Table of Content

    20 October 2016, Volume 31 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Discussion
    Rethinking of Connotation and Constituent Elements of Resources Flow Based on Spatial Perspective
    ZHANG Xin-lin, ZHAO Yuan
    2016, 31 (10):  1611-1623.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151190
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (679KB) ( )   Save
    Research of resources flow has become a new perspective, but it is still lack of the theories, approaches summary and paradigms of the research. The theory, method and innovation of the research framework need to be expanded and improved. In order to reveal the connotation and the constituent elements of resources flow based on spatial perspective, this article summarizes the theoretical studies on resources flow from the aspects of connotations, essence, and elements. Resource transverse flow relies on the geographical space, and different geographical space has different natural phenomena and cultural phenomena, so it is of great significance to study the resources flow from the perspective of space. The resource flow is defined from the perspective of space in this article. The potential differences of resources exist among regions, so one-way flow, bidirectional flow and multidirectional flow will happen because of the force of the resource field and the external force. A node has business function, utility function and social economic function. Spatial location and traffic are two prominent spatial characteristics of the nodes. Different nodes are at different levels. In the future, the quantitative analysis of the functions should be strengthened, so are the methods to divide the hierarchy. Channels and network have the functions of affiliation and guiding. Their development degrees are mainly measured from the structure and the nodes of the network. In the future, new functions will appear with the emergence of new way of transportation, so the new functions should be discussed and the channel network system should be optimized. Building an optimization model including a variety of modes of transportation which can study resources flow, intensity and cost has important practical significance. Domain is the carrier of nodes, channels and networks. The influence of international market on the resources flow domain should also be studied. Research also points out that it is important breakthroughs of the study of the constituent elements of resources flow that further theoretically explores node, channel, network types of resources flow and the roles and the mechanisms among them. Space factors of resources flow are important content of the theory research. It is of great significance to understand the spatial pattern and the structure of the resources flow. The exploration of new analysis model on the basis of empirical research combining with the new element that will emerge in the future will be the important breakthrough in the study of resource flow elements. The establishment of the theoretical system of resource flow must be based on a multidisciplinary integration. Research of resources flow is involved in resources science, eco-logy, economics, management, sociology and geography and so on, but these disciplines have not been jointly researched. It is the key to combine the study in resources science, ecology, economics, management, sociology and geography and integrate their theories.
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    Resource Utilization and Management
    Does Farmland Transfer Scale Contribute to the Farmers’ Income?Based on the Empirical Study of Peasant Household Survey in the Five Provinces of Mid-China
    XU Yu-ting, HUANG Xian-jin, CHEN Zhi-gang, ZHONG Tai-yang, SUN Jin-kun, XU Guo-liang
    2016, 31 (10):  1624-1636.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151314
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    There are increasing louder voices for farmland transfer and scale management of agriculture. It is needed to evaluate the effects of the farmland transfer policy. Based on peasant household survey in the five provinces in Mid-China (Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Hunan and Jiangxi), this paper uses the data collected from 925 rented-in households and develops three sets of models to investigate the relation between farmland transfer-in scale and farmers’ farm-income. The empirical research shows that: 1) the farmland transfer scale has significant positive correlation to agricultural income, but its economic return rate is only 2.9%. 2) The influence of the farmland transfer scale shows difference in different regions with different transfer modes and different household types. The economic return rate in Anhui, Huibei and Hunan is higher than that in Henan and Jiangxi. The economic return rate of households-led mode is higher than that of government-led model. The farmland transfer scale has more impact on the agricultural income of pure farm households than on that of part-time farm households. 3) With the increase of farmland transfer scale, the farms’ income rises at first and then descends, showing an inverted U-shaped trajectory. The larger the farmland transfer scale, the lower income return rate is. Therefore, it is much better to improve the efficiency of farmland use, study the mechanism of the impact of farmland transfer scale on income and analyze the risks and reasons of income loss, rather than to expand the farmland scale blindly.
