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    Land development and utilization for carbon neutralization
    HUANG Xian-jin, ZHANG Xiu-ying, LU Xue-he, WANG Pei-yu, QIN Jia-yao, JIANG Yun-chen, LIU Ze-miao, WANG Zhen, ZHU A-xing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 2995-3006.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211201
    Abstract1610)   HTML429)    PDF (3793KB)(348)      

    This study explores the possibility of carbon neutralization in China before 2060, based on the predicated carbon emissions from human activities and the carbon sinks produced by the territory ecosystem. The results show that the total anthropogenic carbon emissions in China is 0.86 Pg C yr -1 in 2060, and the ecosystem would neutralize 33% and 38% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions in 2060 under the scenarios of IPCC RCP 2.6 and RCP 6.0. In 2060, woodland, grassland and cultivated land will be the main contributors of carbon sink, accounting for 93% of the total carbon sink. Compared with the year 2030, the contribution of carbon sink from woodland and grassland will decrease by 10% and 8%, respectively under RCP 2.6 scenario, while the contribution from cultivated land will increase by 18%; the contribution of carbon sink from woodland and grassland will decrease by 7% and 2%, respectively under RCP 6.0 scenario, while the contribution from cultivated land will increase by 4%. However, based on the highest carbon sink (2055) during 2051-2060, 65% and 82% of anthropogenic carbon emissions would be neutralized respectively. Therefore, to achieve carbon neutrality in 2060, the varieties of the bearing capacities of carbon budgets from different land use types should be fully considered in the territory planning.

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    Management system and institution of natural resources in China:Status, problems and prospects
    SONG Ma-lin, CUI Lian-biao, ZHOU Yuan-xiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (1): 1-16.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220101
    Abstract1471)   HTML412)    PDF (1244KB)(257)      

    Natural resources play an important role in a country's development. Since the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in 2017, China has attached great importance to the management of natural resources. China's natural resource management systems, institutions, concepts and methods have been constantly reformed and innovated, and management systems and models that are more suitable to China's national conditions have been gradually formed, with remarkable results. However, there are still many inadequacies and contradictions in management practice. Starting from current situations of China's natural resources management system and institutional construction, this paper expounds the difficulties in developing natural resources management system and institutional construction from three aspects: management object, management subject, and management guarantee; summarizes prominent practical problems that restrict the development of management practice at present; and finally provides thinking and suggestions for China's natural resource management system reform and institutional construction in the future from two aspects: constructing the multi-dimensional natural resource management system and perfecting the natural resource management system under the perspective of national security. This will help further promote China's sustainable development and ecological civilization construction in the future.

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    Rural living environment improvement and rural revitalization
    LI Yu-rui, CAO Li-zhe, WANG Peng-yan, CHANG Gui-jiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (1): 96-109.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220107
    Abstract1461)   HTML196)    PDF (1109KB)(208)      

    Since the 21st century, China's rural social and economic development and infrastructure construction have attained remarkable achievements, but the imbalance between urban and rural development and inadequate rural development are still prominent. In particular, the living environment closely related to rural life is still the short board of rural development. At the beginning of 2018, the central government issued the three-year action plan for rural living environment improvement (RLEI) to focus on improving the rural living environment, building a beautiful and livable village, and pursuing the Rural Revitalization Strategy. This paper analyzes the concept and connotation of RLEI, explains the mechanism of RLEI promoting rural revitalization, combs the mode and mechanism, effect and evaluation of RLEI, and discusses the key areas of strengthening the research of RLEI. The science of rural living environment has developed rapidly in the past 10 years, and has made remarkable progress in basic theory, evolution mechanism, quality evaluation, regulation and control strategy, especially in the research of basic theory, evolution mechanism and quality evaluation. However, there are still obvious deficiencies in the guidance and support of the current research for practice, and there are still some misunderstandings in the practice of local specific RLEI. Facing the strategic needs of rural revitalization, we need to form "eight consensus" in the understanding and practice of RLEI in the new era. In terms of research, we should strengthen the intersection and integration of rural geography and engineering technology science, urban and rural planning science, management science, sociology, etc., and strive to form a systematic research system integrating theoretical research, technological development, mechanism analysis, effectiveness evaluation, and model optimization, which can better support the improvement of rural living environment and realize the function and value enhancement of rural areas, and then effectively contribute to the Rural Revitalization Strategy.

