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    Impacts of Water Transfer from the Yellow River on Water Environment in the Receiving Area of the Fenhe River
    YUAN Rui-qiang, ZHANG Wen-xin, WANG Peng, WANG Shi-qin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2018, 33 (8): 1416-1426.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170691
    Abstract1668)   HTML10)    PDF (7021KB)(378)      
    The project of water transfer from the Yellow River to the Fenhe River launched in 2003 relieved water shortage in Taiyuan. However, the impacts of the polluted Yellow River on the water environment of upper reach area of the Fenhe River were seldom reported. Based on long term observations and samplings, physicochemical properties, major ions, the typical pollutant DBP and Escherichia coli in the receiving river were measured. Results show water transfer imposed great impacts on hydrologic processes and water environment of river and groundwater in the receiving area. The hydrological process of high stage in rainy seasons and low stage in dry seasons was inversed by the Yellow River water transfer project. High water stage in dry seasons was due to huge amount of water transfer, and low stage in rainy seasons was owing to the temporary stop of the water transfer. At the same time, the accelerated velocity of the receiving river increased the river bottom erosion, which could enhance the exchange between the river and the shallow groundwater in the riparian zone. The river water recharged groundwater in saturated condition during the whole hydrologic year, and the water table depth of shallow groundwater was significantly decreased. The risk of flooding might greatly increase. Water environmental degradation was also triggered by the water transfer. The dissolved salts and organic contaminant contents in the receiving river and the shallow groundwater increased. EC value of the Fenhe River was doubled with the geochemical face of the river water changed from Ca-HCO 3 to Na-Cl·SO 4 by the water transfer. Also, DOC and UV 254 of the river water were increased by 26% and 24%, respectively. When water transfer stopped periodically, the hydro-chemical features of the receiving river recovered. However, the obvious impacts of water transfer on the shallow groundwater in the riparian zone remained. In the long term, excessive Na + and Cl - imported by the water transfer would make the environment of the receiving area worse, and the elevated evaporation rate of soil moisture and the shallow water table depth would lead to the occurrence of soil salting and vegetation degradation.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    New-type urbanization, well-being of residents, and the response of land spatial planning
    CHEN Ming-xing, ZHOU Yuan, TANG Qing, LIU Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1273-1287.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200602
    Abstract1455)   HTML22)    PDF (1996KB)(218)      
    The urbanization of China has entered the middle and late stage, and the connotation of the people-centered urbanization needs to be further enriched and refined. The land spatial planning is the key to the practice of the new-type urbanization and ecological civilization construction. This paper proposes that the improvement of well-being of residents is the core of the people-centered urbanization. It sorts out relevant domestic and foreign studies on the connotation of well-being, summarizes the subjective and objective measure index systems and methods of well-being, and examines the factors influencing well-being and happiness of residents. In this study, we draw on the experience of foreign spatial planning and take the improvement of the well-being of urban and rural residents as one of the guiding principles for the compilation of land spatial planning. In the process of the practice of land spatial planning, it is necessary to focus on public health, disaster risk assessment system and construction of urban resilience, optimization of "production-living-ecological" spaces, community living spatial planning, fine-scale management, and big data and intelligent decision-making system. Urbanization is the indispensable important component of national spatial planning, and the establishment of national spatial planning promotes the high-quality development of new-type urbanization and the well-being of urban-rural residents. So, we should show great concern on urban scale hierarchy structure, the pattern of population flow network, peri-urbanization and local urbanization, basic allocation and equalization of public service of urban and rural areas, the impacts of climate change and urban disaster risk management, and the basic research of the new-type urbanization, such as the evolution of man-land relationship in the rapid urbanization.
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    Reform logic of territorial space use regulation and the response path of land spatial planning
    ZHANG Xiao-ling, LYU Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1261-1272.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200601
    Abstract1338)   HTML19)    PDF (1061KB)(192)      
    Under the macro background of improving the system of ecological civilization, to promote the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity, the paper systematically combs the origin, implementation characteristics, effectiveness and shortcomings of land use regulation system, focuses on analyses of the reform logic of the transformation from land use regulation to territorial space use regulation and its specific requirements for territorial spatial planning, so as to provide reference for improving the territorial spatial planning system. The results show that: (1) The land use regulation system emphasizes the protection of cultivated land, and establishes a complete control chain of land use classification - land use planning - land use plan - approval and supervision with the newly added construction land as the main control object. The land use regulation system has achieved good results in protecting cultivated land, ensuring food security, forcing the conservation and intensive use of land and improving the awareness of using land in accordance with laws and regulations. But there are still some deficiencies, such as incomplete coverage, too rigid regulation, and weak regulation of ecological land. (2) The construction of ecological civilization is the logical starting point of territorial space use regulation. And territorial space use regulation is transforming from single land type protection to space overall planning, from land use type regulation to space management and control, from index transmission to the combination of index and zoning, from bottom line restriction to both constraint and guidance, to build a whole process and diversified regulatory rule system and improve the spatial transmission mechanism of territorial space use regulation, and then realize the unified control of all elements of territorial space. (3) In the face of the needs of the era of territorial space use regulation, the reform of territorial spatial planning should make positive responses in the aspects of systematic and integrated control index system, zoning system covering the whole region and linking up the upper and lower planning, flexible mechanism of planning implementation combining bottom line constraint and incentive guidance, and "whole chain" management mechanism, and then realize the coordinated management and control of different levels of territorial spatial planning and territorial space use regulation.
