Table of Content

    28 November 2020, Volume 35 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Introduction to the Special Issue on World Energy Geography and National Security
    YANG Yu, LIU Cheng-liang, CUI Shou-jun
    2020, 35 (11):  2569-2571.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201101
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    Energy Geopolitics and Security
    On geo-power of energy
    YANG Yu
    2020, 35 (11):  2572-2584.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201102
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    Power is an important perspective to better understand and analyze energy geopolitics, energy security, international energy cooperation and global energy governance. Based on the geographical attributes analysis of energy, the geopolitical attributes of energy are discussed and a connotation power system is constructed, including the resources power, trade and transportation power, capital power and technology power. Then, a geographical framework for the study of energy geopolitics and energy power is carried out. In the framework, resources power and trade power are considered as the core of traditional energy geopolitics, technological control and capital control are taken as the new focus of energy power. Economic globalization, regional integration and global energy governance expand the extension of energy power. Geographical distribution, changes of energy power from place space to flow space, interrelationship between energy actors and global energy governance, and the study of decision-making service for energy security are the four fundamental parts of energy geopolitics and energy power research.

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    Critical technology change and energy geopolitics transition
    CUI Shou-jun, CAI Yu, JIANG Mo-qian
    2020, 35 (11):  2585-2595.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201103
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    Technology change is the material foundation of energy geopolitics transition. Different from the traditional view that "energy politics is equal to resource politics", this article argues that resource endowment and technology breakthrough are equally important in determining energy geopolitics dynamics. Energy technology can be divided into two categories, namely competence-enhancing technology and competence-destroying technology. For example, shale oil and shale gas extraction technology belongs to the first category and renewable energy technology belongs to the second, while the breakthrough in renewable energy technology will significantly reconstruct global energy structure. Tracing the history of technological transition, the dominant energy resource evolved from wood to coal, to oil and gas and then to renewables. The energy technology innovation cycles are closely intertwined with great powers' geopolitical competition, while major technology shift triggers the upgrade of energy utilization. The technology leading state could always exert its geopolitical advantages in each energy transition process, and the success of challenging state in replacing hegemonic state is always being supported by new energy technology innovation. With the arrival of the fourth industrial revolution, renewable energies, such as wind power, solar power and controllable nuclear fusion will substantively transform and reshape global energy geopolitics. Currently, two geopolitical consequences in new energy transition could be observed. (1) Accessibility and availability to critical elements, especially the rare earth, cobalt and lithium in renewable energy sector, will become the new battle fields of energy geopolitics. (2) Disruptive technology will be the linchpin in leading energy industry upgradation. Global powers such as China, US and EU have set up their roadmaps in promoting renewable energy development. Geopolitical competition among great powers will accelerate the evolution of the present round of energy transition. The progress of new energy technology will substantively affect energy security. On the one hand, the structure of major powers game and the implementation of energy diplomacy will largely differ from the past. On the other hand, the oil and gas related geopolitical conflicts will be largely decreased. In the meanwhile, the cut-off of grids will be a new weapon in global geopolitical game.

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    Spatical dynamics of the territories and balance areas of energy power between the US and China
    LIU Cheng-liang, WANG Jie, DU De-bin
    2020, 35 (11):  2596-2612.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201104
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    To date, there are two significant issues including the "shale gas revolution" in the US and the rise of China, which have restructured greatly the distribution and hierarchies of international energy power system. On the basis of two theories of power interdependence and balance in international politics and geopolitics, this paper constructs the theoretical framework and models of energy power, and portrays spatial dynamics of energy power territories and balance areas between the US and China. Results are obtained as follows: First of all, with the rapid evolution of international energy power system and energy trade network, the energy power space of China and the United States has undergone tremendous changes. Secondly, the coal power and natural gas power spaces between China and the United States have basically formed relatively stable regional groups. China's crude oil power space maintains a strong global expansion trend, while the US crude oil power space faces transformation and reconstruction. Thirdly, the balance areas of energy power between China and the United States are constantly fragmented and relatively concentrated in most parts of Europe, Southern Africa and East Asia. According to the characteristics of energy resources and geopolitics, they are divided into five types, namely, the resource endowment type, the resource consumption type, the geographical channel type, the political and economic separation type, and the third-country controling type. Finally, focusing on these types, we suggest some policies. It is necessary to enlarge energy trades and investments with resource endowment countries, to strengthen energy technology cooperation with resource market-oriented countries, to ensure the security and fluent flows of energy transport channels, to strengthen economic cooperation with the political-economic separation countries to influence their diplomatic policies, and to reasonably arrange energy cooperation with the third-country controlling countries. These conclusions are expected to play a guiding role in China's energy trade cooperation, which is of great significance to this country's energy security.

