and choosing industrial assistance modes.

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Impact of farmland use transition on farmland use carbon emissions and its spatial spillover effects under the double carbon background: A case study of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
WANG Meng-cheng, DONG You-ming, LIN Na-na, QI Xin-xian, HUANG Xian-jin
2024, 39 (2):  352-371.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240208
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Farmland use transition (FUT) provides a novel approach to address global farmland use carbon emissions (FUCE). This paper employs various modeling techniques, including the entropy method, spatial autocorrelation models, and spatial econometric models, using Huang-Huai-Hai Plain as a case study. It investigates the spatial impact of FUT on FUCE under the double carbon background of China. The results reveal the following: (1) In Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, there is a significant positive spatial autocorrelation among FUCE, FUT, and their specific forms. FUCE exhibit a spatial pattern characterized by "high in the east and low in the west" and "high in the north and low in the south". (2) The dominant farmland use transition (DFUT) can aggravate FUCE in both the local county and neighboring counties, while the recessive farmland use transition (RFUT) lead to carbon reduction effects in both local and nearby regions. Quantitative farmland use transition (QFUT), spatial structure farmland use transition (SSFUT), and production function farmland use transition (PFFUT) all have positive direct effects on farmland use carbon emissions, as well as discernible spatial spillover effects. Conversely, both living function farmland use transition (LFFUT) and ecological function farmland use transition (EFFUT) contribute to carbon emissions reduction. This study suggests that a prudent approach should be taken to promote moderately scaled farmland operations, adjust the spatial distribution of farmland, and develop modern, low-carbon agriculture. Tailoring farmland use transitions to local conditions is crucial, harnessing regional comparative advantages and fully realizing the carbon reduction potential of RFUT, thereby contributing to the achievement of dual carbon goals.

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Structural characteristics and evolutionary mechanism of spatial correlation network of carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta
YU Jie, ZHANG Yong, LI Qing-yao
2024, 39 (2):  372-391.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240209
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Based on the data of 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the gravity model is used to construct a spatial correlation network of carbon emissions. Social network analysis methods and the Temporal Exponential Random Graph Model (TERGM) are used to identify the structural characteristics and evolution mechanisms of the network. The findings are as follows: (1) The spatial association of carbon emissions in the YRD is becoming increasingly close, with enhanced network complexity and stability, yet the relatively low network density indicates significant potential for future cooperation. (2) Cities in Anhui and Northern Jiangsu constitute the net overflow plate, while Shanghai and cities in Southern Jiangsu form the net benefit plate. The interprovincial border areas and cities within Zhejiang constitute the broker plate. There are multiple bidirectional spillover channels among these plates, with evidence of "club" clustering within each plate. (3) The "broker" connectivity structure and the dominant connectivity structure of core nodes have played a crucial role in the evolution of the spatial correlation network of carbon emissions in the study area. The network evolution has transitioned from a chain-like structure driven development to a closed-loop structure driven development. However, the non-cooperative game strategy of prioritizing self-interest among cities has diminished the potential for cooperative emission reduction. (4) The endogenous structures of reciprocity, connectivity, and circularity contribute to the formation of the spatial correlation network of carbon emissions in the YRD region. The abilities of actors, such as external openness, industrial structure, green technological innovation, digital economic development, energy intensity, environmental regulations, and carbon sink pressure, require the mechanisms of resource endowment differentiation, market regulation, government macro-control, and technological innovation promotion to facilitate network evolution. The evolution of this network exhibits characteristics of both path dependence and path creation.