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    Spatiotemporal evolution of effective accumulated temperatures of ≥5 ℃ and ≥10 ℃ based on grid data in China from 1961 to 2016
    LI Shuai, ZHANG Bo, MA Bin, HOU Qi, HE Hang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1216-1227.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200516
    Abstract1301)   HTML12)    PDF (4670KB)(237)      
    In order to figure out the impact of climate warming on crop planting areas, this paper used grid data to analyze agricultural heat resources in China based on methods of Sliding Mean Temperature of Five Days, accumulated anomaly, Manner-Kendall test and multiple regression interpolation. The results showed that: (1) The effective accumulative temperatures (≥5 ℃ and ≥10 ℃) show an overall upward trend, and the accumulative temperature of ≥5 ℃ is more remarkable. The southern region has the highest inclination rate, followed by the northern region, and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has the smallest, while the cumulative temperatures of the Qinling-Daba mountains show a decreasing trend. (2) The effective accumulated temperatures (≥5 ℃ and ≥10 ℃) present a similar spatial distribution, namely, the accumulated temperature varied with latitude from south to north and varied with altitude from east to west. The eastern and central regions of China are obviously affected by latitude, while the western region is affected more by altitude than latitude. The area suitable for planting chimonophilous crop is larger than that suitable for thermophilic crop. (3) The effective accumulated temperatures of both ≥5 ℃ and ≥10 ℃ mutated in 1997, and both of their boundaries show a tendency toward northward and high altitude. The cumulative temperature increment in the south is larger than that in the north. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and mountain areas with high altitude have the smallest increase, while cumulative temperature increment is negative in the Qinling Mountains. (4) The initial days (closing day) of the effective accumulated temperature (≥5 ℃ and ≥10 ℃) presented an overall phenomenon of advance (delay), and the number of advance (delay) days is mostly within 0-10 days. Both of their durations increased overall after mutation. The number of initial days (closing day) in advance (delay) is the largest in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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    The Conception and Connotation of Ecological Conservation Cooperation and Framework Construction of Cooperation Mechanism
    ZHANG Yong-xun, MIN Qing-wen, BAI Yan-ying, LIU Mou-cheng, SUN Xue-ping, HE Lu-lu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2015, 30 (7): 1067-1077.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.07.001
    Abstract1171)   HTML3)    PDF (984KB)(67)      

    Ecological environment problems are spreading from some small areas to wide areas across administrative regions due to unreasonable economic development. In this condition, the governments of the connected ecologically regions have to cooperate mutually to alleviate the ecological environment problems. Therefore, the ecological conservation cooperation (ECC) between administrative regions will gradually become usual. However, in the process of making ECC schemes, many significant questions need to be resolved, such as what ECC is, how many parts ECC consists of and how to make a reasonable ECC scheme between cooperators. These questions are all very critical for successful cooperation in resolving ecological environment problems. So far, the term“ecological conservation cooperation (ECC)”still was not defined clearly and accurately, and there is also not a systematical example about researching ECC. Constructing a framework of researching ECC is greatly significant to applied ecology, and will help resolving practically environmental problems. In this paper, based on the review of domestic and abroad researches on ecological cooperation, we gave ECC an accurate definition that is“the joint actions taken by stakeholders according to common agreements, in order to improve and protect ecological environment in a certain spatial scope where there are same ecological environment problems”, explained its connotation, and constructed a framework of ECC, including its compositions, research procedures, main types of cooperation, supervision and evaluations on the implication of ECC. In detail, The composition of ECC consists of the basis and purposes of cooperation, the cooperators, the supervision and evaluation systems; the procedure to construct the cooperation needs ten steps which include diagnosing regionally ecological problem, determining cooperators, finding out the objects of cooperation, clearing relationship between cooperators, mapping out cooperation scheme, consulting opinions about the scheme, implementing the scheme, supervising cooperators to carry out the scheme, evaluating, improving the schemes; there are six types of cooperation, which are labor service cooperation, engineering technology cooperation, industrial development cooperation, economic compensation cooperation, cooperation on ecological environment management, education and talent cooperation. Supervision and evaluation of ecological cooperation also involves four aspects which are supervision and evaluation on scheme implication, evaluation on the rationality of the cooperation scheme, evaluation of the supervision, re-evaluation periodically and eventual evaluation on the ecological environment qualities after implementing the ECC scheme.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    A review on the impact of land use/land cover change on ecosystem services from a spatial scale perspective
    ZHANG Yu-shuo, WU Dian-ting, LYU Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1172-1189.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200513
    Abstract1156)   HTML15)    PDF (1774KB)(201)      
    As an important link between human and natural systems, ecosystem services are closely related to human well-being and sustainable development. Land use/land cover change (LUCC) is one of the important drivers for ecosystem services change, and it has a significant impact on ecosystem services at the local, regional and global scales. Under the background of ecological civilization construction, it is very important to understand the spatial characteristics, differences and correlation at multi spatial scales. It is beneficial for studying the scale effect profoundly, coordinating the decision-making of multi-level management institutions and alleviating the constraints of scarce ecosystem services on socio-economic development. From the perspective of spatial scale, we summarized the concepts of spatial scale on this topic and introduced the analytical framework for considering spatial scale effect based on the recent theoretical and empirical developments. Then, we systematically analyzed the scale selection basis, features and correlation on the impact of LUCC on ecosystem services at different spatial scales, following the research thinking and process. Furthermore, we evaluated the research approach used to study the impact of LUCC on ecosystem services at both single scale and multi scales. This review put forward the key questions which should be considered in studies on the scale effect as follows: (1) building a research framework combining humanistic factors with natural factors; (2) explaining the scale effect of LUCC on ecosystem services; (3) exploring the effective analytical methods of the scale effect of LUCC on ecosystem services.
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    Implications from pattern and evolution of global rice trade: A complex network analysis
    ZHOU Mo-zhu, WANG Jie-yong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1055-1067.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200504
    Abstract1154)   HTML8)    PDF (2201KB)(148)      
    Based on the complex network theory and trade data from 2000 to 2016, a global rice trade network was constructed. This study quantitatively analysed pattern and evolution of the network and the role of China in global rice trade. The results show that the scale of network expanded and interdependence between nodes increased during the research period. The complexity and heterogeneity of the global rice trade network are obvious. Core nodes play leading roles in the stability of the network. The characteristics of importing countries are dispersed and volatile while those of exporting countries are centralized and stable. The global rice trade network in 2016 can be divided into six main communities. The largest one is led by India. Communities are often dominated by exporting countries and followed by importing countries inside. Geographical proximity is the most critical factor in the formation of community pattern. Trade choices of the demanding countries are becoming more important in the evolution of community structure. India, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Pakistan and USA are core nodes in the network. Southeast Asia, South Asia and East Asia are likely to maintain leading status of global rice production and trade. The importance of West Asia and Africa may further increase. As it is the largest rice importer in the world, the influence of China in the network is growing. But the import sources of China are over concentrated. It is suggested that we should continue to tap potential of global rice trade and take advantages of trade networks. In the premise of risks controllable, we can increase imports while optimizing exports and enhancing the complexity of our trade networks so as to improve the level of domestic food security.
