28 September 2023, Volume 38 Issue 9 Previous Issue   
Utilization and Management of Natural Resources in the New Era
Theoretical framework and scientific problems of smart city man-land system
ZHEN Feng, XI Guang-liang, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao
2023, 38 (9):  2187-2200.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230901
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The rapid development of intelligent technology not only provides new technical means for the monitoring and regulation of urban man-land system, but also has a systematic impact on the element structure, coupling relationship and dynamic evolution of urban man-land system. It is imperative to explore the theory of building a man-land system for smart cities. Based on the interpretation of the connotation of the smart city man-land system, this paper discusses the theoretical basis of the smart city man-land system from the aspects of flow space, technology-man-land coupling and resilience system, and then puts forward the conceptual model of the smart city man-land system. On the one hand, we should explore the spatial scale changes of the interactions among human activities, elemental flows, and geographic environments, and further investigate into the cross-scale collaboration, tele-coupling, and feedback between activity systems and geographic environment systems regulated by intelligent technologies. On the other hand, we should pay attention to temporal elasticity, flexibility and fragmentation of the interactive coupling between residents' activities and urban geographical environment caused by the wide application of intelligent technology. Then it is necessary to carry out the monitoring, management and dynamic optimization with the smart city man-land system. Facing the future, the research on man-land system of smart cities needs to focus on the spatio-temporal coupling process of elements, elemental composition and impact mechanism, modeling methods and evaluation, comprehensive regulation and optimization path, etc. Finally, from the aspects of human behavior patterns and activity changes brought about by smart technology, spatial intelligence, virtual reality correlation, etc., the research prospect of theoretical exploration, analysis method innovation and sustainable regulation of smart city man-land system is proposed. All in all, based on the coupling of people, technology and urban space, we build the theoretical framework of smart city man-land system adapted to China's national conditions in consideration of the trend of high penetration and integration of China's new infrastructure and smart city services in production, living and governmental management. This framework could support the innovation of urban geography theory and method and the practical needs of "smart brain", digital twin city construction.

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Mechanism and optimization path of comprehensive land consolidation oriented urban-rural integration
SUN Jing-wen, LU Yu-qi
2023, 38 (9):  2201-2216.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230902
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Urban-rural integration development is a comprehensive process of reshaping the spatial system and functional value of urban-rural regional system. Comprehensive land consolidation can optimally coordinate the human-environment relationship, and effectively crack the main contradictions and problems of unbalanced urban-rural development and inadequate rural development. The paper analyzes the current realistic problems of the circulation of urban-rural development factors, the connection of urban-rural spatial structures and the integration of urban-rural functions, and explores the theoretical logic of comprehensive land consolidation to effectively promote balanced urban-rural factor allocation, urban-rural spatial structure adjustment and urban-rural functional value unification from the perspective of "human, land, industry and rights" factor synergy. The empirical analysis of Zhejiang province using the geo-detector model further reveals the mechanism by which comprehensive land consolidation effectively drives urban-rural integration development through the interaction of multiple factors. Based on this, the optimization path of consolidation oriented to urban-rural integration is explored from three dimensions: market allocation of land elements, spatial reshaping of modern industrial development, and value sharing of multi-subject participation. The study provides theoretical references for deepening the scientific cognition of new urban-rural relationship and human-environment system, promoting the practice of comprehensive land consolidation, and urban-rural integration decisions.

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The research framework and key issues of sustainable livelihoods in the national park
ZHAO Xue-yan, SU Hui-zhen
2023, 38 (9):  2217-2236.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230903
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As the ecological foundation for building a beautiful China and achieving harmonious coexistence and modernization between humans and nature, national parks are an important content and implementation path for China's ecological civilization construction. However, most of China's national parks are located in relatively remote and impoverished rural areas, facing severe conflicts between livelihood development and ecological protection. Building sustainable livelihoods has become an urgent theoretical proposition and task of the times. With the help of CiteSpace knowledge map analysis, we reveal the change process and research characteristics of sustainable livelihood research topics in national parks at home and abroad, and tease out the research status of the major topics, which include the livelihood conflicts between the residents and wild animals, the residents' livelihood dependence on resources, the impact of the construction of the national park on the residents' livelihood and the alternative livelihood in the national park. In response to the new requirements of sustainable livelihood research in Chinese national parks in the New Era, we construct a research framework for sustainable livelihoods in national parks and propose that the research on sustainable livelihood of national parks in the New Era should integrate multidisciplinary theories and technical methods, strengthen data driven and scientific and technological empowerment, focus on some key issues, such as dynamic monitoring and evaluation of the livelihoods sustainability, the relationship and mechanism between livelihoods and ecology, and the implementation path and mechanism of sustainable livelihoods in national parks.

