The construction of ecological civilization is an important national strategy in China, and the Qinling Mountains play a strategic position in the construction of ecological civilization in China. To clearly understand the existing problems and paths of ecological civilization construction in the Qinling-Daba Mountains, nine well-known researchers from different fields were invited in an interview on cutting-edge research topics in the Qinling Mountains. The interview covered such topics as ecological patterns and geographic processes, scientific investigations, rural revitalization, and water resources protection. The results of the interview show that: to gain a better understanding of the important value of the study area and to carry out the ecological protection and sustainable development in the New Era, it is necessary to understand the ecological and environmental effects of the North-South Transitional Zone of China, reveal the ecosystem service functions, emphasize the pivotal role in maintaining national ecological security, and conduct research on ecological protection and restoration of the Qinling Mountains. It is significant to continuously monitor the ecological functions, build an intelligent monitoring system integrating "Space-Air-Ground", continue to carry out comprehensive scientific investigations, pay attention to major scientific propositions, discover the unique geographical phenomena and laws of the Qinling Mountains, and form a scientific data sharing mechanism and platform to support regional scientific research and decision support. Under the new mobility paradigm, we should look at the resettlement project from a dynamic perspective, focus on the livelihoods of different groups and types of immigrants, and solve immigration problems through a diversified security system. In the context of climate change, it is necessary to attach importance to the response of the Qinling Mountains to climate change and human activities, strengthen the construction of regional transportation infrastructure, find out the law of evolution and changing trend of Qinling Mountains' water resources, and to carry out systematic management to ensure long-term and safe supply of water resources, and promote sustainable social and economic development.
This paper summarizes the research process of rural tourism in China through systematic literature review, which contains three stages: primary application research (1992-2005), diversified expansion research (2006-2015), and integration deepening research (2016-), as well as analyzes the background and research value orientation of each stage. Based on the analysis of knowledge map by CiteSpace, it reveals the changing process and characteristics of research topics. Combining the rural revitalization strategy and tourism development needs in the New Era, the research expounds the basic characteristics of rural tourism, constructs the research framework of rural tourism in the New Era, puts forward the main scientific issues, and proposes the research trends and academic innovations of rural tourism research. Moreover, the research emphasizes that rurality and recreation constitute the fundamental characteristics of rural tourism. Future research should focus on the national strategy and high-quality development requirements of the New Era, as well as keeping up with the international academic frontiers. Meanwhile, based on the local practice of rural tourism research in China, relevant research should concentrate on the "five-sphere integrated plan" basic framework for rural tourism, taking industry, ecology, culture, governance, and livelihood as the core elements. Under this research framework, it is essential to focus on the rural area system with its complexity and key tourism scientific issues, to strengthen research platforms and professional talents, to integrate multidisciplinary theories and technology methods, as well as to reinforce the ideas of data-driven and science-technology energization. It is also necessary to reveal the process, patten, mechanism, and rule of rural revitalization pushed by rural tourism in a deep-going way, to explore the development model and path of rural tourism revitalization with distinct Chinese characteristics, to continuously promote the deepening of theoretical research, practical application innovation and the development of rural tourism discipline, besides, to improve the academic research, innovation ability, service value, and internalization level of rural tourism.
The scientific evaluation of urban-rural integration is the core content of urban-rural integration, and it is the foundation for establishing and improving the institutional mechanism of urban-rural integration. Based on the logical line of "connotation identification-theoretical analysis-system reconstruction", this paper carries out the review of urban-rural integration evaluation including concept connotation, theoretical basis, evaluation index, evaluation method, evaluation scale, spatio-temporal differentiation, and mechanism analysis. At present, the academic understanding of the connotation of urban-rural integration is basically the same. The evaluation index selection of urban-rural integration shows multidimensional and multi-attribute characteristics, but the index system construction has not broken through the static characteristics. Quantitative evaluation method is relatively simple. Generally, current research still remains at the macro scale, but lacks quantitative research from a micro perspective and comparative studies of different fusion modes. The spatial and temporal differentiation pattern and its mechanism of urban-rural integration need to be further deepened. Finally, this paper puts forward five prospects: (1) strengthening the construction of basic theory system and perfecting system research framework; (2) optimizing the multidimensional evaluation index system and identifying the development model of urban-rural integration; (3) deepening the flow mechanism of urban and rural elements and promoting the balanced development of urban and rural space; (4) strengthening the exploration of micro-scale details and improving the promoting mechanism of urban-rural integration; (5) strengthening the empowering role of the digital economy and innovating the development mechanism of high-quality urban-rural integration.
