Various types of national development zones have acted as test fields of China's reform and opening-up and an important carrier of rapid economic development over the past 40 years. The spatial distribution of national development zones has always been a hot topic in domestic and international academic communities. Spatial evolution is an important basis for understanding the spatial evolution of Chinese economy, but little attention was paid to it before. Using nearest neighbor analysis, kernel density estimation and geodetector methods, this article summarized the spatial evolution process and driving factors of national development zones. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. The spatio-temporal evolution of national development zones has gone through three stages: pilot phase, steady phase and accelerated phase. Policies and governance have been promoted from pilot areas to the rest of the country. In terms of spatial distribution, the evolution process is from the east coast to the river, border, then inland, from Eastern China to the central and western regions, and from provincial capitals to prefecture-level cities. The evolution is the result of the interaction of factors such as distance, city level, economic development level and openness. Among them, city level, openness and economic development level are the core driving factors, while distance and economic density are the secondary driving factors. Different types of national development zones have generalities and differences due to their function and orientation.
The improvement of a system of natural resource asset rights is the basis and prerequisite for carrying out unified registration of natural resources and confirmation of rights, advancing the accounting of natural resource assets, and compiling the balance sheet of natural resources. Based on the principal-agent theory, this article attempts to construct a new era natural resource asset property rights system with Chinese characteristics in accordance with the logic of "institutional failures-lag in market construction-inefficient government regulation-hierarchical agency-three-power separation design". The study found that the failure to arrange the property rights of natural resources assets, the lag in the construction of the property rights market, the weakening of the principal-agent mechanism, and the imbalance of resource supervision are the main obstacles to the effective use of natural resources. Establishing a "Three Rights Separation" property rights system for natural resource assets, through the coupling of the functional decomposition of the property rights of natural resource assets and the management mechanism, is conducive to clarifying relationships between the rights, responsibilities, and benefits of owners, agents and users of natural resources.
The rise of sharing accommodation is an important driving force for the structural reform of the supply side of the urban tourism industry. It is of great significance to scientifically understand its spatio-temporal pattern and driving factors for the development of urban tourism. Based on the information on sharing accommodation listings in nine national-level central cities of China through the Airbnb website, this study uses the spatial analysis methods such as standard deviational ellipse and DBSCAN clustering algorithm to analyze the spatial and temporal evolution pattern of houses, and to explore influencing factors of the spatial distribution of housing listings with the geodetector. The results show that: (1) From 2015 to 2017, the spatial pattern of sharing accommodation in national central cities changed rapidly, and the overall situation was in a period of rapid development. From 2017 to 2019, the spatial pattern tended to be stable, which was in a steady growth period. (2) The development of sharing accommodation in national central cities has a spatial and temporal dependence, and the clustering centers continue to increase with time. The sharing accommodation in most cities gradually expands around the city. The spatial and temporal differences between clustering centers in the three regions of the Eastern, Central and Western China are obvious. (3) From the perspective of development direction and the number of high-level clustering centers, the sharing accommodation in national central cities includes four-sided and "single-to-multiple" directions, as well as "0-1", "X-1" and "1-X" evolutionary models. (4) Business, transportation, population and other factors have a greater impact on the spatial pattern of sharing accommodation in national central cities, and there are significant differences in the intensity and significance of the influencing factors between regions and cities. Among them, catering, leisure, shopping, residential quarters, etc. have become the main factors driving the formation of sharing accommodation space.
This study uses the 16 groups (87 protected areas in 10 countries) of China involved in the Global List of Transboundary Nature Reserves published by UNEP-WCMC in 2007 as data sources. By analyzing the laws of its spatial distribution pattern, the evaluation system's overall framework is constructed from four aspects: ecological integrity, governance structure matching, institutional and cultural differences, spatial distance, and transportation. It is further decomposed into nine indicators to establish an indicator system of the potential for cross-border cooperation between border protected areas and Chinese nature reserves. Delphi and AHP are used to quantitatively and empirically analyze relevant indicators. The results show that the most concentrated distribution of protected areas in the border area is adjacent to Heilongjiang province and Russia. The Himalayas and Karakorum Mountains are areas with good ecosystem integrity that bear essential ecological functions and are protected by neighboring countries. Five regions with high potential for future cross-border cooperation were initially selected: China (Xingkai Lake)-Russia, China (Xishuangbanna)-Laos, China (Tashkurgan)-Pakistan, China (Qomolangma)-Nepal and India, China (Baitou Mountain)-DPRK and Russia. This study put forward the difficulties and recommended cross-border cooperation measures and can provide a method reference for cross-border cooperation of China's border protection areas.