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    Pattern evolution of global energy security and the geopolitical game
    SU Jun, WANG Yong-xun, WANG Qiang
    2020, 35 (11):  2613-2628.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201105
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    Under the background of economic globalization, the internationalization of national energy security issues has become increasingly prominent. Since the beginning of the 21st century, along with the acceleration of world multi-polarization, the study on the evolution characteristics of global energy security's pattern and its driving mechanism has become one of the key issues in the field of energy geopolitics. Based on this understanding, this paper systematically evaluates the energy security status of 124 countries since 2000, reveals the evolution characteristics and its mechanism, and identifies the major geopolitical threats. The results show that: (1) Since the beginning of the 21st century, the evolution of the global energy security pattern has been continuously optimized, but it has shown obvious phase characteristics. Since 2010, the optimization trend has become more significant. (2) The global energy security pattern is basically consistent with the international order, that is, energy-safe countries are concentrated in economically developed regions of Western Europe and North America, and the relatively safe countries are mainly distributed in Central Europe, Latin America, and high-income regions in Asia. The countries with transitional energy system are mainly distributed in the developing regions of Middle East, Southeast Europe, and East Asia, while countries with dangerous or relatively dangerous energy system are economically underdeveloped regions in Africa and South Asia. (3) In the past 20 years, the world's energy security level has improved significantly, which is mainly driven by climate-friendly green technologies and the continuous downturn in oil price. For this reason, the level of energy security in developed economies has increased significantly. However, due to the low innovation capacity, backward productivity, and low disposable income of residents, developing countries have less room for improvement in energy security. (4) In the context of the rise of populism, the intensification of trade barriers and the strategic contraction of the United States in the Middle East, the global energy security pattern in the future will be affected by the changes in China-US relation, the increasing urgency to promoting the energy transition, and the polarized political climate.

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    Quantitative evaluation on supply security of the sources of crude oil imports for China
    ZHU Kong-chao, NIU Shu-wen, ZHAO Yuan, QIU Xin
    2020, 35 (11):  2629-2644.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201106
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    The security of crude oil supply plays an important role in China's national security, so quantitative assessment for it can provide some policy references for risk prevention. The event data analysis model was employed to quantitatively measure the bilateral relations between China and 21 major crude oil suppliers. The results show that the relations between China and most of its crude oil trading partners are at medium and low levels, but the overall trend has been rising in recent more than ten years, which indicates that crude oil import has a certain risk of political relations but tends to decline. Eleven indexes from five aspects of resources, politics, economy, transportation and military were selected, and the weights of the indexes were determined by combination weighting method. The set pair analysis model was used to evaluate the supply security degree of 21 source countries of China's crude oil import and then the main obstacle factors were identified. The results show that there are significant differences in the supply security degrees of the 21 countries. Some of the Middle East countries, Russia, Venezuela and Kazakhstan have a high degree of supply security, while most African and Asia-Pacific countries have a low degree of supply security. Crude oil resource status, transportation risks and political risks of the suppliers are the main obstacles to the supply security of most suppliers. To prevent risks, China should take policy measures such as pursuing multilateral energy diplomacy and expanding strategic petroleum reserves.