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    Improvement of human sustainable development index and international comparison
    BI Ming-li, XIE Gao-di, YAO Cui-you
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1017-1029.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200501
    Abstract1149)   HTML21)    PDF (5248KB)(237)      

    It is an inevitable requirement to modify human development index (HDI) with greenness and fairness indicators. Using ecological footprint, this paper tried to construct the human-ecological sustainable development index (HEDI) based on panel data of 28 countries from 1990 to 2014, and analyzed the contribution of sub-indicators to HEDI with the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition approach. Fairness was adjusted to construct a comprehensive human-ecological sustainable development index (cHEDI) that could fully reflect the degree of economy, society, ecology and equal development comprehensively. We analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of HEDI and cHEDI with the index in 28 countries around the world. The results show that developed countries with high biomass surplus are highly sustainable, ranking higher than other countries. One of the main factors affecting sustainable development is high carbon emissions in these countries. Besides the high carbon emissions, the shortage of biomass resources is another unsustainable reason in the developed countries with biomass deficit, which maintain development by transferring assets from other countries. Unfairness leads to a decline in comprehensive sustainability in the United States. From 1990 to 2014, income and education in developing countries increased rapidly, but ecological consumption and Gini coefficient continued to rise, and the inhibitory effect gradually expanded to increase the unsustainability of development. The sustainability index of the United States and developing countries is greatly affected by the Gini coefficient. The United Arab Emirates ranked last in the world, with the least sustainable development mode. Although its income ranked first in the world, biomass and energy consumption was very high, and the Gini coefficient far exceeded that of other countries. The development of the least developed countries mainly came from contribution of health, education and low ecological consumption. Barren natural assets limited their further development. Different countries have different shortcomings in human sustainable development. The sub-divisions were highly correlated, hence to achieve the high level of human sustainable development requires better balance between society, economy, greenness, and fairness.

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    Evaluation on the ecosystem services value of the upper reaches of Yongding River
    ZAN Xin, ZHANG Yu-ling, JIA Xiao-yu, XIONG Guang-sen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1326-1337.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200606
    Abstract1139)   HTML11)    PDF (3712KB)(158)      
    Zhangjiakou city is the water conservation area and ecological function supporting area of Beijing, the capital of China. The upper reaches of Yongding River in Zhangjiakou play an important role in preserving water resources. In order to get a better understanding of the ecological value of water resources in the study area, various water ecological service functions were quantitatively evaluated in this study. With 2017 as the base year, and the InVEST model and market value method, the water supply in the study area was comprehensively evaluated and intuitively expressed by means of space and currency. In the study area, where spatial data were difficult to obtain, soil and water conservation and biodiversity values were evaluated with the equivalent factor method. The aquatic ecotourism value was calculated with the apportionment method. The results show that the total value is ¥ 5.514 billion, accounting for about 67.35% of the GDP (¥ 8.187 billion) of Zhangjiakou city. The water supply value, hydropower generation value, aquatic product production value, leisure and entertainment value and other direct service values reach ¥ 2.864 billion. Soil conservation, river sediment transport, biodiversity, and other indirect service values reach ¥ 2.650 billion. Water supply, recreation, and soil and water conservation functions play an important role in enhancing the value of regional aquatic ecosystems. The ecological value and economic value per unit area of the study area are ¥ 35 million and ¥ 23 million, respectively, and the ecological value is much higher than the economic value. At the same time, the comprehensive use of the above assessment methods has improved the reliability of the evaluation method and has certain reference significance in the areas without enough basic data.
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    Spatio-temporal changes of groundwater level and its driving factors in a typical region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China
    ZHAO Yu-feng, LUO Zhuan-xi, YU Ya-jun, CHEN Ying-hui, ZHANG Shu-gang, ZHANG Qing-hua
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1301-1313.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200604
    Abstract1138)   HTML10)    PDF (3030KB)(127)      
    The northwest of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is an important water conservation area and ecological barrier for Beijing and Tianjin. It is also an important regional support node for the "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development strategy". In order to reveal the spatial and temporal changes of groundwater level and its driving factors in northwest BTH region, 56 wells of groundwater level observation were selected from 1981 to 2015 in Zhangjiakou city as a typical region. Based on continuous observation data on hydrogeology, meteorology, groundwater resources exploitation and socioeconomic development, the spatial and temporal changes of groundwater level and its statistical analysis with the abovementioned data were performed in four geomorphic units of Bashang Plateau, Chaixuan Basin, Zhuohuai Basin and Yuyang Basin in the study area. Results showed that the groundwater level of the four geomorphic units in Zhangjiakou and districts and counties under its jurisdiction in general tended to decrease, and the decrease rate was gradually accelerated. In the past 35 years, the groundwater level of Bashang Plateau decreased by 3.59 m < 3.6 m in Yuyang Basin < 7.17 m in Zhuohuai Basin < 20.41 m in Chaixuan Basin. The changes of groundwater level in the four geomorphic units were not significantly correlated with natural factors such as precipitation, evaporation and temperature, but significant correlation between the total population and other socio-economic factors, including primary industry output value, common cultivated land area, effective irrigation area, total grain output, total vegetable output, total pork, beef and mutton output, secondary industry output value, tertiary industry output value and year-end total population. In the principal component analysis, the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first two principal components of the four geomorphic units was more than 80%. The first principal component was mainly socio-economic factors such as total vegetable production, total pork, beef and mutton production, year-end total population and output value of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries. All the first two principal components in the four geomorphic units can explain more than 66%, indicating that socio-economy was the main factor leading to the continuous decline of groundwater level in Zhangjiakou. The findings can provide new insights into the sustainable development of social economy and the rational utilization and allocation of regional water resources in the future, as well as water conservation and ecological function maintenance in the northwest of the BTH region.
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    The spatial and temporal variation pattern of irrigation water use and its relationship with drought in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain
    CHEN Zheng, WANG Wen-jie, JIANG Wei-guo, JIA Kai, CHEN Kun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1228-1237.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200517
    Abstract1117)   HTML5)    PDF (5645KB)(161)      
    This paper aims to analyze the variation pattern of irrigation water use in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain and its relationship with drought. Based on the irrigation water consumption and withdrawal data, GRACE data and scPDSI data, the relationship between irrigation water use and drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain was analyzed in this paper. The results showed that (1) irrigation water consumption accounts for about one-third of the water withdrawal. The irrigation water use in the southern part of Hebei province, Henan and Shandong province is higher than that of other regions. Irrigation water withdrawal in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain increased from 2003 to 2014, with a rate of about 37 mm/month. (2) The meteorological condition tended to be arid, and there was a significant nonlinear correlation between scPDSI and the number of cells with positive irrigation water withdrawal anomaly ( R 2=0.60), especially from August to December. (3) The obvious decrease of precipitation led to occurrence of drought events. Therefore, irrigation water withdrawal was increased to ensure grain production. This indicates that drought is a major cause for increased irrigation water use in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain and exacerbates the terrestrial water storage deficit.