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The impact of family differentiation on the pattern of farmland utilization in rural China: Based on a nationwide survey of thousands of households in one hundred counties
CHEN Yun-ling, WANG Mao-jun, CAO Guang-zhong, LIU Tao, CAI Bei-lei
2024, 39 (2):  392-410.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240210
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In the context of urbanization, rural-to-urban migration has been pivotal in transforming the structure of rural households, which has subsequently led to a diversification in farmland use. Departing from previous indicators focusing on isolated household features, this study presents a novel framework for categorizing rural household types. It integrates family household migration and intergenerational demographic composition within the village, thereby proposing hypotheses regarding the decision-making for farmland use among rural households. Based on questionnaire data from representative thousands of rural households nationwide, this study employed the Multinomial Logit (MNL) Model to analyze the impact of different rural household types on farmland utilization patterns. The results show that: (1) Following an Eastern-Central-Western gradient, the proportion of families residing entirely in villages decreases, whereas the proportion of urban-rural dual-residence families increases. Middle-type households concentrate in the eastern region, whereas complete-type and dependency-type households cluster in the central and western regions. (2) Families residing entirely in villages tend to engage in cash crop cultivation, while urban-rural dual-residence families are inclined towards land transfer and grain cultivation. (3) Middle-type and complete-type households residing entirely in villages tend to cultivate grain and cash crops, respectively. Middle-type and complete-type households with an urban-rural dual-residence show a preference for growing grain crops, while dependency-type households tend to transfer out, abandon farmland, or engage in forest cultivation. (4) Local non-farm employment, number of land plots, household assets, and agricultural subsidies significantly influence farmland utilization patterns. The study's findings offer theoretical support for the implementation of policies that regulate farmland use on a family household differentiation basis.

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Land use modelling under the shared socioeconomic pathways: An empirical study of Hubei province based on CGE model
SONG Qiong, JIN Gui
2024, 39 (2):  411-425.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240211
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The main purpose of this paper is to forecast quantitative structure of land use in Hubei province from 2020 to 2035 under the framework of shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Applying a new way to build social accounting matrix incorperating land use pattern, our research employs a CGE model of land use and scenario simulation under the SSPs framework, which is a new series of scenarios proposed by the IPCC based on climate change background and probable future socio-economic conditions. In SSP3 scenario, it is anticipated that there will be significant fluctuations in the areas of various land types, and the area of environmental protection accounts is forecasted to decrease by 10.68%, which poses a significant obstacle to achieving the crucial goals of fostering harmonious development between humans and the land, as well as promoting green ecological development. In contrast, in SSP1 and SSP4 scenarios, all types of land keep relatively steady. In SSP2 and SSP5 scenarios, fluctuation appears in land use structure. Nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these scenarios also indicate an increase in the allocation of resources for environmental protection accounts in 2035, which indicates that no severe damage will be inflicted on the natural environment. Based on the research, we can draw the conclusion that the prediction of CGE model is accurate, and the changes in land use structure in Hubei from 2020 to 2035 demonstrate distinct trends under different SSP scenarios. Comparing different SSPs scenarios, we discover that total factor productivity (TFP) and human capital storage have a crucial and positive effect on the conservation of environment. Thus, in order to protect our environment efficiently, measures such as increasing education input and average level of education and optimizing the structure of labor market should be taken to improve the amount of human capital storage. By considering the interplay between industrial development and land use, not only does our study contribute to the modelling of land use forecasting, but also our research provides valuable insights of future land use patterns of Hubei taking into account both economic and ecological factors, which can serve as a reference for regional sustainable development strategies and the development of a high-quality national spatial layout.

