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    The "Double Evaluation" under the context of spatial planning: Wicked problems and restricted rationality
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 541-551.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210301
    Abstract598)   HTML25)    PDF (974KB)(154)      

    Resources and environment carrying capacity evaluation and spatial development suitability evaluation (referred to as "Double Evaluation") are considered as scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper analyzes and summarizes the "Double Evaluation" work in current spatial planning. The "Double Evaluation" plays an active role, but it has many problems, including insufficient recognition on the scientific nature and internal mechanisms of resources and environment carrying capacity and spatial development suitability, imperfect evaluation methods and application system, and so on. This paper intends to put forward the realistic needs of spatial planning under the concept of ecological civilization. And it is necessary to improve the scientific logic, technical logic and application logic of "Double Evaluation", so that we can improve the scientificity and practicability of "Double Evaluation". At the same time, it should be recognized that essential problems of spatial planning are wicked problems as "Double Evaluation" can only play a limited rational role. We should solve such problems through communication and cooperation so as to avoid falling into the misunderstanding of technical rationality.

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    Discussion on scientific foundation and approach for the overall optimization of "Production-Living-Ecological" space
    JIANG Dong, LIN Gang, FU Jing-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1085-1101.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210501
    Abstract597)   HTML22)    PDF (1273KB)(116)      

    The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 figured out that the territorial space optimization was the primary task of the ecological civilization construction and to make production space intensive and efficient, living space livable and suitable, ecological space. This study systematically reviews the recent advances for the overall optimization of production space, living space and ecological space (PLES) by the method of literature review and summary induction. It is concluded that the present studies of the overall optimization of PLES were mainly carried out from the perspective of the utilization quality of land space, land suitability evaluation, resource environmental bearing-capacity and comparative advantage. But because of the short of recognition of the scientific intension of PLES and the incompleteness of quantitative identification and classification system construction, there are still problems that the technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES may still have to overcome. The technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES should build the theoretical basis and technical system of PLES identification and optimization aiming for Beautiful China Initiative by the theory of human-earth coupled systems. On the theoretical level, the initiative should give full consideration to the mechanism of material and energy transfer within the PLES system and the parsing of the transfer pathway, flow process and metabolic mechanism of water, soil, energy, carbon and other key elements of PLES system by the combination of the resource metabolism theory and the geographical pattern of PLES. On the technological level, it should pay attention to the development and application of the system simulation model and the multi-objective optimization model, and synthetically consider the dynamic mechanism between population, resources, environment and land space elements, and combine the results of evolution rule and the conflict and problem diagnosis of PLES, and consequently to achieve the overall optimization of PLES by the design of different scenarios and parameters.

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    Interview on the unprecedented changes of energy geopolitics and national energy security
    YANG Yu, YU Hong-yuan, LU Gang, WANG Li-mao, ZHAO Yuan, HAO Li-sha, REN Dong-ming, FANG Wei, AN Hai-zhong, CAI Guo-tian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2803-2820.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201119
    Abstract566)   HTML14)    PDF (988KB)(68)      

    In the context of unprecedented changes of energy geopolitics, China's current energy situation is becoming increasingly complex, and energy security has become a major strategy for national economic development. Under the new situation, not only the scientific issues, research objects, and research methods of the world energy geography and national energy security at the interdisciplinary perspective, but also the global energy governance system and international energy cooperation based on the actual needs of China are worth discussion among experts and scholars. This article uses the form of "question and answer (Q&A)" to provide a panoramic view of the host and nine academic interviewees based on different perspectives. Experts express their opinions in a range of content, including energy security and global energy governance model, the challenges and countermeasures of China's energy security, the new changes of global energy geopolitics, the energy security under the geographical pattern of unequal world energy production and consumption space, the high-quality development of China's energy under the trend of global low-carbon transformation, changes in the global energy supply and demand pattern affected by major public health emergencies, and future research prospects and important research directions of energy geography. We hope that a certain consensus can be reached, so as to better promote the development of the discipline of world energy geography, as well as actively respond to issues such as the unprecedented change of energy geopolitics and national energy security.

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    The locality and adaptability of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin: Challenges and opportunities
    WANG Fang, MIAO Chang-hong, LIU Feng-gui, CHEN Xing-peng, MI Wen-bao, HAI Chun-xing, DUAN De-gang, WANG Jin-ping, ZHANG Zhan-cang, WANG Cheng-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 1-26.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210101
    Abstract511)   HTML29)    PDF (10349KB)(352)      

    Due to the particularity of natural environment and geographical location, the human settlement environment of the Yellow River Basin is in a complex process of constant changes and is always facing severe challenges. The coupling process of human environment space with natural and social elements originates from the dynamic, comprehensive and systematic adaptation mechanism presented in the process of human-land relationship change, so revealing the system adaptation mechanism is the key to solve the human environment dilemma in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, based on the perspective of "locality and adaptability", this paper invited experts and scholars from Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong along the Yellow River and other provinces. They interpreted the characteristics of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of natural geography, social economy, urban and rural development, and heritage protection, and sought sustainable strategies to adapt to China's new urbanization path. The main points are stated as follows: On the whole, the adaptability of human settlements in the study area has multi-scale spatial correlation and historical geographic dependence. The Yellow River Basin has an important ecological function, but the natural environment in different regions is facing such problems as land salinization, soil erosion and pollution, etc., so it is necessary to promote the greening of human-land coupling relationship. The Yellow River Basin, especially the cities along the upper reaches of the river, have distinct characteristics of openness, ethnic cultural diversity and integration. Due to the complex natural environment, caves and other special settlements have been formed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. In the process of rapid urbanization, they are faced with transformation and disappearance, retaining the cultural genes of traditional settlements, and it is urgent to classify and treat them differently to promote their healthy evolution. The internal and external radiation drive of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin is the foundation of high-quality development throughout the river basin, and the optimization and upgrading of urban structure is an important way to promote high-quality development. To achieve sustainable development, scientific and technological innovation and industrial structure transformation and upgrading are also needed.