This paper explored the characteristics of intercity human mobility and the 'negative effects' of massive intercity population movement in China by using mobile internet positioning big data. Two travel periods of Baidu Migration data were selected involving Spring Festival and usual travel time. Based on two mobility indicators, i.e., movement scale and movement scope, the spatial characteristics of intercity population movement were measured by local spatial autocorrelation. With a vital public health emergency, linear regression models were used to measure the differences in the negative effects of the national intercity population movement on different cities and urban agglomerations in China. It is found that three major urban agglomerations, namely, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, are the most significant high-value clustering area of mobility in China. Urban agglomerations and megacities are accompanied by higher risks of negative effects for their super mobility. First, the megacity-centered urban agglomeration will have a more significant negative consequence when it is affected by the negative effects of intercity mobility. Second, the megacity-centered urban agglomeration will significantly spread the negative effects through intercity mobility. It is proposed that the security of urban agglomeration should firstly guarantee the security of mobility. The security of urban agglomerations should be reflected in the resilience of intercity mobility networks. In the process of new urbanization, the development strategy of urban agglomerations needs to focus on the mobility and security of urban agglomerations from the perspective of territory spatial security.
Propagation simulation is an important way to recognize the resilience of network structure from a dynamic perspective. Exploring the relationship between the difference in network structure and the state of network propagation is of great significance to the improvement of network structure resilience and the optimization of territory development space. This paper constructs four typical urban network models: nearest neighbor network, small world network, scale-free network and random network. Using complex network theory and SIS virus propagation model, MATLAB and Gephi are used to simulate infectious diseases, and the four types of networks are analyzed. The variation characteristics of infection quantity and infection time under the difference of network shape, node scale and degree value, and the influence mechanism are discussed. The results showed that: (1) From the perspective of overall characteristics, the difference in network structure affects the strength of network propagation. The heterogeneity value distribution, highly local clustering, and short path length of irregular network will expand the scale of infection and shorten the time of infection. (2) From the perspective of decomposition characteristics, scale is not the core factor affecting network communication. High degree of urban network with power law distribution is the risk of regional and urban suppression of negative transmission. (3) From the perspective of spatio-temporal characteristics, heterogeneous network and regular network have the dual characteristics of robustness and fragility. The advantages of heterogeneous network in peacetime and the advantages of regular network in epidemic time should be fully developed through network switching. Based on this, the resilience optimization strategy of land development space network structure is proposed from the regional and urban levels.
Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands is of vital importance for sustainably utilizing natural capital and coordinating ecosystem services supplies and demands. According to the previous research on ecosystem services at home and abroad, the research framework of the relationships among ecosystem services supplies and demands was put forward in this study. Within this framework, the formation mechanisms and representations of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands were explained, the basic characteristics of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands were summarized, and the potential research focuses were proposed, which could provide a guidance for the studies on the ecosystem services and the governance of ecosystem services. In general, there were two non-exclusive mechanisms that formed the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands. On the basis of these formation mechanisms, the representations of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands included bundles, trade-offs, synergies and no-effect relationships. In terms of the characteristics, the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands could be spatially heterogeneous, temporally variable and scale dependent. The construction and evaluation of indexes, statistical analysis of indicators, development and simulation of scenarios, and spatial mappings and analysis were the four main methods to study the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands.