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    Research on the classification and spatial distribution of Antarctic tourism resources
    LIU Jie, TANG Rong, LI Ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (1): 83-95.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220106
    Abstract1372)   HTML237)    PDF (2724KB)(108)      

    With unique tourism resources, the Antarctic attracts more and more attention, and the number of tourists to the region is growing rapidly. However, there have been fewer studies on the Antarctic tourism resources, and the research on the classification and evaluation of its tourism resources is almost blank. In this paper, the classification and spatial distribution of the Antarctic tourist resources are studied, and suggestions for the development of Antarctic tourism are put forward, in order to provide a reference for evaluating, developing and conserving these tourism resources. Results show that: (1) In the Antarctic region, substantive tourist activities have been carried out in 558 major tourist resource units, which can be divided into 8 main types, 18 sub-types and 30 basic types according to different attributes. (2) There are diversified natural tourism resources, among which water landscape occupies a large proportion. (3) The tourism resources are unevenly distributed and typically characterized by aggregated distribution, and two high-density clusters are formed in the Antarctic. One is the coastal areas of Graham Land in the northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula and their surrounding islands, and the other is the islands and continent areas near the Ross Sea. (4) Climatic condition and the accessibility of tourism resources are important factors affecting the spatial distribution of Antarctic tourism resources. (5) There are less Antarctic tourism resources related to China, and China's participation and maturity in the development of Antarctic tourism are relatively low. In the future, China should find out the status of Antarctic tourism resources as soon as possible, strengthen the research on the impact of Antarctic tourism, and promote the development of China's tourism to the Antarctic.

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    Resource and environmental carrying capacity in China for 35 years: Evolution, hotspots, future trend
    SUN Yang, WANG Jia-wei, WU Shi-dai
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (1): 34-58.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220103
    Abstract1053)   HTML237)    PDF (3714KB)(229)      

    Based on statistical core journals and core scholars, this paper uses softwares such as CITESPACE, ORIGN, and Data-Driven Documents, to review the development of research, sort out hotspots and put forward research prospects on resource and environmental carrying capacity (RECC) assessment in China in the past 35 years. The results show that: (1) The evaluation of RECC in China follows the trajectory of "single factor", "multi-factor" and "dynamic integration", and the applied research evolved from "population capacity", "unilateral problem of regional development (RD)", to "multifaceted problem of RD". (2) According to the logic of "scientific evaluation - mechanism disclosure - practical application", this paper points out that, scholars mainly used the index system method, comprehensive evaluation method, footprint method and other methods to estimate the bearing capacity. Based on the calculation results, scholars summarized the spatial and temporal distribution of carrying capacity, identified the impact factors, and revealed the mechanism, to play a supporting role of carrying capacity in promoting regional economic development, speeding up new urbanization, optimizing territorial space, monitoring, early warning, simulation and prediction. (3) Based on the above, it is suggested that the following four aspects should be further optimized, namely, interdisciplinary research, specificity and advancement of evaluation indicators, depth of mechanism disclosure, and dynamics of carrying capacity evaluation.

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    The development of Chinese urban green finance and its influencing factors: An empirical analysis based on green bond
    ZHU Xiang-dong, ZHOU Xin-yi, ZHU Sheng-jun, HUANG Hai-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 3247-3260.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211217
    Abstract948)   HTML197)    PDF (2016KB)(65)      

    Green finance, which aims to regulate social capital flows, optimize the industrial structure, and realize green growth, has been a promising area of financial innovation. Since 2015, both the Chinese central and local governments have issued various policy incentives to benefit green finance. As a result, many cities in China have introduced and practiced green finance, which led to a boom. Previous research focuses on the concept and development of green finance, enterprises' and financial institutions' performance, but largely neglecting its regional disparity and influencing factors. This paper takes green bonds issued from 2016 to 2019 in 142 Chinese prefecture-level cities as a case. Based on the panel data model and spatial Durbin model, we explore the influence of policy incentives, financial development, and environmental pollution on the green bond issuance scale in different regions. Meanwhile, the interaction between variables has been explored to reveal the regional heterogeneity of green finance development. The results reveal that green bonds are mainly distributed in cities with a robust financial basement and a high administrative level. Although quite a few cities in the central and western regions started to issue green bonds after 2015, the growth of green bonds mainly took place in the eastern region. Policy incentives and financial development have significantly promoted the growth of green bonds, while environmental pollution has impeded the issuance. Policy incentives provide a low-risk context and stimulate the local financial sectors to innovate in green finance across China. However, the obstacle brought by environmental pollution can only be alleviated by the policy in the eastern region. Environmental pollution, generally caused by polluting industries, is a challenge for the central and western regions to develop green finance. With applicable policy incentives and robust financial industries, the eastern region can easily follow the green economic transformation trend and realize green finance innovation. For the central and western regions, the conflict between economic and environmental goals impeded the development of green finance. This paper suggests that more attention should be paid to regions with weak financial foundations and severe pollution. A regional cooperation platform should be established to improve the inclusion of green finance.