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    Urban agglomeration and industrial transformation and development in the Yellow River Basin
    DENG Xiang-zheng, YANG Kai-zhong, SHAN Jing-jing, DONG Suo-cheng, ZHANG Wen-ge, GUO Rong-xing, TAN Ming-hong, ZHAO Peng-jun, LI Yu, MIAO Chang-hong, CUI Yao-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 273-289.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210201
    Abstract478)   HTML20)    PDF (1885KB)(214)      

    Ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin is one of the major national strategies, in which urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development are the intrinsic requirements and fundamental guarantees. Thus, revealing the path of the river basin scale urban agglomeration development and industrial transformation and upgrading is of great significance to guide the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, this paper brings together scholars from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Institute for Eco-civilization, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Capital University of Economics and Business, Peking University and Henan University, to discuss key issues on urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of ecological protection, resource allocation, dynamic evolution, spatial structure, and integration and regulation. This paper aims to serve the major national stragety of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. The core views are as follows, regulating the relationship among water resources, urban agglomeration and industrial development is the key to promoting the coordination of industrial transformation and urban transformation, and the synchronized advances of economic transformation and social transformation;the analysis of the complex coupling and dynamic evolution mechanism of river basin ecological protection and high-quality development is of great significance for achieving high-quality development of the basin; it is an effective way to promote the high-quality development of the basin to reveal the evolution mechanism of typical urban agglomeration and industrial space and to construct the spatial integration target and mode of urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development; under the background of increasing uncertainty of trade caused by globalization and energy revolution, complex relationship between social economy and ecological environment, and the construction of a new development pattern of "dual circulation", the basin urgently needs a more comprehensive integrated regulation mechanism.

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    Research on individual food waste behavior from the perspective of North-South differences: Take the dining situation of students in university canteens as an example
    QIAN Long, LI Feng, QIAN Zhuang, WANG Ling-en
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 552-566.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210302
    Abstract439)   HTML17)    PDF (695KB)(79)      

    Eating habits has always been considered as an important factor in food waste. This paper takes 29 universities, all in different provincial-level regions, as study cases to explore the factors that affect students' wasting behavior. Based on a questionnaire survey of 9192 college students, this paper focuses on the impact of North-South differences on individual food waste behavior, and attempts to answer: Southerners and Northerners, who are more likely to waste food, who waste more food? The results show that compared with the northern native college students, the probability of food waste in the students of the southern region is higher, and the food waste and food waste rate of the students of the southern origins in the college cafeteria are higher than those of the northern students. In order to verify whether the difference in diet patterns between the "rice" model in the south and the "wheat" model in the north is the main reason for the above phenomenon, this paper confirms that the difference between the north and the south diet patterns is the key reason for the fact that the southerners waste more food than the northerners through the mediation effect model. This paper further matches the individual's North-South origin and the North-South position of the colleges and universities. Based on the mode of "Southern students studying in the South", we found that the "Southern tudents going to school in the North" mode has a lower probability of food waste, waste amount and food waste rate. However, under the "Northern students going to school in the South" mode, individuals did not have a low probability of food waste, the weight of waste and food waste rate. Therefore, this paper confirms that the southerners are more wasteful of food than the northerners. And it is proved that the mainstream diet pattern in the north and the south is the leading driving force to the difference in waste.

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    Reconstruction of cultivated land pattern in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in the late Northern Song Dynasty:Take Hehuang Valley as an example
    GUO Rong, LIU Feng-gui, CHEN Qiong, ZHOU Qiang, GU Xi-jing, CAI Xiang-cuo-mao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 27-36.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210102
    Abstract425)   HTML13)    PDF (1460KB)(98)      

    The Hehuang Valley in the upper reaches of the Yellow River is one of the areas with a long history of human activities, and it is the westernmost part of cultivated land reclamation along the Yellow River. The reconstruction of settlements and cultivated land has practical significance for the study of human activities and global change in this basin. In this paper, a database of settlements and cultivated land in the Hehuang Valley in the late Northern Song Dynasty (1117) was established by combing a large number of historical documents. Based on the spatial distribution of settlements, the grid model was used to reconstruct the cultivated land pattern of the study area with an accuracy of 1 km×1 km. The results show that: (1) The settlements in the Hehuang Valley in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in the late Northern Song Dynasty are concentrated in alluvial and proluvial plains along the main stream of the Yellow River and Huangshui River with relatively low altitude and gentle slope, and the "City" is mainly distributed in the mountain pass in the relatively low altitude area, highlighting its defense function; "States and Castles" are mostly distributed along rivers with relatively flat terrain and relatively geo-safe; however, "Villages" are scattered along the tributaries of rivers, showing the characteristics of disorderly development. (2) The total cultivated land area in the Hehuang Valley is estimated to be about 304.67 km2, with only 16.16% of the grids distributed with cultivated land and only 24.16% of the grids with the highest reclamation rate, among which 74.06% are distributed in the Huangshui Valley and 25.94% along the main stream of the Yellow River, indicating that cultivated land reclamation in the late Northern Song Dynasty is mainly concentrated in the Huangshui River Basin. (3) From the altitude of settlement distribution, 78.09% of the cultivated land grids are distributed in the area of flat terrain with water below 2600 m above sea level, and 21.91% of the grids are distributed in the shallow mountains between 2600 m and 3200 m, indicating that the cultivated land range was not large at that time, and the altitude greatly restricted the expansion of cultivated land, which was mainly distributed in areas with superior irrigation conditions. (4) Rebuilding the spatial pattern of cultivated land based on settlement accords with the fact that cultivated land is distributed with settlements, which is more reliable.

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    Research on misuses and modification of coupling coordination degree model in China
    WANG Shu-jia, KONG Wei, REN Liang, ZHI Dan-dan, DAI Bin-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 793-810.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210319
    Abstract424)   HTML8)    PDF (1280KB)(106)      

    With the deepening understanding of the Scientific Outlook on Development, the coupling coordination degree model has become an effective evaluation and research tool for the regional overall balanced development. However, for this model, there are four types of misuses, including writing errors, coefficients loss, weight misuses and model failures, which have significantly affected the scientific nature of academic research. Therefore, this study firstly clarified the normative formula of the traditional coupling coordination degree model. On the basis of discussing the validity of the traditional model in the field of social science research, this study further proposed a modified model of coupling degree. In addition, the coupling coordination degree model has three reliability issues: the subjectivity of index construction, and the volatility and incomparability of coupling results. Taking the ecological and economic system of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example, we proved that the modified coupling coordination degree model has better validity, and the spatial and temporal changes of the research object will affect the reliability of the coupled coordination model.