Food consumption is the primary way to get access to the basically-needed energy and nutrition for human being. Our investigation was conducted in Zhengzhou city, one of the provincial cities in central China, by a 3-consecutive-day household weighting survey. We gained a first-hand dataset consisting of 309 urban households in Zhengzhou and their food consumption data. Our research reveals that: (1) Urban households in the study city held a 372.32 g of food consumption for each meal per capita, which was dominated by plant-based foods (277.12 g). The ratio between plant-based foods and animal foods was 3∶1. (2) Among the three urban districts, Huiji consumed more sea food and fruits compared with Erqi and Jinshui. The per capita consumption of staple foods and vegetables for households in the city tended to decrease as annual per capita income rose, while that of fruits, seafood and dairy increased. Households with a smaller population consumed more food per capita compared with those with a larger population. (3) Furthermore, the comparison of research results and the general dietary guidelines indicated that the dietary pattern of urban households in Zhengzhou need to be further adjusted. Briefly, their meats consumption far exceeded the recommended upper threshold, while the consumption of dairy products and fruits did not reach the recommended anount. In the following application of "Health China" and other relevant national strategies, we should continue to highlight the urban household food consumption, promote and diversify the content and form of nutrition & health education in communities and families. The excessive meat consumption needs to be reduced in a reasonable range, and the high-nutrition foods should be expanded and encouraged.
As a typical cultural phenomenon throughout the progress and development of modern and contemporary Chinese society, the writing, construction, inheritance and other topics of red memory at the macro level have been widely concerned and discussed. However, the research on red memory on the individual level is relatively deficient and requires to be promoted. Therefore, this paper takes Yan'an urban core area, which is rich in red resources, as a case study. With the help of generation research method, through in-depth interviews with 36 local residents, this paper interprets the red memory differences among three generations of Yan'an urban residents, and explores the "macro-micro" construction path and results of red memory. The results show that the macro level of memory elements mining, narrative expression and resource activation construct the coding, selection and consolidation process of residents' red memory, promote the local residents to generate red memory content with characteristics of the times, and finally construct the authoritative, functional and reflective red memory system of the old, middle and young generations. The results reflect the significance of the social forces of memory construction and the changing times in shaping the content of individual memory, and provide a theoretical reference for standardizing the practice of red memory and promoting the inheritance of red memory.
Taking Jinggang Mountain Scenic Area as a case, this study collected and analyzed the travel notes of this scenic area from Mafengwo.com. We adopt big data analysis and qualitative text analysis methods and introduce the theory of value co-creation to explore the value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development from three dimensions (resources, practices and values). The results show that the value co-creation resources of red tourism scenic spots include historical and cultural heritages, natural landscape resources and iconic landscape symbols. Through practical activities including red culture experience, learning and training activities, and interpretation service experience, tourists gain knowledge of red history and culture, build an emotional connection with red culture and form the values of patriotism and identification with the country. This verifies the realization of the educational function of red tourism. On the other hand, the existing value co-creation practice of red tourist attractions is still limited. The value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development constructed in this study integrates the demand of tourists, the support service of scenic spots, and the possible value co-creation practice, which has practical significance for improving the participation of tourists and realizing the value co-creation of red tourist attractions.
The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 figured out that the territorial space optimization was the primary task of the ecological civilization construction and to make production space intensive and efficient, living space livable and suitable, ecological space. This study systematically reviews the recent advances for the overall optimization of production space, living space and ecological space (PLES) by the method of literature review and summary induction. It is concluded that the present studies of the overall optimization of PLES were mainly carried out from the perspective of the utilization quality of land space, land suitability evaluation, resource environmental bearing-capacity and comparative advantage. But because of the short of recognition of the scientific intension of PLES and the incompleteness of quantitative identification and classification system construction, there are still problems that the technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES may still have to overcome. The technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES should build the theoretical basis and technical system of PLES identification and optimization aiming for Beautiful China Initiative by the theory of human-earth coupled systems. On the theoretical level, the initiative should give full consideration to the mechanism of material and energy transfer within the PLES system and the parsing of the transfer pathway, flow process and metabolic mechanism of water, soil, energy, carbon and other key elements of PLES system by the combination of the resource metabolism theory and the geographical pattern of PLES. On the technological level, it should pay attention to the development and application of the system simulation model and the multi-objective optimization model, and synthetically consider the dynamic mechanism between population, resources, environment and land space elements, and combine the results of evolution rule and the conflict and problem diagnosis of PLES, and consequently to achieve the overall optimization of PLES by the design of different scenarios and parameters.