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The impact of flow economy on innovative development of tourism resources: Hot reaction and cold thinking
LIN Ming-shui, HU Xiao-peng, YANG Yong, ZOU Yong-guang, WANG Ren, LIU Hua-jun, CHEN Gang-hua, WANG Xue-ji, CHEN Shi-hua, LIN Juan, ZHANG Hong-lei
2023, 38 (9):  2237-2262.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230904
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In the era of digital economy, the tourism development model based on traditional natural and human resources can no longer effectively meet the diversified and personalized needs of tourists. Some non-traditional tourism resources in digital platforms have attracted a large amount of attention capital and converted into tourism flows, which greatly expands the content and boundaries of tourism resources. The emergence of the flow economy has not only profoundly affected the development model of tourism, but also posed new challenges to the theory and practice of tourism resource development. Interviews show that: First, the formation of the flow economy is not a coincidental phenomenon; although the spread of flow leads to the expansion of attention capital scale and drives tourism development, the core of tourism development lies in tourism resource endowment, tourism service quality, government support and guarantee, etc. Second, the flow economy drives the recombination, agglomeration and diffusion of tourism supply and demand factors, and quickly caters to the individual needs of tourists, while whether the tourism industry can adjust its service supply capacity in response to changes in tourist demand becomes the key path and mechanism for the flow economy to promote tourism development. Third, in order to promote the flow economy to empower the high-quality development of tourism, it is necessary to combine effective market and active government, and to establish the brand of tourism. We can also make full use of the spatial effect of the flow economy to promote the collaborative development of regional tourism. Finally, after the tourism boom triggered by the flow economy, it is also necessary to calmly consider the mismatch of resources, negative environmental effects, cultural conflicts and contradictions between short-term hotspots and long-term investment. Only in this way can tourist destinations follow a sustainable development path.

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Cultural Heritage and National Cultural Parks
The impact of climate change on the protection of cultural heritage in China and its response
WANG Ling-en, LI Ke, CUI Jia-sheng, SUN Lin, ZHANG Shu-ying
2023, 38 (9):  2263-2282.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230905
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In recent years, the exacerbation of climate change poses a significant threat to cultural heritage protection in China. It is of both theoretical and practical significance to study the influencing mechanism and response mechanism of climate change influence on cultural heritage protection. This study analyzes the mechanism and process of mutual interaction of climate factors on cultural heritage, evaluates the influence and trend of future climate change on Chinese cultural heritage, and finally explores the interactive relationship among different stakeholders of Chinese cultural heritage protection. The results show the mechanism and process that the changes of various climate factors acting on cultural heritage are complex and diverse. The change of individual climate factors, the chain reaction triggered by the change of climate factor, and the interaction of different climate factors generally have a direct or indirect impact on cultural heritage. Moreover, solar radiation, temperature, humidity, air pollutants, precipitation and other climatic factors have affected Chinese cultural heritage to a certain extent, admittedly, but it is necessary to dialectically explore the impact of future climate change on Chinese cultural heritage. With the intensification of global warming and the appearance of extreme weather, the destruction of cultural heritage caused by the difference in temperature and freezing will be reduced, but the cultural heritage represented by ancient wooden buildings and grottoes will still face severe threats. Finally, the establishment of a network of stakeholders is beneficial to administrative departments, local governments, local communities, enterprises, tourists, researchers, and external pressure groups to play respective roles to jointly protect cultural heritage. Under the dual backgrounds of the intensification of climate change and the strategy of "cultural power", this paper is helpful to deepen the understanding of all circles on cultural heritage protection, and enrich the theoretical discussion about protection and utilization of cultural heritage.