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    Pathways towards a cleaner energy system for Xinjiang under carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals
    DENG Ming-jiang, MING Bo, LI Yan, HUANG Qiang, LI Peng, WU Meng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1107-1122.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220501
    Abstract819)   HTML17)    PDF (2023KB)(86)      

    Xinjiang is one of the most important resource treasure houses and energy bases in China. How to construct a clean energy system under the guidance of carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals is related to national energy security. In this paper, we summarize reserves and distribution of main energy sources in Xinjiang, comb the current situation of energy production and consumption, analyze main problems faced by energy transition, and put forward pathways towards a cleaner energy system with relevant countermeasures and suggestions. It is shown that: (1) Fossil energy accounts for more than 85% in the existing energy system of Xinjiang, making the carbon emission reduction task arduous. (2) Wind and solar curtailments are an acute problem of Xinjiang at present, and the electricity curtailment rate is higher than the national average. (3) To promote the green transformation of Xinjiang's energy system, we must lower the growth rate of coal consumption, accelerate the construction of hydro-solar-wind-storage integrated power system, expand the channel of "Xinjiang's power transmission", advance the course of "electrified Xinjiang", and develop CCUS and new energy storage technologies. These findings can provide reference for Xinjiang to achieve the carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals.

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    Research progress and key issues of territory consolidation under the target of rural revitalization
    HAN Bo, JIN Xiao-bin, GU Zheng-ming, YIN Yan-xing, LIU Jing-ping, ZHOU Yin-kang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 3007-3030.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211202
    Abstract793)   HTML241)    PDF (4437KB)(232)      

    After nearly 40 years of development, China's territory consolidation has played an important role in promoting rural farmland protection, solving the problem of inefficient use of land resources, and helping poverty alleviation. This article reviews the development process of China's territory consolidation, summarizes relevant research progress based on bibliometric analysis and literature reviews, and puts forward key issues for future territory consolidation research. The following conclusions are drawn: China's territory consolidation undertakings and research have gone through three stages including territory consolidation planning, special territory consolidation projects, and comprehensive territory consolidation. The promotion of rural revitalization is the most important historical task of current territory consolidation. At present, territory consolidation research has formed a distinctive research system with the goal of solving the problem of land space and resource utilization and guided by policy management needs. Land use research is the theoretical support of territory consolidation, with agricultural land consolidation, rural settlement consolidation, comprehensive land consolidation and land-space ecological restoration as the main objects. Territory consolidation research formed a decentralized group consisting of management departments and characteristic scientific research institutes as the core research bodies. The territory consolidation research under the rural revitalization goal focuses on land consolidation planning, project site selection, consolidation zoning decision-making, land consolidation project full-process monitoring and supervision and performance evaluation, rural settlement consolidation potential evaluation, land consolidation policy effectiveness evaluation and other management needs. Besides, much research has been carried out on scientific issues such as the mechanism of land consolidation driving ecosystem change, the optimal allocation method of land resources, and the coordination mechanism of land use conflicts, giving full play to the characteristics of geography for theory serving practice. To accelerate comprehensive land consolidation in the future, we should focus on solving key issues around "theoretical framework-problem identification-planning and decision-technical system", and use theoretical research to promote the development of China's territory consolidation, and contribute to the realization of rural revitalization.

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    Optimal allocation of land resources and its key issues from a perspective of food security
    LIANG Xin-yuan, JIN Xiao-bin, SUN Rui, ZHANG Xiao-lin, LI Han-bing, ZHOU Yin-kang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 3031-3053.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211203
    Abstract781)   HTML221)    PDF (2356KB)(212)      