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    Construction and application of national natural gas security indicator system
    ZHOU Yun-heng, CHEN Jia-wei, YE Rui-ke, CHEN Mu-qin, ZHANG Yu-ting, CAO Yu-chen
    2020, 35 (11):  2645-2654.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201107
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    In order to assess the situation of natural gas security in major countries, this study introduces and revises APERC's 4A Energy Security to construct a scientific and quantifiable natural gas security indicator system by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Delphi method. The study draws the following conclusions. (1) The countries ranking at the top of natural gas security list are natural gas exporters with excellent performance in four dimensions (Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Affordability). (2) The indicators of recoverable reserves of natural gas and affordability of consumers are more important than the other six indicators. (3) Compared with importers, natural gas export countries have obvious advantages in Availability, Affordability and Accessibility. Finally, according to the main findings in this research, China should make efforts to develop its natural gas industry, improve market mechanism, diversify its import sources, and efficiently utilize natural gas resources.

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    Energy Flows and Networks
    The evolution of competition and cooperation in world crude oil flows from the perspective of complex networks and its enlightenment to China's oil cooperation
    XIA Si-you, HAO Li-sha, TANG Wen-min, CUI Pan-pan, WU Feng-lian
    2020, 35 (11):  2655-2673.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201108
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    The scale and complexity of world crude oil flows are increasing. From the perspective of complex network analysis, we examine the relative status and their changes of the major trading countries and their corresponding geopolitical regions, and analyze the competition and cooperation between China and these geopolitical regions, which are conducive to a comprehensive review of the overall pattern, key cooperation countries, and possible model innovation of China's oil cooperation in terms of cooperation with exporting and importing geopolitical regions. The results show that: (1) World crude oil flows are still dominated by the main export geopolitical regions, and gradually evolved into the three dimensional competition patterns of Russia - Central Asia, the United States - Canada and the Middle East. However, the diversification and relative status changes of the exporting geopolitical regions also provide opportunities for the importing countries to adjust their cooperative relations. (2) The Asia-Pacific region has gradually become the focus of the competition and cooperation in the world crude oil flows. However, due to the lack of mutual exchange among the major importing countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the overall status of the region and its control over the world crude oil flows have been lowered. Correspondingly, China is deeply trapped in the three major dilemmas of import decentralization, the game of major exporting countries and the check and balance of major importing countries. (3) In terms of cooperation with exporting geopolitical regions, China should focus on strengthening multilateral cooperation with Russia - Central Asia geopolitical region, appropriately strengthen bilateral cooperation with United States - Canada geopolitical region, and consolidate and balance diversified cooperation with the Middle East geopolitical region; as for Africa and Latin America, China should stabilize the existing cooperation and innovate the cooperation mode, such as bringing the output of China's oil investment in Africa to the international market, and encouraging China Petroleum Purchase Federation of Independent Refinery to cooperate with large oil trading companies to enter the Latin American oil market. In terms of cooperation with importing geopolitical regions, China should conduct internal mutual exchanges with importing countries in the Asia-Pacific region based on the import share coordination mechanism, diverse-source competition mechanism and the division and cooperation mechanism of the international trade center. The above oil cooperation is conducive to improving China's competition and cooperation environment in the world crude oil flows, ensuring the balance of oil supply and demand, and reducing supply risks.

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    China's cross-border energy relations between direct trade and embodied transfers: Based on "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation
    HAN Meng-yao, XIONG Jiao, LIU Wei-dong
    2020, 35 (11):  2674-2686.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201109
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    Along with the proposal of "the Belt and Road" Initiative, energy connectivity has become an essential component of China's overseas cooperation. In "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation, it is of great significance to depict and compare the cross-border relations from the dual perspectives of direct energy trade and embodied energy transfers. The main conclusions include: (1) From the direct perspective, countries such as Saudi Arabia and Russia are essential energy importers of China; (2) From the embodied perspective, China provides a large amount of energy-intensive products to countries such as India, Singapore and Thailand within "the Belt and Road" region; (3) China's direct energy trade with "the Belt and Road" region is in deficit, while the embodied energy transfer is in surplus; (4) Through synthetic consideration of direct energy trade and embodied energy transfers, China can further extend the radiating effects of different energy relations, and provide a solid foundation for energy connectivity and cooperation partnership between China and "the Belt and Road" countries.

