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    Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
  • Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
    MA Xue-feng, ZHAO Jie
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    In the context of Chinese-style modernization, the common prosperity effect of tourism resource development is explored to point out the direction of exploration for accelerating the high-quality development of tourism industry and realizing the goal of common prosperity. This study clarifies the mechanism of tourism resource development through the income growth effect, infrastructure enhancement effect, culture communication effect and factor flow effect to promote the realization of common prosperity, and constructs a comprehensive evaluation system of tourism resource development in terms of scale and quality. The spatial econometric modeling is applied to empirically test the impact of mountain tourism resource development on the common prosperity based on the relevant data at the district and county level of the Western Hunan Area from 2007 to 2021. Ultimately, it proposes targeted development model optimization strategies based on the real needs of enhancing the value of resources, promoting rural revitalization and contributing to the common prosperity. The results show that: (1) The overall level of tourism resource development in Western Hunan Area shows a gentle growth trend, but the spatial difference is obvious, in which Yongding district and Fenghuang county are always the dominant parties, while Luxi county is in a relatively disadvantageous position. (2) The level of common prosperity in Western Hunan Area continues to improve, but there are still imbalances between districts and counties, with Yongding district, Jishou city and Hecheng district, where the municipal administrative center is located, in the top three. (3) Tourism resource development has a significant positive spatial spillover effect on common prosperity, that is, it can enhance the level of common prosperity in the region and adjacent regions. Both tourism scale and tourism quality can be effective in empowering common prosperity, and the positive effect of tourism quality on common prosperity is better than that of tourism scale. The impact of tourism resource development on common prosperity varies significantly in different regions, with Zhangjiajie city having the largest common prosperity effect of tourism resource development, followed by Huaihua city and Xiangxi prefecture. Guided by the goal of common prosperity, the models of sustainable utilization, quality upgrading, and regional integration for the development of mountain tourism resource are proposed.

  • Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
    TAN Jia-xin, WANG Kai
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    Taking "elements➝structure➝function" as the logical main line, we try to explore the coupling and coordination mechanism of harmonious and beautiful rural construction and tourism urbanization. The improved coupling and coordination model, Gini coefficient and Tapio decoupling index are used to analyze the coupling and coordination level, regional differences and obstacle factors of the five central cities in the Wuling Mountain Area in the period of 2002-2021. The results show that: (1) The level of harmonious and beautiful countryside and tourism urbanization show a fluctuating upward trend, the growth rate of tourism urbanization is lower than that of harmonious and beautiful countryside, and there is an obvious imbalance in the region. Among them, Zhangjiajie city has the highest level of tourism urbanization, and Tongren city has the highest level of harmonious and beautiful countryside. (2) Harmonious and beautiful rural construction and tourism urbanization present coupling and mutual feedback characteristics, realizing the type transition from basic to moderate coordination, with spatial differences narrowing first and then expanding, and the stability of the coordination state is stronger in 2018-2019, but it is difficult to leap to the stage of high-quality coordination in the short term; the trend of the degree of coordination in each city and state is consistent, showing that "Huaihua city>Zhangjiajie city>Enshi prefecture>Xiangxi prefecture>Tongren city". (3) There is a positive facilitating effect between the construction of harmonious and beautiful countryside and tourism urbanization, with expansive negative decoupling and weak decoupling as the main types. Cultural revitalization and social welfare are the main obstacle factors restricting the coordination between harmonious and beautiful rural construction and tourism urbanization in the Wuling Mountain Area.

  • Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
    XIONG De-bin, LIU Jing
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    How to transform ecological resources into a source of wealth is the core concern of the mechanism for realizing ecological resources value, and also a crucial approach for promoting rural revitalization through the development of rural industries in China. Based on the longitudinal single case study method, combined with the theory of endowment structure in new structural economics, this paper takes the Shanbao community of Tongzi county, Guizhou province as the typical research case. It investigates the transformation process of the ecological summer tourism industry in Shanbao community from the perspective of grassroots governance and explores the historical cause-and-effect mechanism by which ecological resources are transformed into the development of the tourism industry. The research findings are as follows: First, "endowment structure advantage & rural talented person demonstration" constitutes the intrinsic foundation for the embryonic development of rural ecological tourism industry. Second, grassroots governance plays a key role in accurately identifying and dealing with infrastructure deficiencies, which lowers the development costs of the industry and attracts external production elements. Third, grassroots governance has a positive effect on discovering operational problems in the development of industry, and it reintegrates internal and external production elements to reduce the institutional costs of industrial development through organizational innovation and institutional construction. Last but not the least, "effective grassroots governance & effective markets" drives the continuous and cumulative development of the rural ecological tourism industry, achieving the transition of the tourism industry from quantity to quality in the process. The research conclusions not only provide new ideas for promoting the realization and revitalization of ecological resources value in rural area, but also offer a theoretical logic that can be applied to grassroots governance for the prosperity of rural industries.