    The optimal allocation of land resources is an important means to improve land use efficiency, alleviate land use conflicts, and promote harmonious man-land development. Current research on the optimal allocation of land resources in China has made great progress in theoretical exploration and practical applications. However, in the face of rapid land use changes, inefficient land management, and ecosystem degradation, the traditional optimal allocation way based on "quantity-spatial coupling" has been unable to meet the current needs in pursuit of a better life and sustainable development goals. Meanwhile, global food security is facing a series of severe challenges. The optimal allocation of land resources will directly affect and act on the coordination process between food production and economic development conflicts. Since the reform and opening up in the late 1970s, to serve the national strategic needs and key areas development (Yangtze River Delta and coastal areas), Nanjing University has carried out much research and practice around land resources optimization, so as to achieve the goal of ensuring resource security and food security. Researchers have focused on farmland pattern optimization, farmland intensification transition, farmland protection and planning, land use and urban-rural planning, land consolidation and agricultural land management, land use system innovation, land economic policy optimization and other characteristic research fields. Research directions take advantages of interdisciplinary deveoplment of geography and management, and have made contributions to disciplinary development and institutional innovations in the optimization and sustainable use of national land resources. In brief, this paper summarizes the key issues on China's land resource allocation by systematically combing the research progress related to the optimization allocation of land resources. Furthermore, on the basis of reviewing the academic contributions of Nanjing University, the opportunities and challenges faced by the optimal allocation of land and resources in China from the perspective of food security are summarized. The research can provide references for sustainable land use optimization.

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    Optimization of territorial space pattern under the goal of carbon neutrality: Theoretical framework and practical strategy
    DING Ming-lei, YANG Xiao-na, ZHAO Rong-qin, ZHANG Zhan-ping, XIAO Lian-gang, XIE Zhi-xiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1137-1147.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220503
    Abstract730)   HTML11)    PDF (1082KB)(139)      

    Territorial space planning is a national basic and binding planning for guiding land use, ecological protection, industrial layout, urban and rural construction and regional development. In the context of the current strategy of carbon emission peak and carbon neutrality, bringing the carbon neutrality goal into the territorial space planning and governance system is of great significance in promoting the comprehensive low-carbon transformation of the economic and social system. In this paper, we constructed a theoretical framework for the optimization of territorial space pattern, analyzed the internal relationship between territorial space pattern, human-land relationship and carbon revenue and expenditure, and further discussed the optimization and regulation mechanism of territorial space pattern under the goal of carbon neutrality from the perspective of economy-society-ecology complex system. This study put forward the optimization path of territorial space pattern for carbon neutrality including accounting system of carbon revenue and expenditure for territorial space, "double evaluation" method for carbon balance, carbon risk monitoring and evaluation for territorial space, three-line delimitation under space constraints of carbon emissions, carbon emission peak and industrial spatial structure regulation. Finally, the key areas of territorial space pattern optimization under the goal of carbon neutrality were identified from improvement scheme of differentiated ecological carbon sequestration, accounting system of carbon revenue and expenditure for territorial space in line with China's national conditions, territorial space planning and control scheme for carbon neutrality goal, carbon emission assessment of construction land based on life cycle, low-carbon and efficient territorial space governance system, and carbon compensation system of multi-level territorial space construction.

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    New approach of sustainability evaluation: A Chinese case study of the "Doughnut Theory"
    SHAO Qing-long, LI Mo, KANG Peng, GUO Hai-nan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (2): 334-347.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220205
    Abstract712)   HTML148)    PDF (2131KB)(282)      

    The socio-economic sphere is an indispensable part of Planetary Boundary (PB) sustainability evaluation system. In this context, this article makes a comprehensive review of theoretical and empirical literature regarding the existing socio-economic sphere. First, an evaluation has been made for a total of 15 socio-economic sphere dimensions proposed by the "Doughnut Theory". Second, based on the different types of research samples in terms of industrial, national, and cross-country aspects, we illustrated and analyzed one or more specific indicators corresponding to each dimension. Finally, we summarize the indicator threshold setting methods, including the continuation of conventions, the reference of experiences and the reference of typical samples. On the basis of summarizing and evaluating previous research results, this article takes 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China as samples for the first time, using statistical yearbooks and the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) data to compare the corresponding indicators in the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" (2011-2015) official document as the threshold, so that the sustainability status of China's socio-economic sphere under the PB framework has been evaluated. The results show that China has reached the optimal state in terms of income level and job opportunities, and the poverty problem has been partially alleviated, but the performance of water resources and energy consumption is not good. In terms of the improvement of sustainability level, Southern China shows a trend of "from west to east", while Northern China presents a trend of "from north to south". The socio-economic sphere needs to be further improved in terms of content enrichment, theoretical deepening, and objective setting of thresholds.