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    China's cross-border energy relations between direct trade and embodied transfers: Based on "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation
    HAN Meng-yao, XIONG Jiao, LIU Wei-dong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2674-2686.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201109
    Abstract422)   HTML7)    PDF (1755KB)(48)      

    Along with the proposal of "the Belt and Road" Initiative, energy connectivity has become an essential component of China's overseas cooperation. In "the Belt and Road" energy cooperation, it is of great significance to depict and compare the cross-border relations from the dual perspectives of direct energy trade and embodied energy transfers. The main conclusions include: (1) From the direct perspective, countries such as Saudi Arabia and Russia are essential energy importers of China; (2) From the embodied perspective, China provides a large amount of energy-intensive products to countries such as India, Singapore and Thailand within "the Belt and Road" region; (3) China's direct energy trade with "the Belt and Road" region is in deficit, while the embodied energy transfer is in surplus; (4) Through synthetic consideration of direct energy trade and embodied energy transfers, China can further extend the radiating effects of different energy relations, and provide a solid foundation for energy connectivity and cooperation partnership between China and "the Belt and Road" countries.

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    Spatio-temporal characteristics of cold wave in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River between 1958 and 2015
    WANG Ke-yi, LIU Yuan, LIU Bu-chun, QIU Mei-juan, YANG Xiao-juan, ZHANG Yue-ying, WU Xin-yue, XIAO Nan-shu, PANG Jing-yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (12): 3029-3038.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201217
    Abstract402)   HTML14)    PDF (5325KB)(170)      

    The daily cooling rate of station was calculated based on daily minimum temperature data of 54 meteorological stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River from 1958 to 2015. A quantitative analysis of the evolutionary characteristics and spatial changes of cold wave occurrence and development was conducted in the region. The results showed that in the past 58 years, the frequency of cold wave presented an insignificant decrease trend with an average of 1.2 times/station (P>0.05). During cold wave processing, the spatial distribution of average difference of the minimum temperature was higher in the south and lower in the north; and the extreme of average difference of the minimum temperature gradually decreased from the regional center to the surroundings. The first cold wave occurred on August 1 (Jiujiang), and the last on May 4 (Shouxian and Lu'an). The spatial distribution of the time difference was significant. The frequent cold waves occurred in winter, followed by spring and autumn.

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    Characteristics of extreme precipitation over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1961 to 2017
    MA Wei-dong, LIU Feng-gui, ZHOU Qiang, CHEN Qiong, LIU Fei, CHEN Yong-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (12): 3039-3050.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201218
    Abstract397)   HTML16)    PDF (3935KB)(190)      

    Using the daily precipitation data of the long-term series of meteorological stations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the percentile threshold method is used to determine the extreme precipitation threshold, calculate the extreme precipitation index and analyze its spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, in order to provide reference for regional climate change prediction and disaster prevention and mitigation countermeasures. The results show that: (1) From 1961 to 2017, the annual precipitation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau showed an upward trend, with a rate of 8.06 mm/10 a, and the average annual precipitation reached 472.36 mm. The minimum precipitation tendency rate of 78 stations is -25.46 mm/10 a, and the maximum value is 43.02 mm/10 a. The precipitation of 15.38% of the stations is decreasing, which is mainly distributed in the east and south of the plateau, and the precipitation of the remaining 84.62% of the stations is increasing. (2) The average threshold value of extreme precipitation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is 23.11 mm, with error values ranging from 7.84 mm to 51.90 mm. The high value centers are located in Gongshan and Muli of Hengduan Mountains, while the low value centers are located in the northern flank of Qaidam Basin and Kunlun Mountains. (3) The extreme precipitation, the number of days of extreme precipitation and the contribution rate of extreme precipitation at all the stations in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau show an obvious upward trend. Although the intensity of extreme precipitation is also rising, the trend is not obvious, which shows that the increase of extreme precipitation in the plateau is not caused by the intensity of extreme precipitation, but by the increase of the frequency of extreme precipitation. Although the extreme precipitation and days of extreme precipitation in the Qaidam Basin do not show a high value level, the contribution rate of extreme precipitation is larger, which suggests that although there is less precipitation, extreme precipitation events frequently occur in this area.

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    Systematically promoting the construction of natural ecological protection and governance capacity: Experts comments on Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035)
    GUAN Feng-jun, LIU Lian-he, LIU Jian-wei, FU Ying, WANG Ling-yun, WANG Feng, LI Yong, YU Xing-di, CHE Na, XIAO Ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 290-299.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210202
    Abstract355)   HTML8)    PDF (1013KB)(97)      

    Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035) (hereinafter referred to as The Plan) is the first comprehensive plan involving ecosystem protection and restoration after the 19th National Congress of the CPC (2017), which plays a significant strategic and guiding role in undertaking related tasks. The promulgation of The Plan, accomplished by the Chinese government departments concerned, is a successful beginning for jointly arranging major projects in natural resources across departments, disciplines and regions. Recently, some critical contents relating to The Plan, such as the opportunities and challenges of implementation, were discussed by seven experts from Consulting and Research Center of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The key opinions are as follows. In order to work efficiently guided by The Plan, its four main characteristics need to be especially concerned, including systematic and continued deployment; strategic and coordinating policies; objectives-problems dual oriented tasks; and scientific and specific methods. Meanwhile, it is necessary to deal with three kinds of crucial relationships about aims and assignments properly, which are ecosystem protection and utilization, ecosystem restoration and ecological compensation, ecosystem protection and controls on territory use. Besides, seven valued aspects are still worthy to be deeply pondered and some suggestions are proposed, including: establishing diversified financing mechanism, clarifying responsibility of different entities carrying on ecological protection and restoration, formulating related systematic technical standards, strengthening databases and information platforms, optimizing territory use control regulation to adapt to the major projects of The Plan, coordinating ecological protection and natural resources especially energy resources exploitation, reinforcing early basic and comprehensive investigation and later strict surveillance as well. In addition, it is requisite to monitor and evaluate the executive conditions of The Plan and other supporting policies, so as to adjust and improve The Plan in time, which is beneficial to fulfill tasks and achieve goals.