Based on the principle of ecosystem integrity, the establishment of protected areas is the most effective measure for biodiversity conservation. The "Half Earth" target addresses that the global protected area should account for 50% of the total surface area, and 85% of the global species should be effectively protected. We consider the target as a proper goal of the international biodiversity conservation, especially the proportion of species protected. Although there exists a worldwide recognized classification of protected areas developed by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), such classification cannot exactly tell us the proper locations and distributions of protected areas, and most of the existing protected areas are still the result of subjective judgment and selection. Based on various protection objects and identification criteria, many researchers have defined some conservation priorities around the world in the past few years, all of which could be regarded as valuable examples of scientific identification of protected areas, to provide some efficient references. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis of these conservation priorities, including their protection objects, identification criteria and distributions, this paper draws the following conclusions: (1) Species, habitat integrity and human activities are the main considerations when such conservation priorities were proposed, and the identification criteria include species richness (species abundance), habitat transformation and human activity intensity. Nowadays, with the international focus and research on protected areas going further, the integration of criteria has gradually become a new trend in the identification of protected areas. (2) The consideration of habitat transformation includes two different ideas: "mending for the past", which means that the habitats which have been transformed much should be protected, or "preparing for the future", which means the habitats that still remain original should be protected in case of being transformed, whereas the human activities can be direct or indirect. (3) The distributions of conservation priorities are quite different, with their proportions ranging from 5.77% to 25.32%, and the total distribution area accounts for 55.59% of the global land, exceeding the "Half Earth" target.
Resources and environment carrying capacity evaluation and spatial development suitability evaluation (referred to as "Double Evaluation") are considered as scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper analyzes and summarizes the "Double Evaluation" work in current spatial planning. The "Double Evaluation" plays an active role, but it has many problems, including insufficient recognition on the scientific nature and internal mechanisms of resources and environment carrying capacity and spatial development suitability, imperfect evaluation methods and application system, and so on. This paper intends to put forward the realistic needs of spatial planning under the concept of ecological civilization. And it is necessary to improve the scientific logic, technical logic and application logic of "Double Evaluation", so that we can improve the scientificity and practicability of "Double Evaluation". At the same time, it should be recognized that essential problems of spatial planning are wicked problems as "Double Evaluation" can only play a limited rational role. We should solve such problems through communication and cooperation so as to avoid falling into the misunderstanding of technical rationality.
Eating habits has always been considered as an important factor in food waste. This paper takes 29 universities, all in different provincial-level regions, as study cases to explore the factors that affect students' wasting behavior. Based on a questionnaire survey of 9192 college students, this paper focuses on the impact of North-South differences on individual food waste behavior, and attempts to answer: Southerners and Northerners, who are more likely to waste food, who waste more food? The results show that compared with the northern native college students, the probability of food waste in the students of the southern region is higher, and the food waste and food waste rate of the students of the southern origins in the college cafeteria are higher than those of the northern students. In order to verify whether the difference in diet patterns between the "rice" model in the south and the "wheat" model in the north is the main reason for the above phenomenon, this paper confirms that the difference between the north and the south diet patterns is the key reason for the fact that the southerners waste more food than the northerners through the mediation effect model. This paper further matches the individual's North-South origin and the North-South position of the colleges and universities. Based on the mode of "Southern students studying in the South", we found that the "Southern tudents going to school in the North" mode has a lower probability of food waste, waste amount and food waste rate. However, under the "Northern students going to school in the South" mode, individuals did not have a low probability of food waste, the weight of waste and food waste rate. Therefore, this paper confirms that the southerners are more wasteful of food than the northerners. And it is proved that the mainstream diet pattern in the north and the south is the leading driving force to the difference in waste.
Ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin is one of the major national strategies, in which urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development are the intrinsic requirements and fundamental guarantees. Thus, revealing the path of the river basin scale urban agglomeration development and industrial transformation and upgrading is of great significance to guide the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, this paper brings together scholars from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Institute for Eco-civilization, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Capital University of Economics and Business, Peking University and Henan University, to discuss key issues on urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of ecological protection, resource allocation, dynamic evolution, spatial structure, and integration and regulation. This paper aims to serve the major national stragety of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. The core views are as follows, regulating the relationship among water resources, urban agglomeration and industrial development is the key to promoting the coordination of industrial transformation and urban transformation, and the synchronized advances of economic transformation and social transformation;the analysis of the complex coupling and dynamic evolution mechanism of river basin ecological protection and high-quality development is of great significance for achieving high-quality development of the basin; it is an effective way to promote the high-quality development of the basin to reveal the evolution mechanism of typical urban agglomeration and industrial space and to construct the spatial integration target and mode of urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development; under the background of increasing uncertainty of trade caused by globalization and energy revolution, complex relationship between social economy and ecological environment, and the construction of a new development pattern of "dual circulation", the basin urgently needs a more comprehensive integrated regulation mechanism.
Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035) (hereinafter referred to as The Plan) is the first comprehensive plan involving ecosystem protection and restoration after the 19th National Congress of the CPC (2017), which plays a significant strategic and guiding role in undertaking related tasks. The promulgation of The Plan, accomplished by the Chinese government departments concerned, is a successful beginning for jointly arranging major projects in natural resources across departments, disciplines and regions. Recently, some critical contents relating to The Plan, such as the opportunities and challenges of implementation, were discussed by seven experts from Consulting and Research Center of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The key opinions are as follows. In order to work efficiently guided by The Plan, its four main characteristics need to be especially concerned, including systematic and continued deployment; strategic and coordinating policies; objectives-problems dual oriented tasks; and scientific and specific methods. Meanwhile, it is necessary to deal with three kinds of crucial relationships about aims and assignments properly, which are ecosystem protection and utilization, ecosystem restoration and ecological compensation, ecosystem protection and controls on territory use. Besides, seven valued aspects are still worthy to be deeply pondered and some suggestions are proposed, including: establishing diversified financing mechanism, clarifying responsibility of different entities carrying on ecological protection and restoration, formulating related systematic technical standards, strengthening databases and information platforms, optimizing territory use control regulation to adapt to the major projects of The Plan, coordinating ecological protection and natural resources especially energy resources exploitation, reinforcing early basic and comprehensive investigation and later strict surveillance as well. In addition, it is requisite to monitor and evaluate the executive conditions of The Plan and other supporting policies, so as to adjust and improve The Plan in time, which is beneficial to fulfill tasks and achieve goals.
Due to the particularity of natural environment and geographical location, the human settlement environment of the Yellow River Basin is in a complex process of constant changes and is always facing severe challenges. The coupling process of human environment space with natural and social elements originates from the dynamic, comprehensive and systematic adaptation mechanism presented in the process of human-land relationship change, so revealing the system adaptation mechanism is the key to solve the human environment dilemma in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, based on the perspective of "locality and adaptability", this paper invited experts and scholars from Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong along the Yellow River and other provinces. They interpreted the characteristics of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of natural geography, social economy, urban and rural development, and heritage protection, and sought sustainable strategies to adapt to China's new urbanization path. The main points are stated as follows: On the whole, the adaptability of human settlements in the study area has multi-scale spatial correlation and historical geographic dependence. The Yellow River Basin has an important ecological function, but the natural environment in different regions is facing such problems as land salinization, soil erosion and pollution, etc., so it is necessary to promote the greening of human-land coupling relationship. The Yellow River Basin, especially the cities along the upper reaches of the river, have distinct characteristics of openness, ethnic cultural diversity and integration. Due to the complex natural environment, caves and other special settlements have been formed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. In the process of rapid urbanization, they are faced with transformation and disappearance, retaining the cultural genes of traditional settlements, and it is urgent to classify and treat them differently to promote their healthy evolution. The internal and external radiation drive of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin is the foundation of high-quality development throughout the river basin, and the optimization and upgrading of urban structure is an important way to promote high-quality development. To achieve sustainable development, scientific and technological innovation and industrial structure transformation and upgrading are also needed.