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    Global liquefied petroleum gas trading communities: An analysis from the perspective of maritime transportation network
    PENG Peng, CHENG Shi-fen, CHEN Shan-shan, LU Feng
    2020, 35 (11):  2687-2695.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201110
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    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) plays a very important role in the global clean energy consumption market. It is transported by vessel between ports, and the ports have formed a series of extremely close-knit trading communities through local dense trade relations. In this study, we build transportation networks based on the global LPG vessel trajectories data from 2013 to 2017, and adopt a community detection method to analyze the characteristics of this type of trading community and evolution trend. The results show that: (1) The ports in the LPG trading community are more closely connected, and the hub ports in different communities are becoming closer over time. (2) The number of ports in each trading community shows an increasing trend, and the ports in the same community are becoming more geographically agglomerated. (3) Communities formed in the Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East, North and West Europe and the Mediterranean region have maintained an important position in the global LPG trade, while those in the Americas have gradually evolved from a relatively isolated community to one that has close ties with other communities over time.

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    Energy Economics and Environment
    System dynamics simulation on China's energy consumption in 2050: Based on the policy scenarios of key industries
    HE Ze, ZHOU Yan-nan, LIU Yi
    2020, 35 (11):  2696-2707.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201111
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    Based on the new trend of world energy development in 2050 and the reality of China's development, how to realize energy transition and ensure oil and gas demand is a major forward-looking issue concerning China's national security. This study simulates the changes in the quantity and structure of primary energy of China based on the policy scenarios of key industries. And it also analyzes the demand of oil and gas in China and its oversea dependence in 2050. The results show that: (1) By implementing the active energy transition policies, the value of primary energy consumption is expected to peak in 2040, with a maximum value of 5755 to 7000 mtce. For different types of energy, coal consumption can reach its peak by 2030, oil consumption will peak in 2040 under both transition scenarios, and natural gas consumption will peak in 2035 under accelerated transition scenario. (2) From the perspective of advancing the transition of the energy structure, China's coal consumption will account for 21% of the total energy amount in 2050 under the transition scenario, and coal will account for less than 10% of total energy consumption by 2050 under the accelerated transition scenario. In both of the transition and the accelerated transition scenarios, oil and gas consumption will account for 30% of China's total energy amount in 2050. If a more active transition policy is implemented, no-fossil energy will be the most important energy sources for China in 2050 in the accelerated transition scenario. (3) High demand and relatively low domestic production of oil/gas will lead to a high level of China's oversea dependence in a mid- and long-term trend. Therefore, the supply of oil and gas to the national energy security in 2050 cannot be ignored based on the policy scenarios of key industries. This research can provide a scientific basis for the policy making of China's energy security.