  • Research on China's Tourism Resources in the New Era
    XU Guo-liang, ZHAO Chan-juan, LIU Yu, WAN Pei-yu
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    The rapid development of rural tourism not only induces changes in the morphology of cultivated land utilization but also propels the structural transformation of cultivated land use functions. The focus on the diverse uses of traditional resources is highlighted by the new perspectives on tourism resources, supporting the idea that cultivated land provides multiple functions in rural destinations. Our research employs the trade-off/synergistic perspective to investigate the sustainable development issue resulting from the multifunctional transformation of cultivated land during the evolution of rural tourism destinations. To do an empirical study for this aim, we chose Zhongyuan township in Jiangxi province. First, by building an index system, we quantitatively measured the multifunctional level of cultivated land. Next, we used a geographic detector to analyze the factors that influence the multifunctional level of cultivated land. Finally, we used the Sperman rank correlation coefficient to analyze the trade-off/synergistic relationships. The results show that: (1) During the period, the indexes of comprehensive function and cultural function of cultivated land increased, but those of production, living and ecological function decreased. (2) During the age of rapid development, natural factors primarily influence the multi-functionality of cultivated land in rural tourism destinations. As for the stable consolidation phase, the supply capacity of recreational facilities and transportation services has a noticeable impact, and the degree of factor interaction varies. (3) Although there is often a synergistic relationship, there is rarely a clear trade-off relationship between the many functions of cultivated land. The highest level of synergy between the several functions of cultivated land has shifted from "production-life" to "production-culture", as a result of the fast development of rural tourism destinations that are now entering the stage of consolidation and development. The theoretical goal of our research is to show that the role of cultivated land resources is complex and can lead to structural alterations between various sub-functions as rural tourism grows. This tells us that, practically speaking, we ought to increase the range of options available to us so as to make use of the resources found on cultivated land. Leveraging market forces may be necessary to fully realize the variety of ways and forms of employing cultivated land resources, which will lead to the creation of unique and diversified tourism products, within strict compliance to rules for the conservation of cultivated land resources.

  • Regular Articles
  • Regular Articles
    HUANG Yi-jing, ZHANG Shan-qi, LIN Yun, ZHEN Feng, ZHAO Sai-shuai, LI Lu
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    In the context of digital transformation, establishing and improving the monitoring mechanism for the implementation of territorial spatial planning is an important key to enhance the efficiency of spatial governance as well as national governance. The implementation monitoring of territorial spatial planning in the New Era involves long-term and dynamic monitoring of the planning process and the spatial changes influenced by development, utilization, and protection. It serves as a necessary prerequisite for understanding the real-time status of spatial planning and promoting real-time feedback for planning optimization. This article systematically reviews the development of China's related work on planning implementation monitoring, and summarizes the shortcomings of existing work from positioning, content and technical framework, and transmission mechanism. Based on the analysis above, it clarifies the connotation of "continuous monitoring" and the positioning of "comprehensive supporting" for the implementation monitoring of territorial spatial planning. Furthermore, with the case of Ningbo city in Zhejiang province, it constructs the content framework of implementation monitoring for territorial spatial planning from three aspects: the implementation of planning requirements, the external effects of planning, and the adjustment of planning during processes. Also, it improves the monitoring indicators and builds flexible units for monitoring analysis and predicting models for future warning. All in all, it provides references for conducting comprehensive implementation monitoring methods of territorial spatial planning on city level.