In this paper, the impact of global climate warming on energy consumption of winter heating was systematically analyzed by using M-K mutation test and linear trend analysis based on the homogenized daily mean temperature derived from 77 meteorological observation stations in Anhui province during 1971-2018. The results showed that in the past 48 years, winter mean temperature showed a significant upward trend, while the beginning date of winter heating was delayed and the ending date advanced obviously. Meanwhile, the length of winter heating had been shortened and heating intensity presented an observably decreasing trend. The abrupt change in winter mean temperature was observed in 1989, and then entered the warming channel. Therefore, the research sequence was divided into the baseline period (1971-1989) and the warming period (1990-2018). Compared with the baseline period, the length of winter heating in the warming period was shortened in spatial consistency, and change range gradually decreased from northeast to southwest, with the maximum over the north of Anhui province and the east of Jiang-Huai region and the minimum over two mountainous areas (Dabie Mountain and the mountainous areas of southern Anhui). The heating intensity decreased on the whole and with a larger decrease in the northern part and a smaller decrease in the southern part. The contribution rates of climate warming on the energy saving for heating in winter were 3.6%-8.9%, with the high value in the north of Anhui, the northern Jiang-Huai region and the eastern Yangtze River Basin, while the low value areas were mainly located in the two mountainous areas.
In the context of national park system reform, the establishment of a national park-based nature reserve system is a series of requirements for the optimization and integration of nature reserves in China. Currently, Fujian province has been optimizing and integrating nature reserves, and Taining county is one of the most complicated areas overlapped with nature reserves in this province. Therefore, the paper takes this county as the research object, and constructs three optimized and integrated scenario planning schemes as follows based on field surveys and expert opinions: (1) Maintain the status without integration; (2) Integrate with Taining National Geopark as the main body; (3) Integrate with Taining National Park as the main body. In comparision of the cost-benefit of the three schemes, it can be concluded that: Scheme 3 shows the highest existence and usage value and a moderate cost; Scheme 1 shows a moderate maintenance value and the lowest cost; Scheme 2 shows the lowest value and the highest cost. The research provides ideas and technical support for the optimization and integration of nature reserves at the county and city levels in Fujian province, as well as references for the boundary optimization of nature reserves at home and abroad.
Food consumption is the primary way to get access to the basically-needed energy and nutrition for human being. Our investigation was conducted in Zhengzhou city, one of the provincial cities in central China, by a 3-consecutive-day household weighting survey. We gained a first-hand dataset consisting of 309 urban households in Zhengzhou and their food consumption data. Our research reveals that: (1) Urban households in the study city held a 372.32 g of food consumption for each meal per capita, which was dominated by plant-based foods (277.12 g). The ratio between plant-based foods and animal foods was 3∶1. (2) Among the three urban districts, Huiji consumed more sea food and fruits compared with Erqi and Jinshui. The per capita consumption of staple foods and vegetables for households in the city tended to decrease as annual per capita income rose, while that of fruits, seafood and dairy increased. Households with a smaller population consumed more food per capita compared with those with a larger population. (3) Furthermore, the comparison of research results and the general dietary guidelines indicated that the dietary pattern of urban households in Zhengzhou need to be further adjusted. Briefly, their meats consumption far exceeded the recommended upper threshold, while the consumption of dairy products and fruits did not reach the recommended anount. In the following application of "Health China" and other relevant national strategies, we should continue to highlight the urban household food consumption, promote and diversify the content and form of nutrition & health education in communities and families. The excessive meat consumption needs to be reduced in a reasonable range, and the high-nutrition foods should be expanded and encouraged.
How to widen the application of the principle and method of main functional areas governance and effectively improve the effect of territory space governance at the county level is a realistic issue in China's natural resources management in the new era. Main functional areas play a fundamental role in territorial space control, focusing on the spatial scope related to high development density, low resource and environment bearing capacity, and issues concerning national food and ecological security. The county main functional divisions should follow the idea of suitability discrimination of supply and demand orientation, take into account the ambiguity of spatial boundary and the overlapping of supervision responsibilities and powers, and integrate the technology discrimination with the main body consultation, so as to be implemented on the administrative boundary of town and village as far as possible. The application study on Ganyu county in Lianyungang city shows that the administrative boundary of the town can be used as the spatial boundary threshold to divide the main functional areas such as transition development areas, upgrading development areas, key development areas, key cultivation areas, general agricultural production areas, fruit industrial park construction area, and forbidden development areas. The delineation and implementation of county main functional areas should take into full consideration the relationship between spatial affairs and powers at the county level, and build a governance and supervision system with provincial-level and county-level governments as the main body and the participation of the whole society. And it is necessary to form a coordinated and interactive policy mechanism of control and decision-making from the three aspects of land market, policy regulation and social supervision.