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    The Role of Market Mechanisms and Customary Institutions in Rangeland Management: A Case Study in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau
    2016, 31 (10):  1637-1647.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151201
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    In recent years, government has promoted rangeland transfer system, a market-based approach to re-aggregate individual grazing land after implementation of Rangeland Household Contact Policy (RHCP) to support larger scale of livestock production. However, there are also pastoral communities who manage their rangelands according to customary institutions. Therefore, the relation between market mechanism and local customary institution in rangeland management needs further analysis. This paper applies the cases of rangeland management in Yuanyi and Chanaihe villages in Qinghai Province to analyze the impacts of different relationship between market mechanism and customary institutions on herder livelihood, livestock production and gap between rich and poor. We find that there is higher level of livestock mortality, lower livestock productivity level and lower rate of livestock production return in Yuanyi Village compared to Chanaihe Village. In addition, compared to Chanaihe Village, lower household income level and higher wealth gap between rich and poor are observed in Yuanyi Village. Based on these findings, the paper concludes that when market is embedded within customary institutions, it is more effective in rangeland management, because the embedded relationship between market and customary institutions better fits to the characteristics of the coupled pastoral social-ecological system. As pastoral communities are integrated into China’s marketization, market mechanism based on clarification of property rights is necessary, but to do so does not need to replace or weaken the community customary institutions in rangeland management system.
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    Resource Economy
    The Effect of Farmer Households’ Farmland Use Function on Their Land Rental Decision in Urban Fringe—A Case Study of 1 022 Farmer Households in Suzhou, Chengdu and Wuhan
    CAI Yin-ying, WANG Ya-yun, ZHU Lan-lan
    2016, 31 (10):  1648-1661.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151255
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    In the process of rapid urbanization and rural social economic transformation, the function of the farmland use in the household has changed comparing to the traditional way. Due to the subsidence of the agricultural labor force depending on the land and the diversity of livelihood, the land rental market has become more and more active. So we investigate the farmer households in Wuhan, Chengdu and Suzhou to analyze the effect of the farmer households’ farmland use function on their land rental decision in the urban fringe. The research shows that: 1) The farmers in the investigated areas have weaken the food production and economic contribution functions of land use, while enhanced the functions of pension employment and retaining & inheritance. There exists the regional difference of the change of land use functions. 2) There is a strong desire to rent out the land in the urban fringe, and the rental rate is up to 59.39%. The famers in Suzhou have higher intension to rent out the land, and the land rental market is more developed there. As the typical city of the west and middle, Chengdu and Wuhan are slower in the development of the land rental market due to the lower speeds of the economic transformation and rural population urbanization. 3) Due to the comprehensive effect of the economic development, the policy of the farmland compensation and the diversity of livelihood, the farmers’ household land use has obvious effect on their land rental decision. The more strongly the famer household lives depend on the land, the less desirably they rent out the farmland. So we suggest to build up a sound system of the rural social and pension security, strengthen the property right of the land resource and the construction of ecological environment. Only by this could we make sure that we can release the function of the pension employment and retaining & inheritance, activate the land rental market, and promote the development of the land rental market.