  • Regular Articles
    CHEN Xi, LIANG Song-bin
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    The mismatch between ecosystem service scale and human governance scale is one of the causes of ecosystem service degradation. Defining ecosystem service stakeholders is the first step to understand and solve this problem. This study introduces Bourdieu's practical theory perspective, proposes an analytical framework for the definition and identity change mechanism of ecosystem service stakeholders, and provides practical attempts and research ideas from the field of ecosystem services for the application and development of stakeholder theory. The research shows that stakeholders are important social attribute variables in the ecosystem service feedback mechanism, and exist in the hierarchical spatial structure, showing special attributes such as competitive dynamic balance and differential weight rank, and are benefit objects for achieving the goals of ecosystem service management. The evolution of stakeholder theory and the classification criteria of stakeholder types are helpful for the discussion of stakeholder definition of ecosystem services, but there are some differences in adaptation. The introduction of Bourdieu's practice theory, which embodies the unique research perspective of comprehensiveness, relationship, fuzziness, generation and reproduction, can provide an analytical framework composed of core concepts such as field, habitus and capital for the definition of ecosystem service stakeholders. It also provides a way to explain the mechanism of identity change. At the same time, in response to the development orientation and trend of the integration of regularist "value" and positivist "fact" of stakeholder theory, it expands its theoretical interpretation boundary and brings practical attempts in the field of ecosystem services. Based on this analysis framework, the paper proposes further research directions for institutional design from the political, economic, social and cultural fields, and tries to explore the establishment of an institutional system that starts from stakeholder definition to regulating the mismatch between ecosystem service scale and human governance scale.

  • Regular Articles
    WANG Lin-yan, XIA Min, ZOU Wei
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    Conducting research on agricultural spatial ecological protection and restoration zoning at the county level, and implementing differentiated ecological protection and restoration measures, has practical significance for coordinating the human-land coupling system and promoting sustainable development of nature and society. This article takes the agricultural space of Yixing as the research scope, couples the supply and demand patterns of ecosystem services, and constructs a comprehensive supply and demand security pattern for ecological protection and restoration zoning. The results show that: (1) The demand pattern for various ecosystem services in the agricultural space of Yixing is significantly different due to the combined effects of natural factors and human activities. The demand for soil conservation services presents an overall pattern of high in the northeast and low in the southwest; The overall demand for food supply services is high, similar to the spatial distribution of population; The demand pattern for carbon sequestration services is characterized by "high in the north and low in the south"; The demand for water conservation services is relatively uniform in spatial distribution; The demand for habitat quality services is spatially divided into eight blocks. (2) The supply pattern of ecosystem services for soil conservation, carbon sequestration, water source conservation, and habitat quality maintenance in Yixing's agricultural space shows a "strong south and weak north" characteristic, while the high-value areas for food supply services are located in the northeast and western waistline parts of the research area. (3) Based on the comprehensive level of supply and demand security, the agricultural space can be divided into agricultural ecological reshaping area, agricultural ecological optimization area, agricultural ecological protection area, and agricultural ecological conservation area. Based on the current land use status, differentiated ecological protection and restoration measures are proposed for each district, such as global governance and key regional ecological reshaping, overall optimization and key regional ecological restoration, comprehensive ecological maintenance and local ecological remediation, strict ecological protection and control of development intensity. The study provides reference for the construction of ecological civilization and agricultural spatial planning in Yixing and other similar areas.

  • Regular Articles
    KONG Bing-qing, WANG Lei, ZHANG Xiao-ran
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    High-speed rail (HSR), as a fast and efficient modern transportation system, has a profound impact on regional and urban economic development and spatial structure evolution. This paper obtains data on HSR service network and urban economic data of 215 cities and counties in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2009-2019, analyzes the development impact of HSR network expansion through indicators such as urban HSR operation, accessibility and connectivity. Based on the multi-period Difference-in-Differences (DID) model, we examine the impact of HSR network on the change of urban commercial land prices, and analyze the variation of HSR impact. The results show that: (1) The YRD HSR network expansion significantly reduces travel time between study units and improves network accessibility for prefecture-level and below units to a greater extent. The HSR network constitutes a regional backbones centered by Shanghai-Nanjing-Hangzhou. (2) The opening of HSR services, the improvement in accessibility and connectivity, positively influenced the average commercial land prices of cities and counties, resulting in price appreciation of 6.6%, 7.2%, and 7.4%, respectively. HSR network expansion has facilitated the relocation of business service industries to regional central cities with more frequent and convenient train services. With the advancement of HSR construction and planning in the future, local governments need to carefully consider the network effect of HSR in the context of local geographical and socioeconomic conditions to regulate the supply of commercial and service land use.