Spatial function identification plays a major part in land spatial planning, which is of important theoretical and practical significance. The data sources in this article come from multivariate information, such as land use and cover status data, refined DEM data, terrain and landform data, and other types of basic geographic information; water, ecology, environment, disaster and other types of special survey research data; population, economy, transportation and other types social statistics data. From the perspective of multivariate information integration and automatic classification, we used GIS spatial analysis, multivariate statistical analysis, measurement model, rule-based classification model and other technical methods, to build a set of key technologies and methods for realizing spatial function identification for land spatial planning in city and county scales. Finally, we conducted an empirical study with the above research methods in Yulin city. The empirical study shows that the method in this paper effectively integrates geographic entity units, functional evaluation indicators and other element characteristics into unified regional units, which indirectly guarantees the accuracy of spatial function classification and identification. In addition, through classification algorithm, we can realize automated spatial function identification, which improves the objectivity and work efficiency for land spatial planning.
Glaciers are important components of water resources. Due to the limitation of cognition of glacial hydrology and water resources, glacier resources are still not considered in the preparation of water resources balance sheet. In this paper, the glacier water resources balance sheet is constructed based on the compilation of water resources balance sheet in combination of the characteristics of glacier water resources. Result shows that: (1) The assets-liabilities accounting of glacier resources is different from other types of water resources. (2) The glaciers water resources consist of the water quantity assets and the water area assets. The water quantity assets include the glacier ice reserves and the glacier melt water runoff, and the glacier water area assets include the glacier area and the glacier melt water area. (3) Glacier water resources liabilities mainly come from the decline and overconsumption of glacier water resources and the damage of glacier meltwater environment caused by human activities, as well as the consequent decline of glacier water resources services. The upstream area of the great rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the debt region of glacial resources, and its debt benefits the midstream and downstream areas. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a national or downstream-led water resources compensation mechanism. Based on the change in the flow of glacier water resources, the river basin water resources of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau should be managed comprehensively, and the source area should be appropriately compensated for the loss value of glacier water resources.
At present, the economic transformation of resource-based cities is still a major issue in urban development in China. Based on the core connotation of the economic transformation of resource-based cities, using the ideas and methods of the balanced scorecard and key performance indicators, this paper summarizes the characteristics of economic transformation performance of resource-based cities, and then establishes a new evolution method called "the five-dimensional evaluation method" consisting of "resource dependence, economic level, ecological efficiency, social welfare, innovation driver", selects a few key parameters that can accurately reflect the key processes and results of economic transformation as the evaluation indexes, uses the measurement models such as decoupling analysis, super-efficiency data envelopment analysis, regression analysis, coupling degree model, entropy weight method and canonical correlation analysis, so as to make the results of performance evaluation consistent with the real mechanism of economic transformation. In this paper, seven typical coal cities in Northeast China are taken as cases, and the five-dimensional evaluation method is used to evaluate the performance of economic transformation in these cities since 2003. The results show that, from the perspective of transformation effect, seven cities have initially achieved the transformation of economic growth driving force, among which Liaoyuan has relatively good performance in the development of the secondary industry, and Liaoyuan and Fuxin have relatively good performance in the industrial succession; from the perspective of transformation quality, seven cities have significantly improved the eco-efficiency, among which Liaoyuan, Fuxin and Shuangyashan have improved the relative level of economic development. Empirical test shows that the economic transformation of seven cities does not have enough effect on improving the economic support for social welfare; from the perspective of the degree of realization of the ultimate goal, the level of science and technology and innovation in the seven cities is seriously insufficient, the economic growth slows down, and the ultimate goal of economic transformation is not achieved.