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    The Action of Environmental Regulation on Industrial Structure Adjustment and Atmospheric Environment Effect under the New Normal in Shandong Province
    XU Cheng-long, CHENG Yu
    2016, 31 (10):  1662-1674.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151256
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    Environmental regulation is the important means to promote industrial structure adjustment and improve the ecological environment. As a big province of heavy industries, Shandong Province was faced with triple pressure of “structure adjustment, steady growth, environmental protection” in the process of industrial structure adjustment under the new normal. This paper explored the influence of environmental regulation on industrial structure adjustment and atmospheric environment effects in Shandong Province under the new normal by using dynamic panel system GMM estimation method, LMDI decomposition model, historical value constraint extrapolation simulation and linear programming model. The conclusions were as follows. Firstly, the proportion of industries in Shandong Province increased at first and then decreased, and the proportion of pollution intensive industries decreased at first and increased subsequently from 2001 to 2013 in Shandong Province. The environmental regulation intensities of both were on the rise. Secondly, the influence coefficients of environmental regulation on the proportions of industries, pollution intensive industries and new and high technology industries were respectively -0.043, -0.451 and 0.523 in Shandong Province. This showed that the implementation of the environmental regulation had positive effects on the adjustment of industrial structure and industrial internal structure in Shandong Province. Thirdly, with the increasing of environmental regulation intensity, the industrial structure effect and the technical efficiency effect restrained the air pollutant emissions. The structure effect of pollution intensive industries was the main reason of the emissions reduction, but the absolute reductions resulting from it was little. Fourthly, comparing the predicted results in different scenarios, the potentials of industrial structure adjustment and air pollutants emission reduction in Shandong Province under the new normal increased in the order of easing environmental regulation, appropriate environmental regulation and strict environmental regulation. It is important to note that industrial structure adjustment of Shandong Province is more advantageous to the sustainable development of social economy under appropriate environmental regulation. The research will provide certain reference and guidance for the formulation of the industrial policy and environmental policy in Shandong Province.
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    County-level Carbon Compensation of Henan Province Based on Carbon Budget Estimation
    ZHAO Rong-qin, LIU Ying, MA Lin, LI Yu-xiang, HOU Li-peng, ZHANG Zhan-ping, DING Ming-lei
    2016, 31 (10):  1675-1687.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151291
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    Regional carbon budget and ecological compensation are core fields under the background of climate change. Evaluating carbon budget and constructing the horizontal carbon compensation pattern based on county-level have great practical significance to promote the regional coordinated low-carbon development. This paper established the research framework and estimation model for regional carbon compensation, and the carbon compensation value of Henan Province was preliminarily analyzed at the county-level based on the carbon budget estimation. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) There was obvious spatial variation of carbon budget and the carbon intensity in Henan Province. Generally, in 2009, the carbon absorption intensity in the main grain producing area in southeast plain of Henan Province is much higher than other regions, while the carbon emission intensity of gradually decreased from municipal district to surrounding counties. 2) There was remarkable spatial difference on carbon compensation rate. In general, the more advanced the economy, the greater industrial energy consumption and the higher per capital GDP, the lower carbon compensation rate, and vice versa. 3) According to the spatial difference of carbon compensation rate, Henan Province could be divided into three types of region: the payment regions, the compensation regions and the relative equilibrious regions. Most of the payment regions are the areas with high level of economic development in Henan Province, while the compensation regions are mainly located in the relatively backward northwestern mountain areas and the eastern main food production plain areas of Henan Province. Besides the above two types, the other counties of Henan Province were the relative equilibrious area. 4) In order to achieve the equitable development of Henan Province, it is needed to establish the government guided carbon compensation system, promote the carbon compensation by taking the carbon as the link among difference counties, build county-level carbon emission quota system and the low-carbon restricted development plan of main functional areas based on the carbon budget estimation, and implement the low-carbon-oriented regional differentiation assessment mechanism. The above countermeasures will have great significance for the regional equitable and coordinated low-carbon development under the background of global climate change.