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    Evolving characteristics and driving mechanism of coal consumption in ChinaBased on the perspective of supply and demand
    WANG Chang-jian, WANG Fei, YE Yu-yao, ZHANG Xin-lin, SU Yong-xian, JIANG Lu, LI Zeng, ZHANG Hong-ou
    2020, 35 (11):  2708-2723.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201112
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    China has been the world's largest energy consumer and carbon dioxide emitter. The evolution trend of China's coal consumption and its driving mechanism have always been a topic of concern to researchers and policy makers. Taking China's total coal consumption of 2.8 billion tons of standard coal in 2013 as the key time point, a comparative analysis of the differences in the dynamics of coal consumption mechanisms has been conducted. An extended LMDI model based on the classical IPAT identity and an input output-structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA) model were adopted to determine the main driving factors for coal consumption in China. The impacts and influences of various factors on coal consumption were different in different development stages. China's coal consumption was mainly driven by the effects of economic growth, energy intensity, industrial structure and energy structure. The slowdown in GDP growth since the economy entered the "New Normal", the in-depth adjustment of the industrial structure and energy structure, and the continuous decline in energy consumption intensity were the key to the decline in total coal consumption since 2013. Based on the demand-side structural decomposition analysis, China's coal consumption was mainly affected by capital formation, exports, and urban household consumption. The embodied coal consumption of Chinese exports has peaked after the global financial crisis in 2007. Coal consumption induced by urban household consumption surpassed export-induced coal consumption in 2017, which became the second largest demand-side driver of China's total coal consumption growth. Based on the perspective of final demand, coal consumption by sectoral industry performed a changing feature of "driven by exports→driven by capital formation→driven by urban household consumption". The industry's coal resource dependence has gradually decreased. China's total coal consumption has entered a peak stage with the maximum value appearing in 2013.

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    Does foreign aid boost energy outward foreign direct investment? Micro-evidence from Chinese firms
    HUANG You-xing, LI Heng-cheng, YANG Yu
    2020, 35 (11):  2724-2743.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201113
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    Using a linked micro-level panel dataset, this paper formally investigates whether Chinese foreign aid stimulates the decisions of energy outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) conducted by Chinese firms. Results show strong evidence that Chinese aid significantly increases the probability of Chinese firms' decisions on energy OFDI in host countries, and the short-term effects are stronger than the accumulative effects. These results are robust with different model specifications. Furthermore, the promoting effects of Chinese foreign aid vary substantially with heterogeneous factors. Specifically, complex and advanced aid forms such as technical aid and export credit, aid for economic infrastructure, energy industry development, and host government finance, as well as the assistance to countries along the Belt and Road, significantly strengthen the promoting effects. This paper provides direct micro-evidence for the promoting effects of Chinese foreign aid on firms' energy OFDI, and also gives policy implications on the aid-driven strategy for stimulating energy OFDI.

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    Public environmental concerns, environmental regulations and energy-intensive industrial dynamics in China
    HUANG Yong-yuan, ZHU Sheng-jun
    2020, 35 (11):  2744-2758.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201114
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    Energy-intensive industries refer to a kind of industry with strong energy dependence and high consumption during the production process. Their economic geography and dynamic evolution have an important impact on China's energy geography and energy security. The production process of energy-intensive industries often consumes a lot of resources and is accompanied by a large number of pollutants, and accelerates the deterioration of the local environment. Since the reform and opening up, energy-intensive exported industries have gathered in the eastern coastal areas of China in consideration of transportation location, industrial linkages and the import of raw materials. From the early 2000s, the rising cost of production has resulted in a new round of industrial transfer. Especially, since the 18th National Congress in 2012, the Chinese government has begun to intensify efforts to rectify air pollution, and residents' demand for a better environment has gradually increased. Therefore, the contradiction between the supply and demand for the good environment has gradually become an important factor affecting the dynamics of energy-intensive industries. At the same time, with the development of multimedia and internet technologies, the public is playing an increasingly important role in environmental governance. So how does public environmental concern affect energy-intensive industries dynamics and will the public environmental concern influence the relationship between environmental regulations and the dynamics of energy-intensive industries? Based on the Baidu index and Chinese Customs Trade Statistics from 2011 to 2016, the Logit model is used to comprehensively discuss the impact of environmental pressures on the dynamics of energy-intensive industries in China. This paper divides environmental pressures into public environmental concerns, formal and informal regulations. The empirical results show that public environmental concerns, formal and informal environmental regulations can lower down the probability of local energy-intensive industries entering, while environmental recommendations and proposals (one indicator of informally environmental regulations) have no significant effect. Besides, in areas with high public environmental concerns, formal and informal environmental regulations have a stronger inhibitory effect on the entry of energy-intensive industries.