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    Research progress and prospect for the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands
    SHEN Jia-shu, LI Shuang-cheng, LIANG Ze, WANG Yue-yao, SUN Fu-yue
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (8): 1909-1922.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210801
    Abstract346)   HTML0)    PDF (2361KB)(1)      

    Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands is of vital importance for sustainably utilizing natural capital and coordinating ecosystem services supplies and demands. According to the previous research on ecosystem services at home and abroad, the research framework of the relationships among ecosystem services supplies and demands was put forward in this study. Within this framework, the formation mechanisms and representations of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands were explained, the basic characteristics of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands were summarized, and the potential research focuses were proposed, which could provide a guidance for the studies on the ecosystem services and the governance of ecosystem services. In general, there were two non-exclusive mechanisms that formed the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands. On the basis of these formation mechanisms, the representations of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands included bundles, trade-offs, synergies and no-effect relationships. In terms of the characteristics, the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands could be spatially heterogeneous, temporally variable and scale dependent. The construction and evaluation of indexes, statistical analysis of indicators, development and simulation of scenarios, and spatial mappings and analysis were the four main methods to study the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands.

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    Introduction to the Special Issue on World Energy Geography and National Security
    YANG Yu, LIU Cheng-liang, CUI Shou-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2569-2571.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201101
    Abstract345)   HTML7)    PDF (340KB)(59)      
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    Pattern evolution of global energy security and the geopolitical game
    SU Jun, WANG Yong-xun, WANG Qiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2613-2628.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201105
    Abstract334)   HTML6)    PDF (2914KB)(52)      

    Under the background of economic globalization, the internationalization of national energy security issues has become increasingly prominent. Since the beginning of the 21st century, along with the acceleration of world multi-polarization, the study on the evolution characteristics of global energy security's pattern and its driving mechanism has become one of the key issues in the field of energy geopolitics. Based on this understanding, this paper systematically evaluates the energy security status of 124 countries since 2000, reveals the evolution characteristics and its mechanism, and identifies the major geopolitical threats. The results show that: (1) Since the beginning of the 21st century, the evolution of the global energy security pattern has been continuously optimized, but it has shown obvious phase characteristics. Since 2010, the optimization trend has become more significant. (2) The global energy security pattern is basically consistent with the international order, that is, energy-safe countries are concentrated in economically developed regions of Western Europe and North America, and the relatively safe countries are mainly distributed in Central Europe, Latin America, and high-income regions in Asia. The countries with transitional energy system are mainly distributed in the developing regions of Middle East, Southeast Europe, and East Asia, while countries with dangerous or relatively dangerous energy system are economically underdeveloped regions in Africa and South Asia. (3) In the past 20 years, the world's energy security level has improved significantly, which is mainly driven by climate-friendly green technologies and the continuous downturn in oil price. For this reason, the level of energy security in developed economies has increased significantly. However, due to the low innovation capacity, backward productivity, and low disposable income of residents, developing countries have less room for improvement in energy security. (4) In the context of the rise of populism, the intensification of trade barriers and the strategic contraction of the United States in the Middle East, the global energy security pattern in the future will be affected by the changes in China-US relation, the increasing urgency to promoting the energy transition, and the polarized political climate.

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    Coupling relationship and interactive response between ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin
    LIU Lin-ke, LIANG Liu-tao, GAO Pan, FAN Chang-sheng, WANG Hong-hao, WANG Han
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 176-195.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210112
    Abstract314)   HTML9)    PDF (3237KB)(139)      

    Based on the analysis of the coupling mechanism of ecological protection and high-quality development, the provincial unit is taken as the research unit to evaluate the coupling coordination degree of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin, compared with the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Finally, the panel VAR model is used to quantitatively analyze the interactive response relationship between ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) During the study period, both the ecological protection index and the high-quality development index of the Yellow River Basin showed an increasing trend, and the overall pattern of the middle and lower reaches was higher than that of the upper reaches. (2) The coupling coordination degree of ecological protection and high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin showed an overall increasing trend. Among them, the coupling coordination degree from 2003 to 2011 was less than 0.5, which was an antagonistic stage; in 2012-2017, the coupling coordination degree is between 0.5-0.7, which belongs to the run-in stage. The metropolis in the Yellow River Basin presents a spatial pattern of downstream > middle reaches > upstream, with the highest coupling coordination between Shandong and Shanxi at the provincial level, and the lowest coupling coordination between Ningxia and Qinghai. (3) The ecological protection index of the Yellow River Basin is slightly higher than the national average. The high-quality development index and the coupling coordination degree are lower than the national average. The ecological protection index of the Yellow River Basin in the early stage (2003-2009) is lower than that of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, while it is higher in the later period (2010-2017). The high-quality development index and coupling coordination degree are lower compared with the Yangtze River Economic Belt in all the years. (4) Both the ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin have positive progressive effects and inertial development characteristics, and their effects on themselves are declining year by year, and the degree of attenuation of high-quality development is more obvious. The ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin play a positive role in promotion, but due to the overall low level of ecological protection and high-quality development and uneven internal development, the mechanism of action of the two is not significant.

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    New patterns of globalization and food security
    CHEN Yang-fen, WANG Jie-yong, ZHANG Feng-rong, LIU Yan-sui, CHENG Sheng-kui, ZHU Jing, SI Wei, FAN Sheng-gen, GU Shan-song, HU Bing-chuan, LI Xian-de, YU Xiao-hua
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1362-1380.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210602
    Abstract310)   HTML8)    PDF (1155KB)(44)      