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    Resource Evaluation
    The Adaptation of Regional Human-environmentalSystem under the Risk of Soil Erosion: A Case Study of Yulin City
    CHEN Jia, WU Kong-sen, YIN Sha, YANG Qing-qing
    2016, 31 (10):  1688-1701.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150161
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    The concept of adaptation provides a new research thought in the field of sustainable science. On the basis of summarizing and combing the definition of adaptation and integrating the theories and methods related to adaptation, this paper proposes an analytical framework of the adaptation based on the risk disturbance. In this research, risk-adaptive capacity index is used to quantify the adaptation of regional human-environmental system, and adaptation of system is divided into two dimensions: risk interference and adaptive capacity (including three parameters: ecological capacity, economic capacity and social capacity). From the perspective of the risks of soil erosion in the study area, the adaptation evaluation index system is constructed. By using USA Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and adaptive function model, the risk of soil erosion and the spatial-temporal evolution characteristics of adaptive capacity of human-environmental system in Yulin City were analyzed. On the foundation of the evaluation of adaptive level of system, this paper reveals the driving factors of the adaptive evolution of human-environmental system in different periods in Yulin City. The results are shown as follows: 1) In Yulin City, the risk of soil erosion significantly decreased during 2000-2011, but the spatial and temporal evolution was obvious. In 2011, the high loss areas were transferred to the southwest region and region along the Great Wall. 2) During 2000-2011, the adaptive level of system showed an overall increasing trend in Yulin City, however it was polarized in space showing a pattern of “high in northwest Yulin and low in southeast Yulin”. The northern counties were significantly higher than the southern part in ecological capacity, economic capacity and social capacity, but the advancement of adaptive level of the southern counties was more obvious than the northern part. 3) The driving force of the adaptive evolution of human-environmental system transformed from the social and economic development to the combined action of ecological environment restoration, economic capacity enhancement and social security promotion.
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    Complexity Analysis of Low Flow in the Jinghe Watershed
    WANG Li-na, LI Xun-gui, WANG Xiao-lei, WANG Nai-ang
    2016, 31 (10):  1702-1712.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150526
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    As one of the important characteristics of low flow, the complexity of low flow has a significant role in the low flow studies. The time series of monthly runoff at Zhangjiashan (ZJS) station of the Jinghe River Basin during 1933-2010 was studied. The time series of low flow were determined based on the anomalies and the average standard deviation. The measure of approximate entropy (ApEn) was employed to analyze the complexity of low flow. Results show that: 1) The annual average runoff presents significant decreasing trend at the 0.01 level of significance. The low flow occurs more and more since 1997. The upper bound of monthly low flow at the ZJS station was determined to be 9 369.67×104 m3. The occurrences of monthly low flows in January, February and December are much more than those in other months. Therefore, the monthly low flows in these three months were set as the time series of low flow in this study. 2) The value of ApEn of the low flow series was calculated to be 1.059 1, which is close to the value of 1.059 7 calculated from the entire monthly runoff series at the same time. It indicates that the fifteen non-dry months occurring in January, February and December have little impacts on the complexity of low flow series. 3) The complexity of monthly low flow showed increasing trend with fluctuations at the 0.05 level of significance. The complexity of low flow has a significant negative correlation to the monthly runoff, but has no significant relation to the monthly precipitation. The results demonstrate that the precipitation in the watershed is not the major input of the low flow system. The precipitation change does not play a key role in the change of the complexity of low flow. The runoff inertia is probably an important factor resulting in the change of the complexity of low flow.
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    Temporal Evolution of Dried up Days and the Influencing Mechanisms at Three Outlets along Jingjiang in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River
    LI Jing-bao, HE Xia, YANG Bo, WANG Dan-yang, WANG Li-na, LIU Wen
    2016, 31 (10):  1713-1725.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151021
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    The evolution characteristics of dried up days of river play an important role in recognizing the regional hydrological processes and clarifying the influencing mechanism of human activities, such as hydraulic engineering and water allocation in various fields. Based on the hydrological and climatic data from 1951 to 2014, this study uses Mann-Kendall methods and statistic models of precipitation and runoff accumulation curve to analyze the temporal evolution of dried up days and the influencing mechanisms at the Three Outlets of southern Jingjiang in the middle reach of Yangtze River. The results are as follows: 1) The average dried up days at the Three Outlets increased during 1951-2014 and the trend was significant. The average dried up days also increased during the period of 2003-2014, but the trend was not obvious, namely, the increase trend of the dried up days slowed down. 2) The variation of dried up days was controlled by the variation of runoff at the Three Outlets. And the runoff variations could be explained by climate fluctuations, such as precipitation and evapotranspiration, and human activities, such as hydraulic engineering and water allocation. Which one is the main control remains uncertain. So it is important to separate the influence factors. 3) Using the previous period as the reference period, the contributions of climate fluctuation to the increment of dried up days in each period were 24.93%, 19.05%, 6.36%, 10.38% and 7.56% during the five periods (1959-1966, 1967-1972, 1972-1980, 1981-2002 and 2003-2014), respectively, whereas the contributions of human activity were 75.07%, 80.75%, 93.64%, 89.62% and 92.44% respectively. The result revealed that the increment of dried up days was mainly dominated by human activities from 1951 to 2014.