  • Regular Articles
    ZHANG Yang, CHEN Yu-lu, WANG Xing-ping, GONG Jie, JI Meng-rong, ZHAO Jing-jing
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    Promoting the free and orderly flow of factors in urban agglomerations and improving the efficiency of resource allocation is a necessary requirement for promoting high-quality development under the dual circulation context. Using the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle as the research area, this study integrated multiple sources of big data such as Baidu Migration, express logistics networks, and Baidu Index to establish a method for measuring the intensity of factor flow, and used an improved gravity model to simulate the intensity of factor flow under natural conditions. The study constructed a factor flow obstacle index to measure the level of factor flow obstacles between cities, and used QAP regression model to explore the factors influencing these obstacles. The results show that: (1) Regardless of actual or simulated factor flow, the intensity of factor flow between Chengdu and Chongqing is the highest, and the intensity of factor flow between these two cities and other prefecture-level cities is higher than that between other prefecture-level cities. (2) The factor flow between cities in Sichuan province mostly shows a promoting effect, while the factor flow between Chongqing and other cities in Sichuan is generally hindered. (3) The level of obstacles to factor flows in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle is jointly influenced by various factors such as the system, society, policies, and facilities. Administrative divisions and differences in urban-rural structure tend to form barriers to factor flows between cities. Spatial proximity and the interconnection of road facilities can promote efficient factor flows between cities. Central cities with high administrative levels have a certain dominant role in factor flows. Based on this, several strategies and suggestions are proposed to overcome the obstacles to factor flows in the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle.

  • Regular Articles
    LI Qiu-fang, WANG Wen-xiong, CUI Yong-zheng, CHEN Dan-ling
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    Collaborative governance by multiple subjects is an inevitable requirement to promote high-quality development of comprehensive land consolidation in the context of rural revitalization. It is also an effective path to integrate multiple resource elements, coordinate the actions of multiple subjects, and improve governance efficiency. This article first constructs a logical framework for multi-subject collaborative governance of comprehensive land consolidation from the perspective of organizational relationships. Using G twon, J county, Hubei province as a case study, this research constructs a multi-subject collaborative governance network through social network analysis, covering command transmission, resource flow, and information communication. It then examines the network's structural features and employs exponential random graph models to explore the networks' underlying mechanisms, both internal and external. The results show that: (1) The density of the three networks in the comprehensive land consolidation in the case area is low, and a closely connected multi-subject collaborative governance system has not yet been formed. (2) The command delivery network and resource flow network have a typical "core-edge" structure and "small world" characteristics. There are command delivery clusters centered on county governments and town governments, and resource flow clusters centered on construction enterprises. A large number of rural collectives and villagers are located on the edge of the network and do not play a major role. (3) The formation of the three networks is affected to varying degrees by endogenous mechanisms such as reciprocity, core-periphery effects, transitive closure effects, and connectivity effects, as well as exogenous mechanisms such as subject attributes and entrainment effects. Based on this, it is proposed that in order to improve the effectiveness of collaborative governance by multiple subjects in comprehensive land consolidation, the stabilizing role of core subjects should be strengthened, diversified participation channels should be built, and the endogenous motivation of rural collectives and villagers should be brought into play.

  • Regular Articles
    FAN Qing-yu, YANG Shan, LIU Shuai-bin
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    The national strategy of regional integration of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) aims to improve the overall strength and international competitiveness of this region. This paper selects the YRD region, which participates in global competition, as a case study, starts from the co-opetition level of urban development momentum, and measures the competition and cooperation level of 41 cities in the region from 2006 to 2021. Using the methods of spatial Markov transfer matrix and overlapping community discovery model, this paper analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics and interaction of urban co-opetition level in the study region. The results show that: (1) With the overall upward development of the co-operation level, the spatial distribution pattern of the YRD region has gradually changed from the isolated island distribution pattern centered on Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou to the "sheet" continuous integrated spatial pattern of Shanghai-Nanjing cooperation and Shanghai-Hangzhou-Ningbo cooperation, and the function of the central part of the region has become more and more prominent. (2) From the perspective of the spatio-temporal transfer characteristics at the level of co-opetition, cities are affected by their own development with inter-type transfer inertia and path dependence, and most cities maintain strong stability both in their neighborhood and in their own transfer types; The neighborhood state strengthens the spatial concentration of low co-opetition cities in the region and the spatial overflow of high co-opetition cities, driving the spatial diffusion of club convergence. Most of the cities with low neighborhood and low state are located in the peripheral area of the YRD, while most of the cities with high neighborhood and high state are located in the core and central area. (3) From the perspective of network communities and overlapping cities, the level of co-opetition in the YRD region is constantly changing to network and teamwork, which reflects the relationship between co-opetition within the YRD city circle.