    The world is undergoing tremendous changes, and food security is encountering major challenges in China and even the world. In order to systematically study globalization and explore its new patterns, new issues and new paths for food security, we interviewed ten distinguished professors from different fields and discussed hot topics, including the potential for increasing farmland production, agricultural water and soil resources and food production, food waste, international agricultural product trade, stable supply of key agricultural product, global agricultural food system, dual circulation pattern and corporate actions, global food production and consumption, international food security governance, and cutting-edge research on food safety. The result shows that the global agricultural food system has entered an era of complexity and high risk. International food security governance is facing challenges in terms of resources, binding force and action power. We are facing an increasing pressure of import dependent agricultural products to ensure stable supply. It is necessary to deepen supply-side reform and strengthen demand-side management so as to guarantee national food security. New changes have taken place in globalization. This will test China's ability to deepen agricultural opening-up, participate in global food security governance, and achieve national food security. In the face of complex international and domestic situations, for better national food security governance, it is necessary to adhere to system thinking and coordinate domestic and international markets. It is also very important to target the entire industry chain, emphasize risk control, and handle the relationship between the government and the market. Furthermore, researchers need to explore the internal relationships and specific mechanisms between food security and other important issues, such as food systems, ecosystems, high-quality development goals, agricultural opening-up, and new dual-circulation development patterns. This could provide a scientific reference for establishing and improving the national food security strategy of "featuring self-sufficiency based on domestic grain production, guaranteed food production capacity, moderate imports, and technological support" in the New Era.

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    The evolution of "Production-Living-Ecological" space, eco-environmental effects and its influencing factors in China
    KONG Dong-yan, CHEN Hui-guang, WU Kong-sen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1116-1135.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210503
    Abstract300)   HTML4)    PDF (6502KB)(80)      

    Based on the remote sensing monitoring data of land use change/cover in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018, using land use transfer matrix, eco-environmental quality index, and ecological contribution ratio of land use transition, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal features of "Production-Living-Ecological" space structural transformation and eco-environmental effects of land use/cover change in China from 1990 to 2018. On this basis, we identify the main influencing factors of eco-environmental effects and the spatial heterogeneity by using geographically weighted regression model. The results showed that: (1) The production and living space increased, the ecological space decreased, and the overall situation was insufficient from 1990 to 2018 in the whole country. (2) The high-value areas of eco-environmental quality were concentrated to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line during 1990-2018, and mainly in the south and northeast of China. The low-value areas were mainly distributed to the northwest of Hu Huanyong Line. The squeeze of other ecological space and agricultural production space on grassland and woodland ecological space is an important reason for the deterioration of the eco-environment during the study period. (3) Slope, annual precipitation, land use intensity, elevation, topographic relief, population density, and average annual temperature were the main factors influencing eco-environmental quality pattern in China, and the spatial difference of the effect of each factor was obvious. Chinese policies on economic development should take into account the eco-environmental effect of "Production-Living-Ecological" space transformation and influencing factors in the future, and promote the rational distribution of "Production-Living-Ecological" space and the construction of ecological civilization in China.

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    System dynamics simulation on China's energy consumption in 2050: Based on the policy scenarios of key industries
    HE Ze, ZHOU Yan-nan, LIU Yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2696-2707.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201111
    Abstract294)   HTML0)    PDF (1670KB)(58)      

    Based on the new trend of world energy development in 2050 and the reality of China's development, how to realize energy transition and ensure oil and gas demand is a major forward-looking issue concerning China's national security. This study simulates the changes in the quantity and structure of primary energy of China based on the policy scenarios of key industries. And it also analyzes the demand of oil and gas in China and its oversea dependence in 2050. The results show that: (1) By implementing the active energy transition policies, the value of primary energy consumption is expected to peak in 2040, with a maximum value of 5755 to 7000 mtce. For different types of energy, coal consumption can reach its peak by 2030, oil consumption will peak in 2040 under both transition scenarios, and natural gas consumption will peak in 2035 under accelerated transition scenario. (2) From the perspective of advancing the transition of the energy structure, China's coal consumption will account for 21% of the total energy amount in 2050 under the transition scenario, and coal will account for less than 10% of total energy consumption by 2050 under the accelerated transition scenario. In both of the transition and the accelerated transition scenarios, oil and gas consumption will account for 30% of China's total energy amount in 2050. If a more active transition policy is implemented, no-fossil energy will be the most important energy sources for China in 2050 in the accelerated transition scenario. (3) High demand and relatively low domestic production of oil/gas will lead to a high level of China's oversea dependence in a mid- and long-term trend. Therefore, the supply of oil and gas to the national energy security in 2050 cannot be ignored based on the policy scenarios of key industries. This research can provide a scientific basis for the policy making of China's energy security.

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    Variation of grain sizes for surface sediments of Fozhang dune in Yarlung Zangbo River Valley
    PAN Mei-hui, YANG An-na, WU Yong-qiu, MA Jian-jun, XUE Wen-xuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (12): 3076-3088.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201221
    Abstract288)   HTML12)    PDF (3500KB)(139)      

    Mountain rivers are generally featured by deep-cut river valley and steep side slopes, which is prone to landslide-dammed lake and outburst floods. Taking 2018.10.10 Baige landslide-dammed lake in Jinsha river as an example, wind reworked the outburst flood sediments and developed a plenty of sand dunes at the bank of Jinsha river. This studies about aeolian dunes in the Yarlung Zangbo River, to some extent, could provide some implication for the sedimentary distinction of aeolian sand and original flood deposit, and has some significance for engineering control of aeolian dune in this region. In this paper, a slope climbing dune in the floodplain of the middle and lower reaches of Yarlung Zangbo River, we analyzed the grain size characteristics and and spatial differentiation of surface sediments on four overlapping crescent-shaped dunes of a climbing dune, named Fozhang dune in the lower Yarlung Zangbo. The results of particle size analysis show that frequency distribution curves of the surface sediment of Fozhang dune, dominated by poorly sorted medium sand, is extremely positive biased and narrowly peaked. In the case of four individual superimposed crescent-shaped dune, the coarsest and best sorted particle fraction emerges at the top of the slope. On the whole, the surface sediment of Fozhang dune has become finer and better sorted towards the crest, which results from the combined sorting of wind and gravity. The grain size characteristics of Fozhang dune is comparable to other aeolian dunes of similar genesis. However, Sahu criterion indicates that the Fozhang dune is fluvial-originated. Maybe Sahu criterion cannot identify aeolian sand of very proximal material source from river floodplain. The comparison of grain size characteristics of sand samples with those of floodplain suggests that Fozhang dune is mainly provided with sand source by materials carried by rivers.