The Hehuang Valley in the upper reaches of the Yellow River is one of the areas with a long history of human activities, and it is the westernmost part of cultivated land reclamation along the Yellow River. The reconstruction of settlements and cultivated land has practical significance for the study of human activities and global change in this basin. In this paper, a database of settlements and cultivated land in the Hehuang Valley in the late Northern Song Dynasty (1117) was established by combing a large number of historical documents. Based on the spatial distribution of settlements, the grid model was used to reconstruct the cultivated land pattern of the study area with an accuracy of 1 km×1 km. The results show that: (1) The settlements in the Hehuang Valley in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in the late Northern Song Dynasty are concentrated in alluvial and proluvial plains along the main stream of the Yellow River and Huangshui River with relatively low altitude and gentle slope, and the "City" is mainly distributed in the mountain pass in the relatively low altitude area, highlighting its defense function; "States and Castles" are mostly distributed along rivers with relatively flat terrain and relatively geo-safe; however, "Villages" are scattered along the tributaries of rivers, showing the characteristics of disorderly development. (2) The total cultivated land area in the Hehuang Valley is estimated to be about 304.67 km2, with only 16.16% of the grids distributed with cultivated land and only 24.16% of the grids with the highest reclamation rate, among which 74.06% are distributed in the Huangshui Valley and 25.94% along the main stream of the Yellow River, indicating that cultivated land reclamation in the late Northern Song Dynasty is mainly concentrated in the Huangshui River Basin. (3) From the altitude of settlement distribution, 78.09% of the cultivated land grids are distributed in the area of flat terrain with water below 2600 m above sea level, and 21.91% of the grids are distributed in the shallow mountains between 2600 m and 3200 m, indicating that the cultivated land range was not large at that time, and the altitude greatly restricted the expansion of cultivated land, which was mainly distributed in areas with superior irrigation conditions. (4) Rebuilding the spatial pattern of cultivated land based on settlement accords with the fact that cultivated land is distributed with settlements, which is more reliable.
Water resources is the basic strategic resource. It is of great significance to conduct research on water resources of countries along the Belt and Road for promoting the scientific construction of the Belt and Road. Based on the World Bank and the FAO Water Resources Databases, we started from the perspective of water exploitation and utilization, analyzed the natural endowment and utilization status of water resources of countries along the Belt and Road, and further explored the water resources exploitation potential status. The results showed that: (1) In terms of water endowment, the surface water, groundwater and total water resources were relatively high in Russia, China, Southeast Asia and South Asia, while they were relatively low in Central Asia and West Asia. The per capita water resource was relatively high in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia and Southeast Asia, while it was relatively low in West Asia and South Asia. The external water dependency rate was high in the downstream of transboundary rivers, while it was low in the upstream of transboundary rivers and island countries. (2) In terms of water utilization, the water consumption was higher in the east than in the west of the Belt and Road region, the per capita water consumption was the highest in Central Asia and it was low in the surrounding areas. In terms of water use structure, agricultural water was dominant in Asian countries, while industrial water was dominant in Central and Eastern Europe countries. (3) In terms of water resources exploitation potential, the exploitation potential of countries in the Arabian Peninsula was extremely low, and it was extremely high in Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia.
The "Belt and Road" Initiative is the inevitable result of globalization in the new era. As an important strategic resource, food production research is of great significance to regional and global food security. By a quantitative analysis of cereals production, planting area, yield and planting structure, the spatial-temporal patterns and regional differences of countries along the "Belt and Road" were revealed based on time-series data of nearly 40 years. The results showed that: (1) The countries along the "Belt and Road" were important cereals production areas, and the production accounted for 50% to 60% of the world total. A constant growth trend of cereals production was showed during 1977-2016. Per capita cereals production has increased with much difference at country level during 1995-2016, which means the man-grain relationship has been gradually improved and the regional food security has increased. (2) There were obvious regional differences in cereals production in countries along the "Belt and Road", and the spatial pattern was relatively stable. China, India and Russia were high cereals production countries. Cereals production in countries in Southeast and South Asia was generally high, while that in the Arabian Peninsula was relatively low. (3) Rice, wheat and maize were major cereal crops in countries along the "Belt and Road", and rice contributed the most to the total production. The proportions of rice and wheat were relatively stable, but that of maize was increasing. Meanwhile, the regional distribution characteristics of the three major crops were also obvious.