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Research on the delineation and optimization of ecological protection redline based on the perspective of ecological security pattern in typical black soil areas of Northeast China
FENG Lin, LEI Guo-ping
2024, 39 (2):  426-445.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240212
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The typical black soil areas of Northeast China is facing problems such as degradation of ecosystem service functions, fragmented landscape patterns and conflicts between agriculture and ecological space. The scientific formulation of guiding framework for the delineation and optimization of ecological protection redline in black soil areas is of great significance in ensuring food security and ecological safety. This study clarified the meaning of ecological protection redline based on the perspective of ecological security pattern, and proposed the idea of systemic ecological protection redline delineation based on the importance of ecological protection, coordination of agriculture and ecological space, and coordination of natural and social system, and identified ecological protection redline optimization areas by considering the fragmentation and connectivity of ecosystem. The results show that: (1) On the premise of guaranteeing that no high-quality cropland was allocated (the threshold value was 10%), 69646.00 km2 of the preliminary delineation area of the ecological protection redline were determined by overlaying extremely important areas for ecosystem services, extremely sensitive areas for ecological environment, and areas with mismatch between supply and demand of ecosystem services, and extracting 34760.16 km2 of ecological source land; (2) A total of 10980.90 km2 of ecological corridors and 77 ecological nodes were identified based on the ecological source and construction of a comprehensive ecological resistance surface, and their buffer zones and ecological protection areas together constituted an ecological protection redline area of 76234.54 km2; (3) Based on the optimization thresholds of fragmentation (0.20) and connectivity (80), approximately 25.48% of the ecological redline area was in urgent need of optimization. The results of the study improve the scientific and systematic nature of ecological protection redline delineation and optimization, and provide an important basis for the precise control of land space and strengthening ecosystem sustainability management in typical black soil areas of Northeast China, as well as important guidance for small and medium-scale regions with highly intensive land use and scarce ecological space.

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Identification, development and insight of cold and cool agro-ecological resources in the middle altitude region of China
HU Shu-yun, LU Yu-qi, HU Guo-jian
2024, 39 (2):  446-464.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240213
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Eating well has become the core issue of food security in the new situation. By clarifying the concept and scope definition of cold and cool areas, K-means clustering was used to spatially identify and type 43500 grid elements with 10 km accuracy in China's mid-altitude cold and cool regions with agricultural production as the dominant function. The results show that: (1) The mid-altitude cold and cool regions cover an area of about 2.63 million km2, accounting for roughly 28.47% of the total land area, and are mainly concentrated in the mountainous and plateau topography of nine provincial-level regions in the northeast, northwest and southwest parts of China. (2) The mid-altitude cold and cool regions can be divided into five types of agricultural development: forest-dominated mountain wet and cold regions, forest-dominated alpine warm and cold regions, agriculture-dominated cropland arid and cold regions, pasture-dominated plateau arid and cold regions, and pasture-dominated alpine high and cold regions. (3) The raster area of farming, forestry and animal husbandry favourable development area is 9.97%, 55.82% and 34.21%, and the district and county share is 27.34%, 35.90% and 36.76%, respectively. This paper provides a scientific basis for exploring the combination of characteristic agricultural layout and unique cold climate resources in mountainous areas, which is of great practical significance for ensuring food security and realising the rural revitalisation strategy in the new period.

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Can bidirectional investment improve resource misallocation:A study based on provincial panel data in China
MA Lin-yan, PAN Zi-chun, WEI Feng
2024, 39 (2):  465-488.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20240214
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Studying the impact of bidirectional investment on resource mismatch is of great significance for optimizing China's resource allocation and promoting high-quality economic development. Based on the panel data of 31 provincial-level regions in China from 2003 to 2021, a panel regression model, a mediating effects model and an SDM model are constructed to analyse the impact of foreign investment, outward investment and bidirectional investment synergy on capital misallocation and labour misallocation respectively, based on measuring the capital and labour misallocation indices for each province each year. The results show that: (1) Foreign investment exacerbates capital misallocation but improves labour misallocation, that outward investment improves both capital and labour misallocation, bidirectional investment synergy does not improve resource mismatch significantly, and that the results remain robust considering endogeneity issues and replacement indicators and samples. (2) Bidirectional investment can affect capital and labour misallocation through the effects of technological progress, industrial upgrading and rising labour costs. (3) There are differences in the impact of bidirectional investment on capital and labour misallocation between the eastern, central and western regions and between under-resourced and over-resourced regions. (4) Bidirectional investment has a spatial spillover effect on labour misallocation, and the indirect effect is more significant than the direct effect. Based on the results, policy inspirations are put forward to persistently attract foreign investment and encourage enterprises to "go global", formulate differentiated development strategies for bidirectional investment, and bring into play the spatial spillover effects of bidirectional investment on resource allocation.

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