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    Delimitation of urban growth boundary in ecologically vulnerable areas in the Upper Yellow River: Take Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture as an example
    YANG Xue-di, BAI Yong-ping, CHE Lei, ZHOU Liang, QIAO Fu-wei, WANG Zhi-guo
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 162-175.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210111
    Abstract287)   HTML8)    PDF (4694KB)(90)      

    The Yellow River Basin is an important ecological barrier and economic zone in China, and its upstream water-conserving areas play a decisive role in the sustainable ecological development of the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, scientific coordination of urban and rural development and reasonable delineation of urban growth boundary (UGB) are of great significance for ecological protection and high-quality urban development in the Upper Yellow River Basin. This paper takes Linxia, a typical prefecture-level city in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, as the research object, and assesses its ecological quality based on land use and related remote sensing data using remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) and ecological sensitivity analysis. On this basis, the future urban growth boundary development with and without ecological quality assessment conditions is analyzed in combination with CA-Markov comparison. The results show that: (1) From 2005 to 2015, the overall ecological environment of the study area was poor and decreased year by year, and the ecological quality (RSEI) result dropped to the lowest (0.38) in 2015. Meanwhile, the ecological sensitivity changed from moderate to low sensitivity. (2) The urban expansion area increased by 6.04 km2, and the scale of urban construction land in 2030 obtained by CA-Markov simulation was 95.88 km2, which exceeded the planned area by 3.2 km2, and the urban expansion was not effectively restrained. (3) Simulation of RSEI-CA-Markov shows that the urban construction land in 2030 is 90.36 km2, which is smaller than the planned government planning area of 3.3 km2, and meets the requirements of urban sustainable development. Based on this, the designated UGB has stronger urban management capabilities. The delineation of UGB in the ecologically fragile area in the Upper Yellow River is conducive to guiding and realizing sustainable urban development, which can also provide reference for the sustainable development of other ecologically fragile cities in China.

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    Change in grain production in China and its impacts on spatial supply and demand distributions in recent two decades
    LIU Zheng-jia, ZHONG Hui-min, LI Yu-rui, WEN Qi, LIU Xue-qi, JIAN Yu-qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1413-1425.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210605
    Abstract285)   HTML9)    PDF (3920KB)(58)      

    China is feeding roughly 20% of the world's population with less than 9% of the world's cultivated land. The food security at national and regional scales has been a major concern. In this study, we took the province-level area as the research unit and utilized GIS spatial analysis and statistical tools to examine the overall characteristics of grain production changes, the evolution characteristics of regional patterns and the impact of these changes on regional grain supply and demand pattern in China during 1999-2018. The results showed that the total national grain output significantly increased with an annual rate of 1.1 million tons. The total grain output of Northern China showed a significant growth trend, while that of Southern China remained stable. The increment of maize yield played a leading role in these changes. The spatio-temporal yield variations of five major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, beans and tubers) were quite different in the past 20 years at provincial-level scale. The change of grain yield had great influence on regional grain supply and demand pattern. Particularly, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces located in the southeast coastal region had changed from supply-oriented provinces of major grains with rice and wheat into demand-oriented provinces. However, the per capita share of grain was 368.0 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 period(the five-year average during 1999-2003) and 461.5 kg/person in Y 2014-2018 period (the five-year average during 2014-2018) at national-level scale, respectively; and the per capita share of the two major grains was 220.3 kg/person and 247.6 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 and Y 2014-2018 periods, respectively. The change of sown area was the direct reason for the change of grain crop yield at national and regional scales. Nevertheless, the fundamental reason was more attributed to the change of attribution, function and quality, which is driven by land use value. Our study classified the reasons for the decrement of cultivated land into "non-agriculture" "non-grain" "wastage" and "ecology" types. Considering the formation causes of each type, the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable use of regional cultivated land were put forward in order to provide reference for the adjustment of regional grain planting pattern and the transformation of demand-oriented provinces of two major types of grain to self-sufficient provinces.

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    Hotspot identification and cause analysis of rural tourism based on website data:Take Jiangsu province as an example
    RONG Hui-fang, TAO Zhuo-min
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (12): 2848-2861.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201203
    Abstract283)   HTML18)    PDF (3249KB)(72)      

    Rural tourism has important practical significance for optimizing the rural industrial structure, and recovering the rural economy, especially for the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy. Thus, rural tourism is not only the focus of local government and tourism enterprises, but also a hot topic in domestic and international tourism research. At the same time, with the development and popularization of the Internet, travel websites, social software and other online platforms have become important tools to obtain travel information, make travel decisions, and share travel experiences. Tourism big data provides data sources and methodological support for rural tourism research. Based on data of tourism network, this paper puts forward a method for identifying rural tourism hotspots. Taking Jiangsu province as an example, this paper uses the methods of trend surface, nuclear density estimation and hot spot analysis to explore the cold and hot patterns of rural tourism, and reveals the influencing factors of the evolution with the help of geographic detectors. The results show that: (1) The annual and seasonal changes of rural tourism heat are obvious. The annual change presents s an "S" shaped evolution track, seasonal variation is characterized by "three peaks and four valleys", but the degree of seasonal influence on different types of rural tourist attractions is slightly different. (2) The spatial structure of rural tourism in Jiangsu province experienced the evolution of "mononuclear-dual-nuclear-trinuclear" in 2009-2017, but its heterogeneity is still significant, basically maintaining the overall characteristics of "high in the south and east regions, while low in the north and west regions". The hot spots are concentrated in southern Jiangsu and gradually evolve into cold spots in the north. The evolution of spatial structure shows a trend of "expanding from the west to the north". (3) There are obvious strength differences and time variations among the influencing factors. Transportation convenience and reception capacity have always been the main influencing factors. The economic development has a significant positive impact on the early development of rural tourism, and the influence of tourism resource tends to decline. The positive influence of ecological environment and government orientation on rural tourism is increasing. Hotspot identification based on network data provides a new perspective for quantitative research of rural tourism. In terms of practicability, it is helpful to clarify the evolution characteristics of the cold and hot patterns of rural tourism so as to provide important guiding significance for rural tourism resource development and regional cooperation.