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A comparative study on the administrative systems of national parks and national cultural parks in China
ZOU Tong-qian, HAN Quan, CHANG Dong-fang
2023, 38 (9):  2283-2295.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230906
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National parks and national cultural parks are great practices to protect natural heritage and cultural heritage, explore long-term mechanism of biodiversity conservation and create important symbols of Chinese culture in China. This paper used systematic literature review to sort out the background and history of national parks and national cultural parks development in China. From the perspective of management system, this research compared and analyzed these two parks' management regimes, regulations, funding and regional coordination mechanism, and summarized the differences in conservation principles, functional zoning and operation mechanism from the perspective of sustainable operation. Finally, based on the problems faced by national parks and national cultural parks in China, such as overlap management, unclear zoning boundaries, ambiguous rights and responsibilities, declined species richness, and conflicts between protection and development, this paper proposed to establish a biodiversity protection system with national parks as the main part and a cultural heritage protection system with national cultural parks as the subject, and adhere to the development principles of integrated conservation and compatible operation, so as to contribute to global biodiversity and cultural heritage conservation with Chinese solutions.

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A living cultural conservation path of "source-convergence" spatial evolution in nature village landscape:A case study of Bingzhou town, Heilongjiang province
WANG Lei, ZHAI Ya-lin, JIA Jia, WANG Jia-xuan, SHANG Ya-jie, XU Da-wei, YAO Yun-long
2023, 38 (9):  2296-2311.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230907
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The natural villages that carry the memory of the countryside are valuable cultural heritage of human beings. Facing the wave of rural urbanization construction and transformation in the rapid social and economic development, how to use the spatial characteristics of the rural landscape to locate and clarify the transformation method of village culture conservation has become the key to the flexible conservation of natural village cultural heritage. This paper discusses the feasibility of introducing the traditional "source-sink" theory into rural cultural conservation and then innovating it into a landscape "source-convergence" analysis method, and takes the typical village in Northeast China, Binzhou town of Harbin city, which is in need of transformation, as an example to develop a landscape "source-convergence" theory. The empirical analysis of the application of the "source-convergence" theory is carried out in Binzhou town. The research results show that: (1) The innovative landscape "source-convergence" method breaks through the limitation of one-sided attention to single elements and information, and can explore the zoning characteristics of cultural space by means of spatial zoning to support the construction of cultural patterns. (2) The results of the landscape "source-convergence" analysis show that Binzhou town is mainly a settlement living area with humanistic attributes, and the radiation effect of the main city center on the surrounding area is obvious, and the cultural connection between villages is close, which can build a "center-affiliated-periphery. The "center-affiliated-periphery" mode of cascading and regional linkage can be built to realize a systematic protection and collaborative development of rural cultural space. The study excavates the cultural significance behind the natural structure of village vernacular landscape, and explores the living path of natural village cultural conservation in terms of concept construction and practical application.

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Exploring the construction path of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park based on territorial spatial planning
FU Jia-ming, DAI Lin-lin
2023, 38 (9):  2312-2331.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230908
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The construction of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park, as a key task in China's "14th Five-Year Plan" period (2021-2025), has formed a regional specialized planning system covering the national, provincial and municipal levels, including heritage utilization planning, construction protection planning, cultural tourism integration planning, ecological restoration planning and other kinds of special planning. However, these plans are mostly development blueprints, which lack effective interface with the current territorial spatial planning system as the legal basis for territorial spatial development and protection activities, and various spatial needs and control requirements are not incorporated into the "one map" of territorial spatial planning, resulting in institutional barriers to the implementation and supervision of subsequent plans, and making it difficult to form effective support for construction projects. Based on the results of the published Grand Canal-related planning and territorial spatial planning, this paper composes the existing planning system of the Grand Canal into "two systems, three types and four levels", and analyzes the spatial content of the development plan with five major sections and four types of elements to explore the existing planning with "missing planning levels, unknown articulation mechanism and overlapping core content. The spatial articulation problem of "missing planning levels, unclear articulation mechanism and overlapping core contents" is discussed. This paper proposes three core paths: (1) strengthen the spatial special planning to improve the special planning system, (2) clarify the unified planning preparation and approval process management process to achieve effective interface between plans, and (3) combined with the current "province-city-county-township" three-level preparation of technical provisions and stage progress, clarify the preparation of technical points in the national spatial planning to strengthen the implementation of space class content conduction. The purpose of this paper is to explore the specific path of implementing the spatial demand for the construction of the Grand Canal National Cultural Park and the articulation of the territorial spatial planning, and at the same time to enhance the operability of the effective conduction of special planning and territorial spatial planning.