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    The Evaluation and Analysis of Coordinated Development on Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity in SouthwesternMountainous Area of China: A Case in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province
    XU Ming-jun, YANG Zi-sheng
    2016, 31 (10):  1726-1737.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151191
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    Resources and environment carrying capacity is the basis for regional resources development and utilization as well as economic development strategy making and planning, which has already attracted large quantities of studies in academia. However, previous studies were inadequate in considering the connotation and restriction factors of resources and environment carrying capacity, and the evaluation indexes were not sufficiently connected with land planning (or regional planning). In the meantime, the indexes were treated in black box while neglecting the internal mechanism and coordinated development among systems. This study, took the Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (Dehong Prefecture) in mountainous area of southwest China as a case. The paper evaluated the resources and environment carrying capacities of Dehong Prefecture and the five counties (cities) under its jurisdiction, and analyzed the mechanism and coordinated development of the nine sub-systems of resources and environment carrying capacity. The results showed that: 1) There is great regional difference of resources and environment carrying capacity in Dehong Prefecture. The resources and environment carrying capacities of Mangshi, Yingjiang and Longchuan counties are relatively high, and the carrying capacity of Lianghe County is at middle level, while the carrying capacity of Ruili is low. The five counties (cities) ranked as Mangshi > Yingjiang > Longchuan > Ruili > Lianghe in resources carrying capacity and ranked as Mangshi > Yingjiang > Longchuan > Ruili > Lianghe in environment carrying capacity. 2) The limitation analysis indicates that Ruili belongs to arable land-mineral resources limitation type, Mangshi and Longchuan belongs to mineral resources-geological environment limitation type, Lianghe belongs to arable land-urban construction limitation type, and Yingjiang belongs to water environment-geological environment limitation type. 3) Larger coupling relationship exists in resource-environmental system of Dehong Prefecture, especially the coordination degrees of urban construction system and geological environment system, forest resource system and atmospheric environment system, water resources and environment system, mineral resources system and atmospheric environment system are all above 0.96. The overall coordination degree of resources and environment in this region is up to 0.98.