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    Spatial pattern evolution of cities and influencing factors in the historical Yellow River Basin
    WANG Chang-song, DUAN Yun-xin, ZHANG Ran
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 69-86.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210105
    Abstract282)   HTML8)    PDF (3587KB)(86)      

    The spatial pattern evolution of the cities in the historical Yellow River Basin will help us understand the characteristics and development context of human settlements, which plays a key role in ecological protection and urban development in the Yellow River Basin today. This article uses the time series data of cities (BC763-AD1911) in the CHGIS database of Harvard University, the elevation data of STRM, the regional data of nine major basins in China, and the historical population data. It studies the spatio-temporal pattern evolution of cities in the Yellow River Basin, as well as the influencing factors. The results show that: (1) The changes in the number of cities can be divided into five stages. (2) The first level continous stable region includes the high-density urban area in northern Henan with present Anyang as the center, high-density urban area in Guanzhong with present Xi'an as the center, and the secondary high-density area with Jinan, Taiyuan and Luoyang as the center. The second level continuous stable region includes five important city belts, namely, Weihe River city belt, Fenhe River city belt, northern foot city belt of central Shandong mountainous region, eastern foot city belt of Taihang Mountains and Grand Canal city belt. (3) The average distance of city gravity migration is 32 km, and the average distance of population gravity migration is 95.78 km. The distribution of cities and population is closely related. (4) Natural factors such as temperature and precipitation, elevation, distance from the rivers, downstream avulsions of the Yellow River, as well as human factors such as wars, capital transfer and canals, had jointly influenced the spatial and temporal distribution of cities in the Yellow River Basin.

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    Provincial distribution of China's carbon emission rights and assessment of its emission reduction potential under the Paris Agreement
    TIAN Yun, LIN Zi-juan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (4): 921-933.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210409
    Abstract282)   HTML9)    PDF (1577KB)(62)      

    In this paper, the provincial distribution is completed by constructing a regional distribution model of carbon emission rights. On this basis, the initial space balance is clarified by comparing with the actual carbon emissions in various places. Then, the potential of carbon emission reduction in regions lacking carbon emission rights is comprehensively evaluated. The results show that: (1) The distribution of carbon emission rights in 30 provinces of China is quite different, among which Yunnan has the highest quota, accounting for 10.53%, while Ningxia has the least quota, accounting for only 0.28%. (2) The initial space balance of carbon emission rights in 14 provinces of China shows a surplus state, which can be divided into three types according to the difference of causes, namely "low emission, high quota", "low emission, low quota" and "high emission, high quota". All the other 16 provinces show some degree of deficiency. Combined with the numerical differences, they can be identified into three types: 4 provinces with slight deficiency represented by Jiangsu, 7 with moderate deficiency represented by Tianjin, and 5 with severe deficiency represented by Liaoning. (3) Currently, Zhejiang, Tianjin and Shandong have significantly higher carbon emission reduction potential than other regions, while the carbon emission reduction potential level of each region shows certain convergence but is not completely consistent with a lack of carbon emission rights.

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    Remote sensing monitoring and analysis of influencing factors of drought in Inner Mongolia growing season since 2000
    QIN Yi, ZHANG Ting-bin, YI Gui-hua, WEI Peng-tao, YANG Da
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 459-475.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210215
    Abstract278)   HTML14)    PDF (5117KB)(71)      

    This article takes Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as the research area. The Ts-NDVI space is created by using MODIS 16d synthetic vegetation index product data MOD13A2 and 8d synthetic surface temperature product data MOD11A2. Additionally, based on the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) in Inner Mongolia during 2000-2017 growing season, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in the study area are analyzed, and the influencing factors of drought are discussed by using air temperature and precipitation data. The results show that: (1) The average TVDI of Inner Mongolia was 0.6 in the growing season from 2000 to 2017, and the area of heavy and moderate drought was the largest, during which 2007 and 2010 are the years with the most severe drought. The spatial differentiation of drought was obvious. The moderate and slight drought mainly occurred in the central and southwest parts, respectively, and severe drought was observed in the Hulun Buir grassland to the west of Da Higgan Mountains. (2) In the past 18 years, the drought degree in Inner Mongolia showed a slight increase trend, and the interannual variation θslope ranged from -0.07 to 0.7. (3) In the growing season of 2017, drought was most serious in June and September, and drought occurred frequently and severely in the Hulun Buir grassland and western Ordos Plateau. (4) TVDI is positively correlated with the average temperature, negatively correlated with the cumulative precipitation and slightly negatively correlated with the slope, positively correlated with the elevation of less than 1300 m, and negatively correlated with the elevation of greater than 1300 m. The analysis of partial correlation between TVDI and climatic factors in Inner Mongolia growing season shows that the drought in northern Sonid Left Banner of Xilin Gol League, Oroqen Autonomous Banner and Hulun Buir grassland has a significant positive correlation with temperature (P<0.01), and that in northeastern Xilin Gol League has a significant negative correlation with precipitation (P<0.01); among the climatic factors, the average temperature has a stronger impact on drought than cumulative precipitation does.

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    Spatical dynamics of the territories and balance areas of energy power between the US and China
    LIU Cheng-liang, WANG Jie, DU De-bin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2596-2612.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201104
    Abstract278)   HTML3)    PDF (1137KB)(43)      

    To date, there are two significant issues including the "shale gas revolution" in the US and the rise of China, which have restructured greatly the distribution and hierarchies of international energy power system. On the basis of two theories of power interdependence and balance in international politics and geopolitics, this paper constructs the theoretical framework and models of energy power, and portrays spatial dynamics of energy power territories and balance areas between the US and China. Results are obtained as follows: First of all, with the rapid evolution of international energy power system and energy trade network, the energy power space of China and the United States has undergone tremendous changes. Secondly, the coal power and natural gas power spaces between China and the United States have basically formed relatively stable regional groups. China's crude oil power space maintains a strong global expansion trend, while the US crude oil power space faces transformation and reconstruction. Thirdly, the balance areas of energy power between China and the United States are constantly fragmented and relatively concentrated in most parts of Europe, Southern Africa and East Asia. According to the characteristics of energy resources and geopolitics, they are divided into five types, namely, the resource endowment type, the resource consumption type, the geographical channel type, the political and economic separation type, and the third-country controling type. Finally, focusing on these types, we suggest some policies. It is necessary to enlarge energy trades and investments with resource endowment countries, to strengthen energy technology cooperation with resource market-oriented countries, to ensure the security and fluent flows of energy transport channels, to strengthen economic cooperation with the political-economic separation countries to influence their diplomatic policies, and to reasonably arrange energy cooperation with the third-country controlling countries. These conclusions are expected to play a guiding role in China's energy trade cooperation, which is of great significance to this country's energy security.