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    Regional Energy Geography
    Calculation and evaluation of the comprehensive benefit ratio of clean energy utilization: Taking clean energy heating in Guanzhong Plain as an example
    DING Yue-qing, HONG Zeng-lin, JIN Guang, ZHANG Ya-ge, XUE Xu-ping, YANG Jian-hua
    2020, 35 (11):  2759-2769.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201115
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    With the transformation of China's development mode and energy structure, "double control" of energy consumption and clean and centralized alternative heating by burning coal have become an inevitable trend. The study focuses on efficiency evaluation of clean heating, a dynamic and systematic problem, which involves technical, financial, economic and social evaluation. At present, the evaluation of heating mode generally focuses on the economic and technical perspectives, which, to a certain degree, cannot reflect the deep problems of economy, society, environment and resources. Taking Xi'an as an example, this paper evaluates the air source heat pump, gas-fired boiler and the multi-energy complementary heating scheme based on shallow geothermal energy. By adopting the method of systematic evaluation, based on the DPSIR model, we determined the factor indexes of each subsystem in the evaluation model, constructed the comprehensive performance evaluation index system of clean energy heating, and calculated the single-level and comprehensive evaluation values of each subsystem of clean energy heating by using the grey relational degree model of AHP-POS, and analyzed the relationship and interaction mechanism of the influencing factors.

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    Spatial flow pattern and optimization of Sinopec's first distribution of refined oil of Jiangsu province
    YANG Zu-ying, ZHAO Yuan, ZHOU Hao, PAN Jia-qing, CUI Jin-shan
    2020, 35 (11):  2770-2782.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201116
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    Based on detailed and accurate statistical data of the government and enterprises, this paper studied the spatial flow pattern and optimization of Sinopec's first distribution of refined oil of Jiangsu province. In this study, we used the methods of Geographical Network Analysis and Linear Programming to calculate the unit oil transportation cost, combined with the optimized scenario construction and the comparative analysis of distribution pattern of refined oil. Then, we systematically analyzed the spatial flow pattern and optimized configuration of first distribution of refined oil, and attempted to explore its geographical network structure in theory, in the perspectives of allocation benefits and spatial structure. The results show that: (1) The cost under the optimization scenario is reduced by about 30% compared with the actual situation in 2017, indicating that the primary distribution benefit of Sinopec Jiangsu refined oil is not fully optimized. (2) Theoretically, according to the principle of "nearby allocation" of refined oil, different refining enterprises distribute the refined oil with lower unit oil transportation cost within their respective optimization scenario boundaries. (3) In fact, due to the differences in refining capacity of refineries, imperfect product oil transportation channels and different distribution center oil depots, there are relatively optimized scenario boundaries or large or small actual oil transportation boundaries between different refineries, and there are some distribution center oil depots (mixed oil transportation regions) that simultaneously accept the product oil of different refineries. We hope to further reveal the basic laws of spatial flow of refined oil, and provide decision-making advice from the field of economic geography for the current national market-oriented reform of refined oil and the preparation of national pipeline company.

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    The de-coal process and its driving forces in Beijing
    YANG Min, ZHANG Peng-peng, ZHANG Li-xiao, HAO Yan
    2020, 35 (11):  2783-2792.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201117
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    De-coal process has been not only the significant energy transition path, but also the key result of that. After more than 20 years of efforts, coal consumption in Beijing has been effectively controlled. This study systematically analyzed the dynamic changes of coal consumption in Beijing from 1995 to 2017 and used the LMDI method to decompose the changes in coal consumption from 2005 to 2017. The results showed that: (1) Coal consumption began to decline in 2005, reaching 3.5 million tce in 2017 or a decrease of 84%, which means that the effect of de-coal process was remarkable. (2) In terms of driving factors, except the economic scale effect, the other three drivers had negative effects on the growth of coal consumption. In the early stage of de-coal process, economic structure adjustment played an important role in curbing coal consumption, and the change of energy structure drove the later de-coal process. (3) From the perspective of different sectors, the improvements of energy intensity and energy structure in the sector of electricity and hot water production and supply, and the relocation of metallurgy were the main contributor to the decline of coal consumption in Beijing. (4) Beijing's de-coal process had some reference values for other cities in China, but it cannot be blindly copied because of its own special characteristics.