Industrial structural transformation and upgrading is an inevitable path for resource-exhausted cities to realize sustainable development, and researches on measurement of industrial structural transformation and upgrading level in such cities and its influencing factors are important bases of accurate formulation of industrial transformation policies. Based on panel data of 24 resource-exhausted cities in China from 2008 to 2017, conditions of their industrial structural transformations and upgrades are measured from three aspects, namely, direction, velocity and level. In addition, the fixed effect model is adopted to explore influencing factors of industrial structural transformation and upgrading level. The results indicate that: (1) Most of the resource-exhausted cities in China have mainly transformed to the tertiary industry while a small number of cities focus on cultivating the transitional model of multi-industry integration. (2) Compared with the period 2008-2012, the speed of industrial structural transformations and upgrades from 2013 to 2017 was higher, which showed an accelerating trend, but there were differences between regions and cities. (3) Industrial structural transformation and upgrading levels in resource-exhausted cities were on the rise, industrial structures were constantly optimizing and upgrading, and the integral level was lower than the national average level, presenting a spatial pattern of higher in the eastern region, but lower in the central, western and northeastern regions. (4) Total employment, proportion of fiscal expenditures in GDP, total retail sales of consumer goods and proportion of urban population had positive effects on industrial structural transformations and upgrades of resource-exhausted cities, while the total amount of fixed-asset investments had a negative effect on it. The impact of the number of authorized patents is of insignificance.
Housing price dominates the residential location decisions, which in turn, has impacts on travel patterns and travel-related carbon emissions. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of housing price on carbon emissions from commuting for low-carbon construction. In the paper, a theoretical model of residents' choices, housing price and carbon emissions from commuting is proposed. Then, this paper estimates the effect of housing price on carbon emissions from commuting by Multilevel Model at both individual and street levels based on data from the Jinan residents' travel survey. It is found that carbon emissions from commuting are lower in the central city but higher at outskirts, and housing price has siphon effect on carbon emissions. Specifically, the siphon effect shows that lower housing price in suburban areas leads to long commuting distance and motorization, which causes an increase in carbon emissions. Moreover, the marginal effect of housing on carbon emissions increases slowly within a 5 km distance from city center but rapidly beyond 5 km. Furthermore, we found that wages in suburban areas could moderate the siphon effect. It is easy for the suburban areas with rapid employment growth and higher wage to sustain jobs-housing balance, and less carbon emissions, but the suburban areas with lower wage tend to emit more. Overall, the government should pay attention to the polycentric spatial development, the improvement of the accessibility to work place as well as the transportation facilitation in public rental housing community in the low-carbon construction in the future.
The rapid development of waterfowl industry is inseparable from technological progress. It is very important to examine the evolution law of total factor productivity (TFP) in waterfowl industry and to explore the promotion strategies of TFP in different stages. Based on the survey data and fixed observation point data of the industrial economic team of China waterfowl system, combined with the input and output data of waterfowl industry sorted out in the relevant yearbooks, the paper uses GIS technology to analyze and draws the conclusion that the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of waterfowl industry in 2010-2018 are "shift from east to west and from north to south". Combined with the perpetual inventory method and Solow residual value, data envelopment analysis DEA-Malmquist is used to estimate TFP of waterfowl industry in 29 provincial-level areas of China. The growth rate and contribution rate of TFP in each of six regions are compared, and then the spatio-temporal evolution law of this period is analyzed. The results show that the growth rate of TFP fell sharply in 2014, rose gradually in 2015, and then grew steadily after 2016. The spatio-temporal growth rate of TFP of waterfowl indutry is summarized. The curve of change presents a "U"-shaped pattern of first falling and then rising. Tobit model is used to examine the influencing factors of the changes. The results show that, affected by H7N9 emergencies, the labor and capital investment in waterfowl industry has changed. The main influencing factors are hydropower and fuel power investment, infrastructure maintenance and new investment, vaccine and epidemic prevention and medical investment. These factors have significant impact on the spatio-temporal changes in waterfowl TFP growth, which further shows that the technical efficiency of waterfowl industry needs to be enhanced, and the risk aversion mechanism should be improved.
The new water resource management policy, such as determining industrial structure by water resources, requires the clarified adaptabilities between water resources and advanced industrial structure for promoting water use efficiencies. To resolve the insufficiency of the existing methods in algebraic expression and economic interpretation, the measurement index of the adaptabilities between water resources and the advanced industrial structure is constructed based on the elasticity. Furthermore, the characteristic, sources and dynamic evolution of the spatio-temporal differences in the study region and its sub-regions are revealed by integrating Dagum's Gini coefficient with Kernel density estimation. Taking the Yangtze River Economic Belt as an example, we can draw the following conclusions. The role of the advanced industrial structure in promoting the efficiencies of water use should be rationally evaluated. The Yangtze River Economic Belt is gradually evolving towards a better degree of adaptation. The spatio-temporal differences of the adaptability in and between the upstream, midstream and downstream regions are major causes for the differences in the economic belt, and the unbalance of the adaptability still exists in the upstream and downstream regions. Finally, we propose some suggestions for promoting water use efficiencies. In addition, it is necessary to identify "false strong adaptation" problems due to the relatively lagging industrial development and low water-demand in some parts of this economic belt, such as Guizhou province.