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    Spatiotemporal evolution and its influencing factors of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China
    CONG Li, YU Jia-ping, WANG Ling-en
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (12): 2831-2847.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201202
    Abstract277)   HTML18)    PDF (5100KB)(84)      

    The interaction between human beings and wild animals has a profound and complex history. Wildlife tourism has gradually been seen as a compatible medium for people to interact with nature and wild animals. Along with the increasing demand in China, the supply of wildlife-themed tourist attractions, to some extent, has disordered competition, resulting in a waste of resources. Therefore, it is necessary to sort and analyze the resource base of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China. Selecting 574 semi-consumptive wildlife tourism attractions in China from 1906 to 2019 as objects of study, this paper analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution, evolution characteristics as well as the related influencing factors of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China, using models such as inter-annual variability index, nearest neighbor index, geographic concentration index, the Gini coefficient and the nuclear density analysis. The results show that: (1) In terms of time, the opening time of semi-consumptive wildlife tourist attractions in China is scattered, and can be roughly divided into four stages, namely the exploration stage (1906-1948), rapid development stage (1949-1959), slow development stage (1960-1992) and high-speed development stage (1993-2019). (2) In terms of space, the attractions present a cohesive distribution, and are geographically concentrated. The development between regions is highly unbalanced. Three high-density areas have formed with Beijing, Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai and Guangzhou as cores. Overall, there are more attractions in the eastern and southern coastal areas and less in the western part of China, with a transition in central China. Over time, the cohesion form continues and geographic concentration index gradually decreases approaching the assumed average level. However, the growth between regions is increasingly unbalanced. (3) The distribution of wildlife tourist attractions is influenced by development of history and national policies concerning the protection of wildlife animals, and has a certain positive correlation with the local factors such as population, the degree of economic development and the scale of tourism development. The attractions tend to be located in areas with great regional advantages, high population density, developed economy and leading tourism development. The research conclusion provides an overall cognition of spatial and temporal distribution of semi-consumptive wildlife attractions in China and will be the scientific basis and reference for investors and relevant managers to promote the further development and planning of wildlife tourism in the future.

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    Evaluation of water and land resources system bearing capacity and path optimization for rural revitalization
    QU Lu-lu, WANG Yong-sheng, LIU Yan-sui, MA Qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 300-314.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210203
    Abstract276)   HTML11)    PDF (4205KB)(120)      

    The balance of water and land resources system in pastoral ecotone is the guarantee for the development of regional farming and animal husbandry. Taking Yanchi county of Ningxia as an example, this paper evaluates the carrying capacity of water and land resources based on matter element model and studies the driving factors affecting the change of carrying capacity of water and land resources, analyses the factors affecting the carrying capacity of water and land resources and their regional differences, and explores the optimization path of dual guidance of economy and society as well as resources and ecology. The results show that: (1) The carrying capacity of water and land resources of Yanchi county presented a symmetrical X-shaped pattern at a medium level and had great potential for development. Huamachi and Huianpu had higher carrying capacity, while Mahuangshan, Wanglejing and Dashuikeng had the lower. (2) There were obvious regional differences in the coupling and coordination of water and land resources in rural areas of Yanchi county in 2018, and the whole study area was in the antagonistic coupling stage. The coupling and coordination degree of towns was relatively high, while that of rural areas was relatively low. (3) There is a lack of synchronization between water resources and land resources utilization. Water resources lagging areas should take water resources adaptive management and control measures and "ecological conservation + water conservation" to protect mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands and lakes in a coordinated way. Land resources utilization lagging areas should actively explore the main function-oriented zoning, dominant type classification and principal purpose classification optimal distribution strategy of land resources in farming and animal husbandry space in combination with land engineering control measures and industrial restructuring. The strategy of synchronous optimization of resources use, ecological protection and socio-economic development based on the balance of water and land resources in rural areas of Yanchi county provides research reference for the development of agricultural transformation and the implementation of rural revitalization program in the pastoral ecotone.

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    Evolving characteristics and driving mechanism of coal consumption in ChinaBased on the perspective of supply and demand
    WANG Chang-jian, WANG Fei, YE Yu-yao, ZHANG Xin-lin, SU Yong-xian, JIANG Lu, LI Zeng, ZHANG Hong-ou
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (11): 2708-2723.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201112
    Abstract265)   HTML10)    PDF (2594KB)(55)      

    China has been the world's largest energy consumer and carbon dioxide emitter. The evolution trend of China's coal consumption and its driving mechanism have always been a topic of concern to researchers and policy makers. Taking China's total coal consumption of 2.8 billion tons of standard coal in 2013 as the key time point, a comparative analysis of the differences in the dynamics of coal consumption mechanisms has been conducted. An extended LMDI model based on the classical IPAT identity and an input output-structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA) model were adopted to determine the main driving factors for coal consumption in China. The impacts and influences of various factors on coal consumption were different in different development stages. China's coal consumption was mainly driven by the effects of economic growth, energy intensity, industrial structure and energy structure. The slowdown in GDP growth since the economy entered the "New Normal", the in-depth adjustment of the industrial structure and energy structure, and the continuous decline in energy consumption intensity were the key to the decline in total coal consumption since 2013. Based on the demand-side structural decomposition analysis, China's coal consumption was mainly affected by capital formation, exports, and urban household consumption. The embodied coal consumption of Chinese exports has peaked after the global financial crisis in 2007. Coal consumption induced by urban household consumption surpassed export-induced coal consumption in 2017, which became the second largest demand-side driver of China's total coal consumption growth. Based on the perspective of final demand, coal consumption by sectoral industry performed a changing feature of "driven by exports→driven by capital formation→driven by urban household consumption". The industry's coal resource dependence has gradually decreased. China's total coal consumption has entered a peak stage with the maximum value appearing in 2013.

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