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    Changes of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties with the Development of Artificial Planted and Natural Invaded Vegetation in Southern Hulunbeir Sandy Land
    LI Zhong-fei, GAO Ji-xi, WANG Ya-ping
    2016, 31 (10):  1739-1750.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151207
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    To understand the improving effect of vegetation restoration on soil properties in sandy land, a study was carried out in Hulunbeir sandy land of North China in 2014. Seven plots, named 8Y (vegetation restoration of 8 years), 5Y (5 years), 3Y (3 years), 1Y (1 years), MD (Moved Dune), SD (Semi-fixed Dune) and FD (Fixed Dune), were set for analyzing the physical and chemical properties of soil, such as content of soil water, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), total potassium (K), available N, available P and available K. The seven plots belong to two series of vegetation types respectively, which are temporal pattern based on artificial vegetation (for 8Y, 5Y, 3Y and 1Y) and spatial pattern based on natural vegetation (for MD, SD and FD). The results show: 1) With the increase of restoration time, the biomass and vegetation coverage increased significantly at both types of plots. The biomass is 267.6 and 79.8 g/m2 respectively on 8Y and FD, and the vegetation coverage is 75% and 50% respectively. 2) The content of SOC increased significantly with the development of the vegetation at both types of plot, and the content in upper layer of soil is significantly higher than that in middle and lower layer of soil. The SOC of upper layer soil is up to 3.85 and 3.22 g/kg respectively in 8Y and 5Y, but is up to 7.99 g/kg in FD. 3) The content of total N and total P show similar tendency as SOC, but the content of total K has no significant difference among plots or soil layers. The total N of upper layer soil ranges between 0.08 and 0.41 g/kg from 1Y to 8Y, between 0.16 and 0.61 g/kg from MD to FD, and the total P ranges between 0.21 and 0.48 g/kg from 1Y to 8Y, and between 0.29 and 0.50 g/kg from MD to FD. 4) The content of soil available nutrients also increases with the development of vegetation to a certain extent, however with an undulation. Generally, the contents of soil nutrients at the plots of 1Y and 3Y are similar with that of MD. When it is planted after more than 5 years, the artificial vegetation can have a significant effect on improving the physical and chemical properties of soil and mitigating the desertification. However, the contents of SOC and total N are significantly lower at the plot of 8Y than that at the plot of FD. Thus, when developing the human-planted vegetation, local government should pay more attention to the protection of natural vegetation.
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    Plant and Soil C, N, P Stoichiometric Characteristics in Relation to Micro-topography in the Hilly Loess Plateau Region, China
    RU Hai-li, ZHANG Hai-dong, JIAO Feng, GUO Mei-li, XUE Chao-yu
    2016, 31 (10):  1752-1763.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151216
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    The research measured the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) content of plant leaf, root and soil at different slope aspects (sunny slope & shady slope) and different slope positions (top, upper, middle and lower) at Ansai Experiment Station. The effects of micro-topography on stoichiometric characteristics of plants and soil in the hilly Loess Plateau region were revealed. The results showed that the average leaf C, N and P contents were 433.47, 24.84 and 1.61 g/kg respectively, the leaf C/N, C/P and N/P stoichiometric ratios were 18.18, 320.36 and 17.41 respectively. The value of leaf N/P showed that the growth of plants was restricted by P in hilly Loess Plateau region. The root C, N and P contents were 380.05, 9.07 and 0.31 g/kg respectively, and the stoichiometric ratios of root C/N, C/P and N/P were 49.61, 1 326.64 and 30.73 respectively. Leaf and root C, N and P contents in shady slope were all greater than those in sunny slope, and those in top slope were the least. In shady slope, the C, N and P contents of leaf and root in different positions were in the order of lower slope > middle slope > upper slope > top slope. Soil C, N and P contents at different slope aspects were in the order of shady slope > sunny slope > top slope. Soil C, N and P contents concentrated in the 0-20 cm soil layer and decreased with soil depth. As the different part of biogeochemical cycle, plant and soil must have the contact. Correlation analysis showed that soil nutrients at different soil layers were correlated with the stoichiometric characteristics of leaf and root. Especially, the soil C, N and P contents at 0-20 cm layer had significantly positive correlation with leaf C, N and P contents (P<0.05), and also had significantly positive correlation with root N and P content (P<0.05), but had no significant correlation with root C content.