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    Spatio-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of Chinese red tourism network attention
    GAO Nan, ZHANG Xin-cheng, WANG Lin-yan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1068-1089.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200505
    Abstract1112)   HTML15)    PDF (2914KB)(332)      
    Red tourism network attention degree is a typical method for measuring the performance level of red tourism development promotion, and it is also an important reflection of the influence of red tourism promotion level. This paper takes the "red tourism network attention degree" of 31 provincial-level regions as the research object, and uses the Moran index and panel vector autoregressive model to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics and the influencing factors of the red tourism network in China from 2011 to 2018. The results show: (1) The network attention of the national red tourism shows a fluctuant growth trend in the study period, and its seasonal difference is significant. (2) The national red tourism network attention shows a decreasing trend from the eastern to central and western regions, but the trend of attention in the red tourism 5A-level tourist attractions is prominent in the western region. (3) The attention of red tourism networks in the 31 provincial-level regions has significant global spatial autocorrelation. The phenomenon of "high-high" and "low-low" agglomerations is concentrated in the eastern region, and central and western region. (4) The contribution of the factors affecting red tourism network attention was ranked as follows: internet penetration rate > per capita GDP > tourism information index > regional media attention > red tourism classic scenic network attention.
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    The progress and prospects of research on food loss and waste
    LUO Yi, LI Xuan-fu, HUANG Dong, WU La-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1030-1042.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200502
    Abstract1092)   HTML12)    PDF (621KB)(171)      
    Concerns about food insecurity have grown in China due to growing population and food consumption structure improvement. The research and development practitioner has begun to focus on food loss and waste, often referred to as post-harvest losses (PHL), in China. PHL reduction has been identified as a key component to complement efforts to address food security challenges and increase farmers' incomes, especially for the rural poor. This article reviews the current state of the literature on PHL mitigation. First, we identify explicitly the varied objectives underlying efforts to reduce PHL levels. There are four main objectives of reducing post-harvest loss: (1) Improve food security and protect social stability. Reducing food loss increases the quantity of food, which can reduce the need to supplement availability through transfer programs (at household level) or via commercial imports or food aid donations. (2) Reduce unnecessary resource use and protect the environment. These resources come in the form of on-farm inputs, including water, chemical fertilizer, agrochemicals, labor, and land. (3) Improve food safety. Sometimes spoilage or contamination is not perceptible to the human senses and goes undetected, leading to adverse health effects when food is consumed. These food safety concerns have major disease and global health implications. (4) Increase profits for food value chain actors. The private sector, including smallholder farmers, plays a crucial role in making food available to consumers. Second, we summarize the estimated magnitudes of losses, evaluate the methodologies used to generate those estimates. Losses and waste can be measured in quantity and quality terms, and the commonly used loss estimation methods are case study, experimental method and questionnaire survey. So it is difficult to compare values due to differences in methods, especially the methodologies employed are often unsatisfactory. Third, we synthesize and critique the impact evaluation literature around on-farm and off-farm interventions expected to deliver PHL reduction. They include: (1) Improved varietals. Because of the compounding effects of pests and deterioration accumulated before harvest, interventions that aim to reduce PHL while crops are still in the field is arguably more effective than deploying strategies that only start after harvest. (2) Education on best practices in harvest and post-harvest handling. Interventions also occur around education for best practices in harvest and post-harvest handling, generally in the form of extension messaging. (3) Chemical sprays in storage. Many farmers use some form of chemical or natural spray during home-based storage as a means of keeping pests and insects away from food, but it may lead to negative environment or health effects. (4) Improved storage of grains through advanced technologies. The most widespread intervention strategy is the use of improved storage devices such as metal silos. (5) Integrated pest management in storage. The integrated pest management paradigm is generally discussed with respect to the prevalence of pests pre-harvest, but IPM can also be useful during storage. (6) Other methods include improving infrastructures and developing rural finance. Finally, we conclude with a summary of main points.
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    Agricultural drought and its association with meteorological drought: A case study of the Huaihe River Basin above the Bengbu Sluice, China
    LUO Gang, RUAN Tian, CHEN Cai, GAO Chao, LI Peng, MA Song-gen, LI He-li, WANG Huan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (4): 977-991.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200418
    Abstract1090)   HTML9)    PDF (3309KB)(151)      
    Based on the meteorological data of 60 stations above the Bengbu Sluice of Huaihe River from 1961 to 2015, crop water deficit index ( CWDI) and relative moisture index ( M) were calculated. By taking winter wheat drought as the representative of agricultural drought, the temporal and spatial characteristics of winter wheat drought and meteorological drought during the growth period were analyzed. The duration, severity and frequency of 30 major drought events were identified through the run theory, and the correlation between agricultural drought and meteorological drought was studied. The results showed that: (1) In terms of time, the proportion of agricultural drought in winter wheat growth period was higher than that of meteorological drought, and the years with the largest interannual difference occurred in the pre-winter growth period; (2) In terms of space, the winter wheat drought and meteorological drought in the whole growth period and each growth period were distributed by zonal mode structure, and the drought gradually increases from south to north. More than 75% of the drought of winter wheat occurs from over-wintering period to filling and mature period, while meteorological drought only occurred during over-wintering period; (3) Winter wheat drought was delayed compared with meteorological drought, and its intensity was greater than that of meteorological drought. The average duration was 18.8 dekad and 17.3 dekad, respectively, and the average severity was 12.2 and 9.9, respectively; (4) When the duration of meteorological drought reached 1.28 dekad or the drought severity reached 3.35, the drought of winter wheat will be triggered, and the frequency of the duration and severity return period of winter wheat drought was greater than that of meteorological drought. Agricultural drought has a longer duration, greater frequency and greater severity than meteorological drought and meteorological drought aggravates agricultural drought.