  • Regular Articles
    YUAN Yuan, WANG Ya-hua, XU Ping
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    The fundamental guarantee of national food security lies in cultivated land. In the background of territorial and spatial use control, the single control of cultivated land quantity from the past has turned to the implementation of "storing grain in the land" strategy nowadays, and the "integrated food security thought" has also given a new connotation to the national food security strategy. The governance of "non-grain" in the new era needs to explore the response logic of cultivated land use control and thus construct a theoretical framework system. By reviewing the implementation of "non-grain" governance policies and the current dilemma between public goods and autonomous management, standard identification and policy implementation, consumption transformation and social service, this paper points out that the response logic of cultivated land use control should be focused on the three different dimensions of governance perspectives, namely bottom-line control, dynamic development and value realization. Aiming at each perspective, analysis of relationships should focus on the following aspects, protecting national and personal interests from the perspective of security and efficiency coordination, dealing with the self-sufficiency of rations and the upgrading of consumption from the perspective of supply and demand matching, realizing the priority and versatility of cultivated land utilization from the perspective of resource and asset transformation. The theoretical framework should refer to the principles of multi-level planning targets, refined zoning management, life cycle process and differentiated rule system. Further, the establishment of the use control framework consists of four core contents, regulation basis, pattern, section and methods. The regulation basis should refine the rules of "transfer-in" and "transfer-out" of cultivated land, which is helpful to improve the rule of law. The regulation pattern should make good use of the combination of partition, element and behavior, and carry out differentiated control measures mainly according to "three areas and three lines". The regulation section should highlight the "non-grain" governance of life cycle process, which needs to strengthen the role of use control in all aspects of investigation, registration, planning, restoration, utilization and supervision. The regulation methods should focus on innovation in aspects of administrative, social, economic and technical fields. In conclusion, this study can provide reference for the policy design of preventing "non-grain" and improving China's most stringent system of cultivated land protection.

  • Regular Articles
    LIN Xiong-bin, NIU Bu-qing, PAN Qi, ZHAN Shuang-fen, MA Ren-feng
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    Under the strategy of accelerating the effort to build China into a country with a strong transport industry, local governments have actively carried out urban rail transit construction and promoted transit-oriented development (TOD) within the transit-serving areas, which has gradually generated significant social and economic effects. Indeed, urban China has issued a series of national or regional planning outlines and policies to promote the high-quality development of urban rail transit infrastructure and the associated land-use planning. Currently, to what extent urban rail transit can produce a land premium effect still remains controversial, which is significantly affected by contextual factors and research design. For the differentiation results of the premium effect in urban rail transit, a sample of 298 observations from 44 published journal articles was investigated by using a meta-analysis regression approach, and the influencing factors of differentiation results were discussed from two aspects: contextual factors and research design. The results of the meta-analysis regressions would be helpful to promote both economic development and social equity. The findings show that: (1) Urban rail transit can produce a certain land premium effect based on the transport mode substitution and land development evolution effects, but the rail transit premium effect presents significantly differentiated results based on different contextual factors and research design. (2) Contextual factors such as assessment objectives, rail transit maturity, and accessibility features are major factors influencing rail transit and land premium connections; different methodologies adopted will also influence rail transit premium evaluation results. Compared to the hedonic pricing model, the premium impact evaluated by the multi-period price change and local linear regression methods presents a higher result, while the difference-in-difference model has a lower result. (3) The premium effect of rail transit has dynamic complexity. Concerning the economic and social impact of urban rail transit, mechanisms such as land value capture can be constructed to promote the sustainability, equality, and accessibility of rail transit services.​

  • Regular Articles
    HOU Xue-bo, LI Xian-kang, ZHANG Bang-Bang
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    The study explores the effects of centralized poverty alleviation relocation on the promotion of non-farm employment of household labor by constructing a theoretical mechanism model. On this basis, using the tracking data of 857 households in the contiguous areas of dire poverty in the Wuling Mountain from 2014 to 2020, we empirically verified the promotion effect and mechanism of centralized poverty alleviation relocation on the non-farm employment of labor force. The study shows that the centralized poverty alleviation relocation increased the proportion of non-farm and cross-regional employment of households. The government has effectively promoted changes in the location of non-farm employment of households without non-farm experience by providing job positions and assisting in matching with enterprises for employment and other measures. The mechanism analysis found that the support of agricultural characteristic industries, the provision of vocational skills training, targeted labor dispatch, and the organization of recruitment meetings have mediating effects in the policy of centralized poverty alleviation relocation in raising the share of households in non-farm employment. The study proposes that employment and entrepreneurship support should be carried out for different relocated groups in a different way, and efforts should be made to stabilize the employment scale of relocated groups. Public services should be strengthened, and follow-up support policies should be combined to help the relocated groups achieve economic benefits more quickly.