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    Household energy consumption characteristics of the Tus ethnic group in the northeast of the Tibetan Plateau
    LI Hong-qing, XING Ran, JIANG Lu, CHEN Xing-peng, XUE Bing
    2020, 35 (11):  2793-2802.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201118
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    Energy plays an important role in social and economic development. Household energy consumption behavior has a wide range of connections with regional or global social ecosystems, and has significant spatial and social differences under the influence of culture and geography. China is a country with multi-ethnic groups. The ethnic areas in China have different characteristics in terms of production and lifestyle, climate conditions, cultural traditions, and other aspects and also show certain characteristics in the consumption of living energy. However, the research on the energy geography of ethnic minority groups' households is still on the initial stage and lacks a first-hand data survey. Based on the special geographical characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau, this study focused on the 100 Tu's households in Qinghai province and carried out field investigations. From the perspective of overall investigation and income-based groups, we compared the characteristics of their household energy consumption, calculated the environmental effects, constructed an energy flow model, and visualized the household energy consumption input-out flow. The survey results show that the per capita energy consumption of Tu households is 3473 kgce, and the energy resources are mainly coal, firewood, straw, and cow-dung. By comparison, we found that the energy consumption of low-income households is 3485 kgce, while that of high-income households is 3974 kgce. As income levels rise, the energy consumption structure gradually changes to diversification, and the importance of energy gradually turns from biomass energy to commodity energy. The survey shows that the convenience of household energy access is listed in a discending order of electricity, straw, animal dung, fuelwood, solar energy, coal, gasoline/diesel, and liquefied gas. The per capita greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of households are 1872.21 kg, of which CO2, N2O, CH4, NOX, SO2 and TSP are 1856.87 kg, 117.10 g, 295.14 g, 254.46 g, 451.87 g and 520.74 g, respectively. In the future, the Tibetan Plateau region should enhance the use of clean energy, and promote the sustainable transformation of regional household energy consumption. The research results are expected to provide scientific support for the clean energy transformation and sustainable development on the Tibetan Plateau.

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    Expert Interview
    Interview on the unprecedented changes of energy geopolitics and national energy security
    YANG Yu, YU Hong-yuan, LU Gang, WANG Li-mao, ZHAO Yuan, HAO Li-sha, REN Dong-ming, FANG Wei, AN Hai-zhong, CAI Guo-tian
    2020, 35 (11):  2803-2820.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201119
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    In the context of unprecedented changes of energy geopolitics, China's current energy situation is becoming increasingly complex, and energy security has become a major strategy for national economic development. Under the new situation, not only the scientific issues, research objects, and research methods of the world energy geography and national energy security at the interdisciplinary perspective, but also the global energy governance system and international energy cooperation based on the actual needs of China are worth discussion among experts and scholars. This article uses the form of "question and answer (Q&A)" to provide a panoramic view of the host and nine academic interviewees based on different perspectives. Experts express their opinions in a range of content, including energy security and global energy governance model, the challenges and countermeasures of China's energy security, the new changes of global energy geopolitics, the energy security under the geographical pattern of unequal world energy production and consumption space, the high-quality development of China's energy under the trend of global low-carbon transformation, changes in the global energy supply and demand pattern affected by major public health emergencies, and future research prospects and important research directions of energy geography. We hope that a certain consensus can be reached, so as to better promote the development of the discipline of world energy geography, as well as actively respond to issues such as the unprecedented change of energy geopolitics and national energy security.

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