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    Ecosystem health assessment method of eco-redline based on land use and landscape pattern in Nanjing
    YAN Shou-guang, LI Hui, LI Hai-dong, ZHANG Yin-long
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1109-1118.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200508
    Abstract1087)   HTML14)    PDF (1993KB)(238)      
    Ecological conservation redline (eco-redline), the region with special and important ecological functions in the ecological space, must be strictly protected. According to the theory of ecology, only in a well-structured and healthy ecosystem, can the ecological function be brought into full play and the ecological security be guaranteed. Therefore, the ecosystem health of eco-redline is the basis of maintaining regional ecological security. Based on the data of land use/cover and remote sensing images in years of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, this paper evaluated the ecosystem health of the eco-redline in Nanjing from five aspects: vigor, organization, resilience, ecosystem service function and anthropogenic stress. The results show that: (1) The areas of forest land, farmland, water bodies, construction land, wetland and grassland in eco-redline in the study area were 511.74 km 2, 456.96 km 2, 432.58 km 2, 118.0 km 2, 32.79 km 2 and 1.56 km 2, respectively. The area of forest land continued to increase, while that of farmland decreased gradually. (2) From 2000 to 2015, the average ecosystem health index of eco-redline in Nanjing was 53.83, above the sub-health level, and showing a slow growth trend. (3) The ecosystem health index of terrestrial ecosystem was higher, especially in the areas with large forest vegetation coverage, compared with aquatic ecosystem.
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    Spatiotemporal variations of surface water quality of main rivers in the upper reaches of Yongding River
    SHAO Zhi-jiang, ZHENG Bin, WANG Tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1338-1347.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200607
    Abstract1087)   HTML8)    PDF (1425KB)(86)      
    Water quality improvement in the upper reaches of the Yongding River in Zhangjiakou city has become a most significant work for the water safety of the Winter Olympics in 2022. The spatiotemporal variations of surface water quality and the annual flux of main pollutants in the main rivers of Zhangjiakou were studied by the long-term monitoring in Zhangjiakou in the upper reaches of Yongding River from 2013 to 2017. Results showed that: (1) The water quality in the upper reaches of the Yanghe River in Zhangjiakou was good in 2017, while that in the middle and lower reaches was moderately polluted. The water quality in the upper reaches of the Qingshui River was good, while that of the lower reaches was slightly polluted. The water quality in the Sanggan River was good. (2) The differences between the water quality indexes in different rivers were obvious from 2013 to 2017. The variation of water quality in the upper reaches of the Yanghe River was small from 2013 to 2017, while the that of the middle and lower reaches tends to deteriorate. The fluctuations of water quality in the Qingshui and Sanggan rivers were small, and the five-year comprehensive pollution index of the whole basin was 0.82, corresponding to the level of light pollution. (3) The seasonal changes of water quality in the Yanghe and Qingshui rivers were obvious; however, those in the Sanggan River were not obvious. The water quality indexes of the Yanghe River were higher in summer than those in spring and autumn. And the water quality indexes in spring were higher than those in summer and autumn. Total phosphorus and fluoride are the main pollutants in the upper reaches of the Yongding River, with Yanghe River being the main source of contribution. Among them, the contribution rates of total phosphorus and fluoride are 74% and 61%, respectively. Therefore, the local government should focus more on the prevention of phosphorus pollution because the phosphorus was the main factor that can limit water pollution. Once the water is polluted by phosphorus, it will be very difficult to be remedied.
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    Research on tourism resources in the new era: Protection, utilization and innovative development: Comments of young tourism geographers
    ZHU He, TANG Cheng-cai, WANG Lei, ZHAO Lei, LONG Jiang-zhi, LI Yao-qi, ZHANG You-yin, YANG Zhen-shan, ZHANG Peng-yang, GAN Meng-yu, CHEN Jia, LI Tao, SUN Ye-hong, WANG En-xu, LI Ya-juan, LONG Fei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (4): 992-1016.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200419
    Abstract1085)   HTML9)    PDF (1690KB)(183)      
    Nowadays, China has fully come into the massive tourism era. Tourism continuously occupies one most quickly growing industry in the macro-economy and becomes a strategic pillar industry in regional economic development. Since China is rich in tourism resources, which are the foundation of conventional tourism development, it is crucial to deal with the relationship between property protection and utilization of tourism resources, meanwhile, achieving innovative development. In this issue, 16 young tourism geographers discuss tourism resources protection and utilization in the new era. They clarify a set of key points about tourism resources research, including new knowledge of value, new ways to protect and use, and new discussions for special resources. The main points state as follows. (1) Massive tourism mode changing bring the industry innovation, as well as resources' meaning expansion. In the new era, by embracing a perspective of construction, generalization, and a combination of tourism resources, we need to rethink how to define, classify and evaluate these resources. In the future, resources will still be the basis of tourism development, which should capture more reasonable recognition of their new characteristics and values. (2) Under the constraints of ecological reserves, controls in exploitation of traditional resources will be more severe. From the supply-side, considering the transformation from resources to products, we should take more measures such as complying with the market rules, meeting tourists' new needs, excavating cultural senses, creating new developing paths amid new technologies support, and forming popular products. These measures will be beneficial to stimulate the marketing values, upgrade the regional industry, and realize to coordinate resources, capital, and assets in a sustainable way. (3) From the demand-side, we should be aware of the common changes of tourists, lead to new behavioral norms in civilized tourism, and guide the tourists to protect resources spontaneously, which will rewardingly balance environmental protection and industrial development. (4) Abundant resources require diverse approaches to protect and rationally use. In light of rural tourism resources, we should assess their new value, follow the strategy of rural vitalization, suit measures to local conditions, pay main concerns on tourism agglomerations, consider local communities' interests, and innovatively promote sustainable development. Based primarily on sustainability, agricultural heritages re-use needs to be concerned about novel multi-participation machinery dynamically. For human tourism resources, it is necessary to maintain authenticity with traditional culture integration, and coordinate cultural inheritance and tourism growth. Mentioned with ethnic tourism resources in mountainous region, we suggest paying attention to the uniqueness of regional system, taking account of the contemporary value and human-land relationship, and then adopting appropriate measures. Besides, owing to homestay's role in activating rural stacks, it is recommended to enhance ecological protection, and boost the homestay cluster.