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    Agricultural Utilization of Saline-alkaline Soil under the Constraint of Resources and Environment in Tianjin
    WANG Xiu-li, GUAN Xiao-ke, ZHANG Feng-rong, LI Le
    2016, 31 (10):  1764-1772.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151289
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    With the sprawl of cities and towns and the spring-up of secondary and tertiary industries, more and more attentions have been paid to the development and utilization of saline-alkali soil in order to alleviate and partially solve the pressure on food safety and security, as well as natural resource and environment carrying capacity. The contradiction between urbanization and food supply in Tianjin has become much more severe with the culturable land and irrigating water shortage caused by the absorption of some urban functions and migrant labors from Beijing. The problems of environmental pollution and poor economic performance also came into existence. Properly using land for agricultural purpose without breaking out the carrying capacities of natural resources and environment has brought the requirement of utilizing local saline-alkali soil. In order to find out an effective method to solve the problem, this paper carried out systematic studies on the agricultural utilization of saline-alkali soil in Tianjin. From field survey and lab experiment data, it can be found that the total amount of saline-alkali soil in the study area is 32.42×104 hm2, and the main source that can be developed into farmland locates in the coastal plain areas. However, since traditional farming mechanism can’t maintain the arability of newly added farmland for a long period, these lands could turn back to the former conditions before development. The annual water deficit in Tianjin is about 6×108-9×108 m3. Water shortage has become the bottle neck for agricultural development. Irrigation desalting and traditional farming mechanism (e.g. the usage of chemical fertilizer and mulch etc.) will increase the water deficit and cause severe water supply disequilibrium, environment contamination and accumulation of poisonous waste. Furthermore, without scientific and sustainable fiscal inputs into agriculture, these newly added farmland may eventually be abandoned and turned into vacant and underutilized land. The changing socio-economic structure and urbanization have taken away the place of agriculture as the dominant industries in Tianjin. So, systematic consideration of regional resources, environment and benefits is the key during the process of saline-alkali soil development. From this point of view, water-cultured vegetable industry is the way of land development and soil improvements which can reduce the potential risks mentioned above and alleviate the pressure of food supply and environment protection.
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    Resource Research Method
    Spatialization of Statistical Crop Planting Area Based on Geographical Regression
    XIA Tian, WU Wen-bin, ZHOU Qing-bo, ZHOU Yong, LUO Jing, YANG Peng, LI Zheng-guo
    2016, 31 (10):  1773-1782.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151259
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    The sptial pattern of crops reflects the planting structure and characteristics of crops, which is an important basis for understanding agricultural resource utilization and adjusting crop planting structure. This study aims to explore the method for specializing statistical data of crop planting area, and thus spatially express historial agricultural statistics data. This study used the traditional agricultural statistical survey data and remote sensing imagery data with geographic information technologies. The spatial probability distributions of suitabilities of crops are estimated using the Binary Logistic regression analysis that characterizes the relationships between the crop planting structure and the geographical factors as well as social-economic factors. Based on the spatial probability distribution, the statistical data of crop planting area were spatially distributed by using spatial iteratative allocation. Northeast China was taken as the study area and the spatial expression of sown area in this area during 2000-2010 was completed. The spatial accuracy of 0.76 was achieved by using this multi-scale and multi-resolution analysis method, which demonstrated it is superior in spatially expressing statistical data of crop planting. The method can be taken as an effective complement for crop field survey and remote sensing-based crop interpretation, and thus provides novel technical means for enriching crop spatial data.
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    Approaches for Regional Water Resources Stress Assessment: A Review
    JIA Xue-xiu, YAN Yan, ZHU Chun-yan, BAI Xue, HU Meng-ting, WU Gang
    2016, 31 (10):  1783-1791.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151240
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    Water resource is an essential element for all lives on this planet, and it is faced with severe scarcity and pollution issues in many parts of the world. Regional water stress assessment becomes a critical part for water resources assessment and management. To better manage and govern water resources under water scarcity conditions, this study reviewed the main approaches for regional water resources stress assessment. The definition and connotation of water resources stress were analyzed, and the common used approaches for water stress assessment were divided into four categories including single indicator, supply-demand ratio, comprehensive assessment and water footprint assessment. Based on the previous studies, the basic theories, data requirements, calculation processes and applications of these approaches were analyzed. It is found that the supply-demand ratio method is the most objective and precise approach for water resources stress analysis. Besides, modified water footprint assessment is also a proper approach since it is simple in calculation and it considers ecological water requirements. Furthermore, this paper also discussed the promising focuses of future researches, including the integrated research of surface water and ground water and the consideration of the seasonal features of water resources.
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