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National cultural park legislation status review and improvement approach
WANG Min
2023, 38 (9):  2332-2344.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230909
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To build national cultural parks well needs strong legal guarantee. The legislative level of existing national cultural parks is low and the legislative process is slow. The legislative philosophy is mainly rescue protection, and preventive protection is insufficient. The key contents of the protection of national cultural parks, such as the spatial scope, management system and cross-administrative regional cooperation, are not available. In order to solve these problems, the legislation of national cultural parks should be perfected in different situations. First, the State Council shall, in the form of "one park, one regulation", amend the Regulations on the Protection of the Great Wall, formulate special regulations for national cultural parks in large linear spaces such as the Grand Canal, the Long March, the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, clarify the spatial boundaries of each national cultural park, and establish systems and systems such as management system, planning, control and standards, and cross-administrative regional cooperation according to actual needs, so as to achieve differentiated and targeted management. Secondly, provincial local laws and regulations should be formulated for the dotted or planar cultural heritages such as the Mausoleum of the Yellow Emperor, the Palace of Confucius, and the Lugou Bridge to give full play to local initiative and local characteristics. Third, the National Park Law regulates the cultural landscape in national parks, and protects the natural ecosystem and historical and cultural resources as a whole.

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Property Right System of Natural Resources in the New Era: Reform and Practice
Research on central-local division in governing the state-owned natural resource assets: Based on the perspective of state governance
ZHOU Tian-xiao
2023, 38 (9):  2345-2359.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230910
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The principal-agent of the ownership of state-owned natural resource assets is essentially a matter of authority division between central and local governments. From the perspective of state governance, the central-local division principle in the governance of state-owned natural resource assets is analyzed and the choice logic of central centralization and local decentralization is revealed. The governance changes of state-owned agricultural land are used as an example to verify the authority division and dynamic adjustment process between the central and local governments in the management of reclamation areas. It is found that from the three dimensions of whether the governance of people is separated, whether the governance of officials is separated, and whether the governance of affairs is strategically needed, the governance of state-owned natural resource assets can be divided into centralized direct management, central-local co-management, and local territorialized management; the governance mode of state-owned natural resource assets will be dynamically adjusted with the change of dimensions. The central-local division lies in trade-off between efficiency and risk by the central government. The study will enhance the expansion of state governance theory in the field of natural resources, and has important theoretical and practical significance for the formation of the central-local division theory for the governance of state-owned natural resource assets and the realization of principal-agent mechanism of the ownership.