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    Precise identification and control method of natural resources space based on ecological security pattern in mountainous hilly area
    DU Teng-fei, QI Wei, ZHU Xi-cun, WANG Xin, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1190-1200.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200514
    Abstract1073)   HTML6)    PDF (5077KB)(229)      
    Space control of natural resources is the basic tool for balancing the relationship between ecological protection and economic development. Observing the bottom line of ecological security pattern strictly is of great guiding significance to reconstruct the new pattern of natural resources spatial control with complete system and ecological surplus. Taking Qixia city, an mountainous intensive agricultural area in Jiaodong Peninsula, as a case study area, coupling pattern and process, integrating geographic information method and model, this paper identified the ecological sources from the aspects of ecosystem service function importance and ecological environment sensitivity. Then the basic ecological resistance surface based on land cover and anthropogenic disturbance was revised by the terrain niche index, and the ecological corridors were identified using the minimum cumulative resistance model, so as to construct the ecological security pattern and achieve natural resources zoning control for Qixia city. The results showed that the ecological sources of Qixia city were 627.80 km 2, accounting for 31.14% of the total area, mainly distributed in the central eastern, the central southern and the northwestern regions. More than half of the ecological sources were forest land. The key and optimized ecological corridors were 237.19 km and 83.90 km, mostly composed of forest land, mainly distributed in the central eastern, the northwest and the southwest, forming a complete ecological network. Finally, prohibited, restricted, conditional and prioritized construction areas were delineated. This provided method guarantee for precise control of natural resources space.
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    Analysis of land use change based on sequence model: Taking Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region as an example
    LIAO Wei-hua, NIE Xin, JIANG Wei-guo
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1160-1171.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200512
    Abstract1065)   HTML12)    PDF (1855KB)(150)      
    Land use change is a long-term process with certain complexity. The traditional transfer matrix method can only compare the two phases of land use data, but cannot summarize the long-term overall change law. The frequent itemsets method cannot derive the sequence trajectory. To overcome the shortcomings of these methods, this paper proposes a land use change model based on sequence model. According to the actual characteristics of land sequence data and the vertical format sequence pattern SPADE algorithm, taking Guangxi, China as an example, we calculated the sequence of 22 secondary land use types in 7 periods from 1970s to 2015. The results show that, in the 35 years, land use types changed in 6.58% of Guangxi, and the change areas were mainly concentrated in roads, towns and settlements; the top 3 types of land use change 1-sequence support degree in Guangxi are {wood land}, {other wood land} and {sparse forest land}, and the support degree values are 0.5109, 0.3810 and 0.2333, respectively. The top 3 types of the 2-sequence support degree are {wood land, other wood land}, {other wood land, wood land} and {sparse forest land, wood land}, and the support degree values are 0.2040, 0.0699 and 0.0640, respectively. The top 3 types of the 3-sequence support degree are {sparse forest land, other wood land, wood land}, {sparse forest land, wood land, other wood land} and {high coverage grassland, wood land, other wood land}, and the support degree values are 0.0065, 0.0044 and 0.0031, respectively. The land use change 3-sequence {with forest land, other woodland, and other construction sites} has a support degree of 0.0007. The land use change in the study area mainly occurs in forest land, and some forest land is converted into construction land types such as mines, quarries and traffic roads; urban land is mainly converted from dry land and paddy fields; there is no land unit converted into paddy fields during the study period. The land use change sequence analysis model proposed in this paper can calculate the sequence of multi-period land use change as a whole, and make up for the shortcomings of studying land use change from a long-term scale.
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    Study on ecological vulnerability and its influencing factors in Zhangjiakou area
    XU Chao-xuan, LU Chun-xia, HUANG Shao-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1288-1300.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200603
    Abstract1054)   HTML11)    PDF (3771KB)(123)      
    Ecological vulnerability is one of the key issues that the international community cannot avoid in the face of a series of ecological problems. It is also one of the hot spots in the research of ecological civilization construction and green development. The paper, based on the SRP model, takes Zhangjiakou area as the research area, and selects 14 indexes to construct the index system of ecological vulnerability assessment in the study area, and combines the principal component analysis method with geodetector to carry out the research and analysis of the ecological vulnerability and its main driving factors in Zhangjiakou city. The results showed that in space, the ecological vulnerability of Zhangjiakou was characterized by a low to high pattern from the south to the north, which was consistent with the natural environmental characteristics of Bashang plateau (at a higher altitude) and the area below Bashang. The ecological vulnerability of Zhangjiakou decreased significantly from 2008 to 2016, and the proportion of light vulnerable area in 2008, 2012 and 2016 was 27.24%, 29.54% and 35.57%, respectively. In the last nine years, the proportions of severe and extremely ecologically vulnerable areas decreased from 30.96% to 1.29%, and the proportion of slightly and lightly ecologically vulnerable areas increased from 38.08% to 69.01%. The structure and function of ecosystem was developing in a positive direction. And the spatial distribution differences of ecological vulnerability in Zhangjiakou area were mainly related to the changes of slope, drought index, vegetation coverage and temperature. Due to high altitude, drought and less rain, the ecological fragility of Bashang plateau was generally high. The whole area below Bashang is slightly fragile, the ecological systems may have strong resistance to external interference, and the ability of self-recovery is strong. The results of 91 interactions indicate that the interaction between any two factors had greater influence on the ecological vulnerability of Zhangjiakou than the effect of any single factor, indicating that the ecological vulnerability of the region was affected by many factors. Based on the evaluation results of spatial principal component analysis and geodetector findings, suggestions for the development of ecological management in Zhangjiakou city are put forward.
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    Risk assessment and spatial differentiation pattern of rural production space system in Chongqing Municipality
    WANG Cheng, FAN Rong-rong, LONG Zhuo-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1119-1131.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200509
    Abstract1053)   HTML11)    PDF (1698KB)(157)      
    It is of great significance to scientifically evaluate the risk level of rural production space system, reveal the characteristics of its spatial pattern, and design risk control measures differently, so as to guide and regulate the multi-subject behavior choice in rural production space system and implement healthy and sustainable rural revitalization strategy. Based on sorting out the risk mechanism of rural production space system, this paper constructs a comprehensive risk evaluation index system of rural production space system from three aspects: the pressure of risk source, the status of risk carrier, and the response of risk control mechanism. Taking 37 districts in Chongqing Municipality as the research unit, and the year 2016 as the time point for the research, this paper evaluates the risk level of the rural production space system and reveals its space differentiation characteristics. On the basis of risk control, we identify the differentiation of rural production space system. The results show that: (1) The generation of risk in rural production space system is the result of interrelation and joint action of risk source pressure, risk carrier status and risk control mechanism response. (2) The risk of rural production space system in Chongqing is generally at a medium level, showing a spatial pattern of "high in the east and low in the west". There are obvious spatial differentiation features of system pressure, status and response level. Finally, differentiated risk control measures are proposed on the dimensions of space control, land use pattern and disaster prevention, reduction and relief system.