Grazing systems on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are of great ecological and livelihood importance. However, they are now threatened by both climate change and human interference. In order to improve the situation, it is necessary to explore the current status and developing trend of the grazing systems on the plateau. Based on historical statistics, local chronicles and existing literatures, this paper analyzes the historical changes, current situation and future development trend of the pastoral system of Gonghe county from the perspective of the social-ecological system, using Panarchy as the conceptual model. The family livelihood-market subsystem is currently in the stage of steady accumulation of resources, the pasture-livestock subsystem is in the early stage of release, and the social subsystem is in the reorganization stage deviating from the normal trajectory. The deterioration of the pasture-livestock subsystem will have a negative impact on the social subsystems at larger spatial and temporal scales. In the future, more efforts should be made to prevent over-connections between family livestock production and animal husbandry market, maintain equity of benefits in the livestock industry chain, increase the diversification of herders' sources of income, focus on grassland governance, enhance the quantity and quality of grass-roots supervisory teams, encourage cooperatives to optimize herd structure to match grassland, and formulate rational policies to help herders' societies adapt to external changes.
The optimal allocation of sample size of cultivated land quality monitoring has important guiding value for reducing cost and realizing sustainable monitoring and utilization of land resources. Taking Baoji city of Shaanxi province as an example, this study, based on uses cultivated land quality monitoring data in 2018, uses traditional statistics and geostatistical methods to explore the reasonable sample size and uncertainty of soil monitoring indicators in cultivated land quality monitoring. The results show that the relationship between sample variability and sample size is not absolute. The sample representative evaluation method and geostatistical method can effectively reduce the sample uncertainty compared with the Cochran method. The sample representative evaluation method is more applicable, but the research results are lack of stability. The applicability of geostatistical methods has limitations, which can reduce the uncertainty of medium variability indicators, but less applicable to low and high variability indicators. The reasonable sample size should be determined by geostatistics method for medium variability indicators and representative evaluation method for low and high variability indicators.
Taiwan is a representative region of the land reclamation and the intensive human-environment interaction. The study on the reconstruction of the spatial and temporal change of historical farmland in this province can deepen the understanding of the characteristics, differences and rules of the historical land change process on both Taiwan and the mainland. Based on historical literature and statistical yearbooks, this study uses population data to analyze the characteristics of farmland and population records. Then it comprehensively adopts methods such as citation substitution, linear interpolation, occult coefficient correction method and per capita farmland coefficient method to estimate and correct the spatial and temporal changes of historical farmland in Taiwan province in the past 300 years after verifying the surplus food quantity. The results are shown as follows: (1) The total amount of farmland in Taiwan increased from 0.91×104 hm2 in the Dutch occupation period to the current 79.30×104 hm2, up nearly 86.60 times. The stage characteristics generally increased first and then continued to decrease. In the middle and early periods of the Qing Dynasty, it showed steady and low-speed growth. During the Japanese occupation period, it showed rapid fluctuations. Then it experienced a slow fluctuation in the middle and early periods of the Republic of China, and gradually declined in the middle and late periods of the Republic of China. (2) On a 100-year scale, there are significant differences in the rules of change between paddy fields and dry fields in Taiwan; the amount of paddy fields increased first and then gradually decreased after volatility. However, the dry farmland increased first and then decreased and then gradually increased. Before 1931, the proportion of dry farmland was higher than that of paddy fields, and its peak period witnessed 3% to 5% higher; then the proportion of paddy fields exceeded that of dry farmland and was in an advantageous position. The average proportion of paddy fields from 1936 to 1965 was 22.23% higher than that of dry fields. (3) The land reclamation process in Taiwan has represented the imbalance between spatial expansion and regional expansion. Land reclamation experienced the development process from one region to the whole area of Taiwan Island, that is, from the south to the north, and from the west to the east. Tainan was the first region to be reclaimed, followed by Taichung and Taipei districts, and the Taitung region was the last one to be reclaimed. The reclamation intensity in Tainan was higher than that in the rest, with a maximum of 36.71%. (4) The HYDE dataset and the results of this study are gradually increasing, but the difference between the farmland area and the change process is significant. The international dataset does not reflect the objective historical facts of the change of farmland in Taiwan in the past 300 years.