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Design of power mutation and exercise mode of the natural resource assets principal-agent mechanism: From the perspective of incomplete contract theory
LUO Shan, SU Shi-peng
2023, 38 (9):  2360-2371.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230911
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The implementation of the principal-agent mechanism in the management of natural resource assets owned by the whole people is an exploratory proposition to realize the effective protection and efficient utilization of natural resource assets. Based on the theory of incomplete contract and the theory of rent dissipation, aiming at the orderly transfer of property rights and the dissipation of rent value reduction, the power mutation logic of the transformation of property rights from "right" to "power" must be deconstructed. It is found through the study that the property rights of natural resource assets have been partially transferred under the guidance of Marx's property rights theory, and then developed into large-scale operation in the framework of dual ownership, while the mutation of power and the transfer of property rights have caused the exercise dilemma represented by the expansion of residual control rights and the structural absence of supervision. It is believed that the tension between government powers and responsibilities should be strengthened to inhibit the expansion of control rights, contributing to the orderly return of property rights from ownership by the whole people to individual operation. Meanwhile, the independence of digital comprehensive supervision must be heightened, and the exercise mode of "universal ownership-legal entrustment-hierarchical agency-partial property rights transfer-comprehensive supervision" could be implemented, avoiding the non-rational rent dissipation of natural resource assets. In this model, there are three ways to achieve. Firstly, control decomposition should build a hierarchical downward mechanism for the residual control rights of natural resource assets, enhance the arrangement of control rights at the same level for the natural resource assets utilization and supervision, and establish a legal and regulatory system with clear powers and responsibilities. Secondly, people related to property right must reduce cross of attributes, conduct scale operation and cut down on property rights conflicts, lowering down the transaction costs and rental value dissipation caused by property rights conflicts among operators. Thirdly, comprehensive oversight is supposed to deepen the construction of digital standardization and expand the space for standardization supervision, and improve the independence of "digital supervision" by utilizing digital government opportunities, strengthening the incentive compatibility mechanism of natural resource asset supervision. More importantly, digital regulation is not only an extension of internal supervision, but the decentralization of regulatory power which is to make the regulatory process and results transparent and the bottom line of ecological protection visible, gradually improving its independence and making it become a "third party supervision" carrier. This is to allow the masses, the media, and group organizations to exercise their supervisory power through the carrier of "digital supervision", and resort to laws and regulations for unreasonable behaviors or phenomena. At the same time, the roles of "manager" and "referee" of the government can be separated.

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The present situation and future policy orientation of the property right system reform of natural resources assets: From the perspective of national governance structure
GUO En-ze, QU Fu-tian, MA Xian-lei
2023, 38 (9):  2372-2385.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230912
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This article examines the progress of the reform of the property rights system for natural resources assets since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2012. It explores the policy orientation of the reform in response to the needs of China's modernization and future reform from the perspective of national governance structure. The research shows that the reform has optimized the arrangement of natural resource asset property rights and improved the system of compensated use and hierarchical exercise of ownership. However, the goal of achieving a Chinese-style modernization raises new requirements for the reform. Future reforms of the property rights system for natural resources assets should meet the demands for marketization, rule of law, equality, matching of ownership, rights, and responsibilities, as well as matching of property arrangements and exercise arrangements. To this end, future reforms should be based on the establishment of an equal, complete, and orderly natural resource asset property rights arrangement in urban and rural areas. They should focus on building a unified large market, improving the rule of law system for property rights, establishing a system of entrusted agency, and promoting the integration of urban and rural development. These measures will enhance the exercise mechanism of natural resource asset property rights and facilitate the effective realization of these rights and functions.

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Institutional innovations towards integrated natural resources management
YU Lu, LIU Yuan
2023, 38 (9):  2386-2402.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230913
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Over the last few decades, market demand has arisen for natural resources, along with conflicts over resource property rights, creating a need for institutional innovation for resource property rights and more flexible ways of governance. Nonetheless, there is yet no consensus on how to create such a flexible natural resources property rights system that aligns with appropriate governance models. An integrated system of property rights for natural resources is crucial to establish an institutional basis for the integrated protection and flexible governance of natural resources, such as mountains, rivers, forests, farmland, lakes, rangelands, and deserts. Through a theoretical analysis and case studies, this paper examines the existing theoretical puzzles and practical challenges in managing natural resources and the reasons behind. We suggest that natural resources vary considerably and in the meantime are interdependent and interconnected, and integrated natural resource management should consider the entirety of the ecosystem, the complexity and dynamic of the social-ecological system, and the uncertainty of resource issues. Therefore, we develop a framework for natural resource management that decouples property rights from the "Resource System-Resource Service" perspective, allowing property rights innovations to fit with ecological characteristics and local-specific social-economic circumstances. Moreover, the framework concentrates on matching both property rights and governance structures. To illustrate, we examine three practical cases, including self-organized grazing quota governance in pastoral areas, trans-provincial water resource management, and market-based systematic natural resource management in forestry areas. These cases demonstrated that the framework provides a theoretical forum for innovation of natural resource property rights and governance structures for governing various types of resources. It allows for flexible responses to resource variations and dynamics, while serving practical needs and encouraging governance innovation in diverse settings.