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    Impact of policy cognition of new agricultural entities on their behavior changes in the Three Rights Separation reform:A case study of Shanghai Qingpu
    LI Dong-xuan, LIU Ping-yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (4): 950-962.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200416
    Abstract1048)   HTML1)    PDF (2093KB)(158)      
    Three Rights Separation is a major institution innovation of China's rural land property rights system, targeted to promote the optimal allocation of resources through the refinement and clarification of property rights of agricultural land, encouraging property rights transfer and optimization, finally enhancing agriculture development and transition. However, it remains untested whether the separation of three rights can improve farmers' long-term expectations of the safety and security of property rights, and subsequently change their behaviors. Based on the mechanism of "policy reform-policy cognition-behavior change" and a case study of Qingpu district, where the practice of land property rights transfers was started early, the policy cognition and behavior changes of the new agricultural entities was studied. Questionnaire investigation and semi-structured interviews were carried out for data collection and structural equation model was applied to study the influence of policy cognition on their behavior changes to enlarging scales, enhancing long-term investment and shifting to environmentally friendly agriculture. It is found out that the policy cognition is of positive impacts on their behavior changes and subsequently contributes to the transformation of agriculture; the better cognition also leads to greater behavior changes. Thus more attention should be paid to enhancing the supporting system of the Three Rights Separation Reform, strengthening policy transparency and interpretation to farmers, improving the human capital stock of agriculture, in order to provide strong endogenous power for the transformation and upgrading of agriculture.
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    Analysis of rural land use stakeholders in a perspective of rural revitalization
    ZHANG Yue-yue, LI Cui-zhen, ZHOU De, XIA Hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1132-1146.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200510
    Abstract1042)   HTML3)    PDF (2976KB)(164)      
    Land use and management in rural areas is facing more challenges in the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Therefore, this paper applied stakeholder analysis, game equilibrium analysis, and empirical case analysis to explore the relationship evolution of various land use stakeholders in the context of rural revitalization. The results are as follows: (1) Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the number of rural land use stakeholders has increased, the game relationships present a feature of complexity, diversification and multidirectionality. (2) There are mainly six kinds of game relationships in the rural revitalization period. We discussed four kinds of game in the process of decision-making in the study area, namely poverty alleviation, development of rural tourism, entry of new business agents, and rural development promoted by urban residents. (3) In the context of rural revitalization, related policies should focus more on infrastructure construction, the coordination of land use efficiency and ecological environment, the sustainability of farmers' livelihoods, etc. The conclusion is that we should be devoted to achieving the optimal balance of land use stakeholders, reducing the risks of stakeholders, protecting the ecological environment and seeking balanced interests among stakeholders in the process of rural revitalization.
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    Hydrochemistry characteristics and the recharge source of groundwater in typical watersheds of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China
    ZHANG Qing-hua, ZHAO Yu-feng, TANG Jia-liang, LU Wen, LUO Zhuan-xi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1314-1325.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200605
    Abstract1037)   HTML0)    PDF (2408KB)(85)      
    To reveal the characteristics of groundwater circulation in typical watersheds of the northwestern Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, this paper used environmental isotopes and hydrochemical techniques to analyze the characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, hydrochemical characteristics and spatio-temporal changes, as well as the relationship between surface water and groundwater transformation in different watersheds of the Zhangjiakou region. Results showed that the surface water in the region was mainly HCO 3-Mg·Na and HCO 3·Cl-Na type, while in different seasons the water types of the groundwater were not the same. Specifically, the groundwater types were more diverse with HCO 3-Mg·Na, HCO 3·Cl-Na, HCO 3·Cl-Na·Mg types. An ion source analysis indicates that the surface water and groundwater were mainly affected by rock weathering. Parts of the groundwater in Zhangjiakou were affected by evaporation concentration. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of surface water and groundwater were similar, indicating that the water was mainly from the atmospheric precipitation. Based on stable isotopic characteristics, 37.74% of the groundwater in the study region was derived from precipitation, while the remaining 62.26% was from river water, suggesting that the basin groundwater is mainly recharged from the river water.
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    Heavy metal accumulation affected by Spartina alterniflora invasion in estuarine wetland sediments
    XIE Rong-rong, WU Ru-lin, TANG Chen, LAI Yue-ting, GONG Kai-sheng, LI Jia-bing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1238-1249.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200518
    Abstract1036)   HTML2)    PDF (2436KB)(129)      
    In this paper, three sampling sites, namely a non-invaded Cyperus malaccensis wetland (A), a Spartina alterniflora-invaded patch edge (B) and a Spartina alterniflora-invaded wetland (C) were selected to examine the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on heavy metal accumulation in estuarine wetland sediments. Sediment Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Arsenic (As) at 10 different depths were analyzed and then evaluated using geo-accumulation indexes and potential ecological risks evaluation methodology. The results suggested that: (1) Co, Ni, Cu and As in sediments increased with the invasive time of Spartina alterniflora (i.e. C>B>A), and the retention of Co, Ni, Cu and As increased by 26.31%, 19.66%, 50.79% and 16.93%, respectively. (2) According to the geo-accumulation indexes, Co, Ni and Cu in the research area were slightly polluted and As experienced a transitional period from strongly polluted to extremely polluted. (3) The potential ecological risks of Co, Ni and Cu were low, however As at sites A and B was in high potential ecological risk and that at site C was in very high risk. The results of both methods showed that Spartina alterniflora invasion increased heavy metal pollution and potential ecological risks. And more attention should be given to the As pollution in the research area. Finally, the heavy metals in sediments were significantly correlated with total carbon, total nitrogen, C/N, bulk density and aboveground biomass, which indicated that the accumulation of heavy metals might be related to the developed biomass aboveground and the dense root structure underground of Spartina alterniflora.