Studying the dominant climatic driver affecting the changes of leaf area index (LAI) in China's ecological fragile zones under the background of climate change is of great significance in revealing the changes of land ecosystem and its dynamic response to climate change, as well as ecological restoration. Based on CN0 5.1 climatic data and Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) product of LAI, we study the changes of LAI and its dominant climatic driver in China's ecological fragile zones from 1982 to 2017, using Principal Component Analysis. Results show that temperature is on the rise in ecological fragile zones, while the regional difference of precipitation changes is significant. LAI showed an increasing trend from 1982 to 2017 in most of the ecological fragile zones, including arid and semi-arid region, Loess Plateau, Tibetan Plateau, and karst areas in Southwestern China, as well as the west and southeast of the farming, pasture, forest and grassland ecological fragile zone of Northern China and the north and southeast of the farming and pasture ecological fragile zone of Southern China. Temperature, especially daily average temperature, is the dominant climatic driver for LAI growth in most of the ecological fragile zones in China, while daily minimum and maximum temperature dominate the west of arid and semi-arid region and the south agriculture and pasture ecological fragile zone, respectively. This study emphasizes the positive impact of warming on vegetation growth in the present, however, it also depends on humidity condition.
The fourth Industrial Revolution has stimulated the global industrial competition, and the trade of mineral resources all over the world has become one of the focus of competition among major countries. Nowadays, China has been the largest mineral importer and important mineral exporter in the world, therefore it is crucial to understand the sources of mineral resources imports and market patterns of exports. This study analyzes the characteristics of China's mineral resource trade network and its evolution using UN Comtrade world mineral resource trade data from 2001 to 2016. It is found that the position of China in the world mineral resources trade network has increased significantly during 2001-2016 and China has significantly diversified its mineral export markets as well as its products of mineral imports. It is reported that friendly interstate relations and the frequency of interactions between countries mitigate the trade uncertainty caused by institutional differences, and friendly relations further reduce the transaction costs of mineral trade, which can promote the evolution of mineral trade networks of China. The results have important policy implications. It is recommended that China should further expand its export market and diversify products and sources of mineral imports. Moreover, China should increase outward investments in mineral resources and maintain good relations between countries.
Efficient utilization of urban land is one of the important ways to promote the high-quality development of cities and towns. Taking the panel data of 30 provincial-levels in China during 2009-2016 as samples, a "one-stage" stochastic frontier production function model is used to measure urban land use efficiency. Then, the correlations between efficiency level, inputs, and pollution emission during land use in various regions of China are further analyzed. Results show that: (1) Undesirable output results in a loss of land use efficiency. During the study period, undesirable output causes 3.77%, 7.74%, and 8.77% declines in the eastern, central, and western regions, respectively. (2) Urban land use efficiency shows a significant regional difference. The average efficiency level in the eastern region is the highest, while that in the western region is the lowest. The difference among various regions becomes greater when undesirable output is considered. (3) High input-output level does not necessarily guarantee high efficiency level. A higher pollution emission intensity may cause a greater efficiency loss. The research results help to reveal the focus and direction of the improvement of urban land use efficiency in the future.
Spatial correlation and convergence of the development level of China's water eco-civilization is vital to its coordinated construction. Constructing an evaluation system of water eco-civilization construction, whose dimensions contain water security, water ecology, water environment, water conservation, water supervision and water culture, this paper adopts entropy methods to measure water eco-civilization development index of China and its 31 provincial-level regions from 2010 to 2018, uses exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and space-time transition method to examine the spatio-temporal evolution patterns, and builds spatial panel Durbin model to reveal the spatial convergence. The results are obtained as follows. (1) The development index of China's water eco-civilization is increasing year by year, but water ecology, water supervision and water culture are still the main short boards. There are significant regional differences, showing a pattern of "high-low-medium" from east to west. (2) The development index of China's provincial water eco-civilization shows significant positive spatial spillover effect and spatial pattern locking characteristics. The high-high aggregation areas mainly include eastern coastal regions while the low-low ones mainly include northeast, northwest and southwest of China, and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and the latter is difficult to realize the transition to HH-type provinces. (3) There exists significant α convergence, absolute β and conditional β convergence in China as well as in its eastern, central and western regions from 2010 to 2018, with the fastest in the eastern region referring to absolute β convergence and the fastest in the central region referring to conditional β convergence, while the western region is the slowest in both types of β convergences. (4) Economic development, population density, human capital and technological progress have significant effects on the convergence of China's water eco-civilization development, but there are obvious regional variations. Specific countermeasures and suggestions are put forward accordingly.