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Regular Articles
Research on the mechanism of urban-rural residents income gap on carbon emission intensity: A panel data analysis
YAN Dong-sheng, SUN Wei, LI Ping-xing
2023, 38 (9):  2403-2417.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230914
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Since the reform and opening-up in the late 1970s, China's economy has continued to grow rapidly and has become the world's second largest economy. However, the long-term unbalanced development policy and the inefficient development model have brought many negative effects to China's economic and social development. Typically, the regional development gap dominated by the urban-rural residents income gap continues to expand, and the ecological environment is rapidly deteriorating, which is characterized by a sharp increase in the scale of carbon emissions. In the process of factor-driven economic growth, unreasonable factor allocation structure is one of the important factors that lead to the large urban-rural residents income gap and carbon emission intensity in China. China's economy has shifted from high-speed growth to high-quality development. Whether the urban-rural residents income gap and the carbon emission intensity can be reduced in coordination, has become an important connotation of both "equity" and "efficiency". By constructing the mechanism of urban-rural residents income gap affecting carbon emission intensity, this research quantitatively explores the effect of urban-rural residents income gap on carbon emission intensity based on provincial-level panel data from 1998 to 2019. On this basis, the mediation effect model and the moderation effect model are used to explore the mechanism of the urban-rural residents income gap affecting the carbon emission intensity. The results show that the widening of the urban-rural income gap leads to an increase in carbon emission intensity. And after multiple robustness tests, this conclusion is still significant. The analysis of the impact mechanism shows that the urban-rural income gap increases carbon emission intensity by affecting urbanization, innovation development, and resource misallocation, and the levels of marketization and government behavior have significant moderating effects. For a large country in rapid development with a vast territory and significant regional disparities, the effect of urban-rural residents income gap on carbon emission intensity exhibits significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity: On the one hand, there is a significant positive effect in 1998-2011 and no significant negative effect in 2012-2019. On the other hand, there is no significant negative effect in the east and a significant positive effect in the central and western regions. Therefore, we should give full play to the coordination role of "effective market" and "promising government", and achieve both "equity" and "efficiency" in narrowing the urban-rural residents income gap by optimizing the urbanization model, improving the quality of innovative development, and promoting the urban-rural integrated development. However, it must be emphasized that the formulation and implementation of relevant policies should fully consider the local development. For example, the eastern region should focus on optimizing the industrial structure, while the central and western regions should still focus on narrowing the urban-rural residents income gap through the reform of the income distribution system.

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An integrated suitability-conflict-coordination multi-dimensional feature analysis and use control of garden land use:A case study of Chengdu city
WANG Shi-lei, JIN Xiao-bin, LI Peng-shan, HONG Bu-ting, LIANG Xin-yuan, ZHOU Yin-kang
2023, 38 (9):  2418-2434.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230915
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Scientifically recognizing the multidimensional characteristics of garden land use and constructing effective use control strategies are important guarantees for improving the level of garden land use and management under the background of "big food concept". This paper takes Chengdu as the research area, and establishes the logical mainline of "theoretical analysis- characteristic appraisal-type combination-partition control". On the basis of the analytical framework of garden land use characteristics, the suitability, conflict and coordination characteristics of garden land use process are identified around the three dimensions of resource endowment, planning control and functional service. The spatial autocorrelation is used to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of multidimensional features of garden land use, and the garden land use zoning is realized in the combination of multidimensional features of garden land use, and then the control path of garden land use is put forward. The results show that: (1) The multi-dimensional characteristics of garden land use in Chengdu have significant spatial autocorrelation and obvious positive agglomeration effect. Resource suitability and functional coordination are mainly HH agglomeration, while LL agglomeration with conflict management and control is more obvious. (2) From the unidimensional perspective, Chengdu's resource suitability, conflict of management and control, and functional coordination are characterized by terrain differentiation, circle differentiation, and administrative division differentiation, respectively, while the multidimensional feature combination is dominated by E1-C1-F1, and the prominent risk of conflict of management and control is the main obstacle to garden land use. (3) The garden land use zoning of Chengdu is divided into priority adjustment area, potential improvement area, key improvement area and moderate optimization area. Different zoning can provide differentiated path guidance for garden land use use control. The research results can provide useful reference for garden land resource management and sustainable utilization of agricultural land in the new era.

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