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    Effects of different harvesting ways on grain loss:Based on the field survey of 3251 rural households in China
    LI Xuan-fu, HUANG Dong, QU Xue, ZHU Jun-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1043-1054.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200503
    Abstract1031)   HTML2)    PDF (1364KB)(149)      
    Based on the data of 3251 rural households in China, this paper compares the effects of different harvesting ways and social services (purchase of agricultural machinery services) on the loss of harvesting links of wheat, rice and maize. The results showed that compared with manual harvesting, the whole mechanized harvesting generally increased grain losses of the harvesting link, and in terms of varieties, increased rice losses, but it reduced wheat losses, and the semi-mechanized harvesting significantly reduced corn losses. In-depth study found that the purchase of agricultural machinery services can significantly reduce wheat losses in harvesting link. The results of robustness test are consistent. Based on this, this paper believes that, for wheat, we should promote the whole process of mechanization, while for rice and corn, we must develop small-scale and professional agricultural machinery suitable for farmers, so as to advance the mechanization of segments in the short term.
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    Changes of organic carbon and related soil enzyme activities during vegetation degradation in Gahai Wetland
    MA Wei-wei, SUN Wen-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1250-1260.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200519
    Abstract1030)   HTML2)    PDF (2489KB)(141)      
    In order to study the effects of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil enzyme activities during the vegetation degradation process, the field experiments were conducted in marsh meadow of Gahai Wetland on the eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The main results were as follows: vegetation degradation significantly affected SOC content and soil enzyme activity, reduced SOC content and enzymatic reaction efficiency, and this effect varied with soil depth. The weighted mean values of organic carbon content and soil enzymes activity in 0-100 cm layers varied in different stages of vegetation degradation of marsh meadow, following an order of non-degradation > light degradation > moderate degradation > heavy degradation. In different soil layers, the organic carbon content in 20-40 cm soil layer was moderate degradation > light degradation, and the activity of amylase and cellobiose in 0-10 cm soil layer was moderate degradation > light degradation. In 20-100 cm soil layer, the activity values of invertase were the highest in heavy degradation stage, and the activity values of fiber disaccharidase showed heavy degradation > moderate degradation. With increasing soil layers, SOC content, invertase and fiber disaccharidase activity decreased significantly ( P<0.05), while amylase and cellulase activities showed a fluctuating downward trend on the whole, and enzyme activity value increased slightly in the > 40 cm soil layer.
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    Influencing mechanism of the willingness and behavior of farmland scale management: Evidence from Shandong province, China
    LYU Xiao, ZANG Tao, ZHANG Quan-jing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1147-1159.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200511
    Abstract1030)   HTML0)    PDF (1463KB)(144)      
    Based on the framework of social cognition theory and planned behavior theory, the principal component analysis method, Heckman two-stage model, and comparative analysis method were adopted using 379 farmer survey questionnaires from three counties (districts) of Wulian, Dongping, and Kenli in Shandong province. The purpose is to explore the main influencing factors, mechanism and difference of farmers' scale management willingness and behavior, and to provide decision-making reference for promoting the moderate farmland scale management. The results showed that: (1) The degree of cognition of land policy by farmers interviewed is generally low in the case study areas, and there are regional differences in the level and structure of cognition. (2) The individual characteristics, resource endowment and location factors all have significant effects on the scale management willingness, while the influences of policy cognition and social security are not significant. The individual characteristics, resource endowment, policy cognition, social security and location factors all have influence on scale management behavior. Among them, the factors that have greater effects and pass the significance test are whether to participate in agricultural insurance and the cognition degree of new business entities. (3) Some 27.70% of the farmers interviewed have inconsistency between scale management willingness and behaviors. There are some differences in the scale management influencing mechanism between mountain and plain farmers, and there are many differences in the factors affecting the farmers' willingness and behavior. (4) It is necessary to thoroughly understand the level and structure of farmers' policy cognition, strengthen publicity and education in a targeted way, build information platforms according to local conditions, reduce transaction costs for the transfer of agricultural land, and build an agricultural socialized service system for small farmers to realize the dual scale of "land + service".
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    The evolution measurement of ecological service function in rural areas: A case study of Nanjing
    LIU Chong-gang, SUN Wei, CAO Yu-hong, CHEN Chen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1098-1108.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200507
    Abstract1030)   HTML4)    PDF (2703KB)(148)      
    Rural areas play an important hinterland role in social development, and the evolution of rural spatial structure has an important impact on the function of rural ecological services. Taking Nanjing as an example, this paper conducts the research on the evolution of rural regional ecological service functions based on the scope of physical rural areas. The remote sensing quantitative measurement and CASA model are used to calculate and analyze the evolution of rural regional ecological service functions in Nanjing from 1985 to 2016. The results show that: (1) From 1985 to 2000, the value of various functions of rural ecosystem services declined in varying degrees; from 2000 to 2016, the values of all kinds of functions, except that of water conservation function, still showed a downward trend. (2) In the first stage, the decline of rural ecological service function was mainly found in the south, west to south and east to south. In the second stage, except for the increase of ecosystem services in the north and northwest directions, the decline of ecosystem services in all directions decreased in varying degrees. (3) In the stage of industrialization of villages and towns, the change of land use structure within villages had a major impact on the ecological service function. In the stage of urbanization, the impact of urban expansion on rural ecological service function was the main aspect.
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    Research on planting industrial efficiency based on poverty identification and targeted assistance: Evidence from farmers' household micro-data
    WANG Gang, LIAO He-ping, HONG Hui-kun, CHEN Yi-ming, LI Tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1201-1215.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200515
    Abstract1029)   HTML0)    PDF (2143KB)(136)      
    Industrial assistance is one of the most important parts of targeted poverty alleviation, the impact of poverty identification and targeted assistance on the efficiency of poverty alleviation industry is worth of further study. Based on the survey data of 534 farmers in Shizhu Tujia Autonomous county, Chongqing, this paper applied the classical statistical analysis framework to test the differences in planting industry efficiency between villages and farmers after poverty identification, and further explored the formation of differences. The results show that: (1) Poverty identification and targeted assistance significantly promote the efficiency of the planting industry, especially in the poverty-stricken villages and the poor households. (2) The policy is the key factor that causes significant differences in planting efficiency between poor and non-poor villages and households. Among them, infrastructure construction such as road construction, and characteristic planting industries have a particularly strong impact on poverty-stricken villages and poor households. (3) The effect of age on the efficiency of the planting industry in poverty-stricken areas shows a "U-shaped" pattern, in which 55 to 60 years old is an efficiency turning point. (4) Farmers with high school education and above can promote the efficiency of the planting industry. Therefore, in order to resolve the unbalanced contradictory problem, the local governments should continue to implement industrial assistance policies and establish a long-term mechanism to ensure the steady growth of poor people's income, and improve the agricultural labor force in poverty-stricken areas, as well as increase the level of human capital.
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