In the era of mass leisure, homestay tourism has become a new driving force for balancing urban and rural development, invigorating the tourism economy, and helping rural revitalization and poverty alleviation. As a special type and manifestation of industrial agglomeration, homestay tourism agglomeration area is an important symbol to measure the development level of homestay tourism. But relevant academic attention is obviously insufficient. Based on the connotation of three elements of L-location, R-resource and D-dynamic, the paper constructs the L-R-D theory of the development of homestay tourism agglomeration. Taking the Yangtze River Delta, where homestay development plays a leading role in China, as a case, this paper mainly analyzes five development models of urban scenic market-oriented mode, suburban leisure market-oriented mode, historic village market-oriented mode, rural aging industry market-oriented mode and rural leisure market-oriented mode. It provides solid support and scientific reference for improving quality and increasing efficiency, and integrating and upgrading in homestay tourism agglomeration areas.
Scenic spot governance is an important part of tourism research. With the development of global integration, the status and role of international tourism organizations in scenic spot governance are gradually highlighted. Taking Huangshan Scenic Spot as an example, based on the theory of path creation and using qualitative research methods such as literature analysis, participatory observation and in-depth interview, this paper constructs an analysis framework of tourism development path creation, and discusses the evolution process and influence of mountain scenic area governance under the background of international tourism organizations. The results show that: (1) The intervention of international tourism organizations has changed the main principal part and structure of scenic spots governance, created a new path for Huangshan Scenic Spot governance, which is an important force to promote the evolution of its governance. (2) From the five dimensions of application subject, action path, scope involved, influence content and intervention effect, Huangshan Scenic Spot experienced three times of path creation after joining the international tourism organization and produced obvious effects. (3) The intervention of international tourism organizations has a significant impact on the internal governance, adjacent communities participation and governance experience output of Huangshan Scenic Spot.
The phenomenon of urban heat island has become a critical environmental issue in many large cities. The trees and vegetation in the urban environment help to cool urban temperatures, whereas previous studies have concentrated on the field observation and factor analysis of cooling effect from urban green spaces in hot summer, but few studies have quantified the spatial coupling relationship between human settlement demand and cooling effect provision. This paper evaluated the cooling effect of urban green spaces in Shanghai based on the high-resolution images and observed results of typical sites, and analyzed theirs space consistencies between cooling effect and air temperature or population distribution with the help of GIS techniques. The results showed that, the green areas of Shanghai reached 104.5 thousand hectares in 2017, and could absorb 8.49×10 15 J of heat via evapotranspiration in summer, implying that the cooling effect saved 1457 million RMB for the electricity consumption of air conditioners. Approximately 46% and 33% of cooling effect were provided by the broad-leaved forest and mixed forest, respectively, and the green spaces in Pudong New Area, and Chongming and Fengxian districts jointly contributed about 67% of cooling effect, whereas the per hectare green spaces in districts of Hongkou, Huangpu and Xuhui presented higher values of cooling effect. Inconsistency, in particular, between cooling effect and air temperature or population density was observed in some parts of Shanghai. Around 28.62% of cooling effect from urban green space was loosely coupled with air temperature, and 7.31% of green spaces generated the low coupling between cooling effect and population density, especially the low coupling areas distributed mainly in the central urban regions. Therefore, we propose to enhance the temperature reduction capacities of urban forest in central district, and import the cooling effect from suburban green spaces through ecological corridors.
The research on divisions of drought risk is vital to reducing drought disasters and increasing grain yield. In this paper, crop water deficit index (CWDI) was used as a drought index in the northwestern Liaoning province. Based on the daily meteorological data from 1965-2019 and the data of maize planting over years, the spatial and temporal evolution of maize drought and the response characteristics of meteorological factors were revealed by mathematical statistics and path analysis. And the drought risk regionalization was carried out by constructing the drought disaster loss model. The results showed that: (1) In the past 54 years, the CWDI of spring maize during the heading-maturation period increased at a rate of 2.2/10 a, and the other growth stages showed a downward trend. And the spatial distribution of drought frequency of spring maize in the study area gradually increased from north to west. (2) Relative humidity and precipitation are negatively correlated with CWDI, while other meteorological factors are positively correlated; among which temperature and relative humidity have direct influence on it. (3) Northwestern Liaoning is divided into four disaster risk areas, and the degree of drought disaster risk shows an increasing trend from north to west. The research results can provide some reference for spring maize field management and disaster prevention and mitigation.
In order to quantify the relationship between carbon emissions and temperature rise with the spatially heterogenous distribution of carbon dioxide concentration, this paper used the spatial autocorrelation analysis and the spatial simultaneous equations model to reveal the spatial distribution and aggregation characteristics of global carbon dioxide concentration during 2003-2015 and estimated the impact of carbon emissions on temperature rise based on the grid data of global carbon dioxide concentration, carbon emissions and temperature. The results indicate that carbon dioxide concentration has high value in the northern hemisphere and low value in the southern hemisphere. Spatially heterogenous distribution of carbon dioxide concentration will slightly decrease the estimation results of the impact of carbon emissions on temperature rise. The results show that the spatially heterogenous distribution is an important parameter that should be introduced into the assessment of global warming. At the same time, due to the existence of the spatial scale effect, the selection of spatial range and resolution deserves more attention.
In order to promote the coordinated development of the Yangtze River Delta region in the economic transition context, it is of great significance to study the influence of globalization, marketization and decentralization on the expansion of urban land. In this paper, the difference index and the intensity index of urban land expansion are used to analyze the hot spots and each city's sequential variation of urban land expansion in the delta from 2001 to 2015, and the spatio-temporal differentiation of different driving forces' influence is studied by using geographically and temporally weighted regression model. The results show that: (1) In the study area, the urban land expansion has characteristics of spatial concentration in periods, and some areas such as Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou are the hot spots of urban land expansion. At the same time, the gap of developmental state of each city will be narrowed with the improvement of regional coordination level. (2) The urban land expansion intensity in the delta showed an upward trend on the whole and on the individual level during the study period, and the average urban land expansion intensity was roughly in line with the circle layer distribution with Shanghai as the center decreasing to the periphery, while the expansion intensity of the peripheral cities increased in a more stable and rapid state. (3) Globalization, marketization and decentralization can well explain the urban land expansion in the region. Globalization is an important driving force for urban development in the delta, and there are obvious regional differences. The development of marketization has significantly promoted the urban development in in Shanghai, South Jiangsu and North Zhejiang, while the developing regions need to further stimulate the dividends of market reform. The fiscal deficit is an important factor for the local governments to implement the strategy of urban expansion, but the development modes will change with the improvement of development level. (4) Among the control variables, the influence of economic development is significant and relatively stable; the population density also plays a significant role in promoting urban land expansion and its influence enhanced in some cities, while the effect of fixed asset investment is more concentrated.
The in-depth analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and driving mechanism of rural settlements in the karst trough valley area is of great significance for the construction of beautiful new countryside in complex terrain and economically lagging areas. This study, with the support of GIS technology, combined kernel density method, grid method, center-of-gravity model, transect and terrain profile, and used the data from rural settlements in trough valley areas covering years of 2005, 2010, 2014 and 2017, to conduct a comparative analysis of the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of rural settlements in the study area. The results show that: (1) The rural settlements in trough valleys show a spatial distribution pattern of "small clusters and large scales in the western trough valleys, and large and small scales in the central and eastern trough valleys". (2) The rural residential areas in the western troughs have a tendency to migrate to the trough dam vertically, while the central and eastern troughs are opposite. The terrain of the rural residential areas is: eastern trough valleys > central trough valleys > western trough valleys. (3) The rural residential areas in the western trough valleys present an inverted "U"-shaped distribution pattern with large trough dam heights and low slopes on both sides of the hillside, while the central and eastern trough valleys are opposite. (4) There is a close spatial response relationship between the distribution pattern of rural settlements in the trough valley area and the terrains.
The attitude of residents towards resource development is an important social and public basis for resource development management. Based on the survey data of coal mine community residents, this paper empirically analyzes the characteristics of residents' attitude to resource development and the differences of influencing factors. The results show that the residents of coal mine community are generally opposed to the development of resources. The higher the education level of residents is, the greater their support for resource development is; women support coal mining more than men. At the social and cultural levels, employment opportunities and social personal interests have a positive and significant impact on the residents' attitude towards resource development, and the adverse impact of coal mining on the life and health of residents has a negative and significant impact on the residents' attitude towards resource development. In terms of economic and transportation, the construction of supporting facilities for resource development has a positive and significant impact on residents' attitude towards resource development; land destruction and grain production reduction have a negative and significant impact on residents' attitude towards resource development. At the level of ecological environment, the occurrence of natural and geological disasters and the decline of water quality and quantity have a negative and significant impact on the residents' attitude towards resource development. It is suggested that in the future, targeted policies should be formulated to improve residents' attitude towards resource development, and special attention should be focused on the improvement of communication mechanism for resource development, the formulation of residents' participation in resource development planning and the enhancement of external management system construction capacity.