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    Research framework of tourism resources from a new perspective of tourism resources
    REN Yi-sheng, LU Lin, HAN Yu-gang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (3): 551-567.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220301
    Abstract655)   HTML326)    PDF (1567KB)(98)      

    Tourism resources, the basic elements of tourism activities, determine the benefits of the development and utilization of tourism resources. The relationship between tourism resources and major national strategies has become increasingly close. Establishing a new viewpoint of tourism resources is a re-understanding and re-practice of regional development practices, which can put forward a new topic for tourism resources research. We sorted out and summarized the development context of tourism resources research under the traditional view of tourism resources. The results showed that: (1) The research contents of tourism resources are constantly enriched, and the research directions are becoming more and more diversified. Basic research actively makes great contributions to serve the national major strategies, as well as regional economic and social development. To a certain extent, the positive interaction between "theory guides practice" and "practice enriches theory" has been realized. (2) The new concept of tourism resources refers to the dynamic process of people integrating, configuring, reorganizing and optimizing tourism resources from different sources, levels, structures, and contents under the background of scientific and technological progress, changes in value concepts, increased tourism demand, and per capita income. It is regarded as an active response of people's cognition to the changes of tourism resource characteristics. The new outlook on tourism resources is a fundamental breakthrough to the traditional view of tourism resources, presenting new viewpoints on resource value, new resource utilization, new resource development, new resource benefits and new resource space. (3) This paper constructs a "five-dimensional integration" tourism resources research system from a new perspective of tourism resources, especially the value conversion of tourism resources, the sustainable use of tourism resources, the integrated development of tourism resources, the regional benefits of tourism resources, and the spatial reconstruction of tourism resources. It aims to strengthen the cross-regional aggregation, competition and integration of tourism resources, and to reveal the interaction mechanism of the development and utilization of cross-regional tourism resources. (4) There are some new problems and topics in the development and utilization of tourism resources in the new perspective of tourism resources. The integration of multiple disciplines and the introduction of new methods is an inevitable trend for comprehensive, dynamic, regional and systematic research on the development and utilization of tourism resources.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of carbon emission efficiency in low carbon city of China
    XU Ying-qi, CHENG Yu, WANG Jing-jing, LIU Na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1261-1276.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220511
    Abstract628)   HTML6)    PDF (2209KB)(74)      

    China puts forward the strategic goal of achieving carbon peaks by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060. Improving carbon emission efficiency and promoting green and low-carbon development are important ways to achieve the "dual carbon" goal. The study uses the Super-SBM model that includes undesired output to measure the carbon emission efficiency of 68 low carbon cities in China from 2003 to 2018 and analyzes their spatio-temporal evolution characteristics. The panel regression model is used to analyze the influencing factors of urban carbon emission efficiency. The following conclusions are drawn: (1) The carbon emission efficiency of low carbon city has shown an overall upward trend over time, from 0.169 to 0.423, with an average annual growth rate of 6.31%, and there is still room for improvement. (2) Regional differences in the carbon emission efficiency of low carbon cities show a trend of shrinking first and then gradually expanding, and a declining distribution pattern of "from eastern to central and western region" in space; the carbon emission efficiency of pilot city at various levels is characterized as "megacity > supercity > large city > medium-sized city > small city". (3) Economic development level, industrial structure, urbanization level, green technology innovation and carbon emission efficiency of a pilot city are significantly positively correlated, and the intensity of foreign investment has restrictions on urban carbon emission efficiency. There are some differences in the degree of influence of each factor on the three regions and cities of different sizes. The paper puts forward countermeasures and suggestions from the aspects of innovation input, industrial structure and regional differentiation, which has certain reference significance for promoting urban green and low-carbon development and the construction of ecological civilization.

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    Key issues in natural resource management under carbon emission peak and carbon neutrality targets
    ZHAO Rong-qin, HUANG Xian-jin, YUN Wen-ju, WU Ke-ning, CHEN Yin-rong, WANG Shao-jian, LU He-li, FANG Kai, LI Yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1123-1136.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220502
    Abstract564)   HTML12)    PDF (1243KB)(98)      

    The targets of carbon emission peak and carbon neutrality will certainly promote the systematic revolution of China's economy and society. Natural resources are crucial materials and space carrier for human activities. Low-carbon-based innovation of natural resource management system and territorial space governance pattern is of great significance for enhancing ecosystem carbon sinks and resources supporting capacity, improving resource utilization efficiency, and promoting long-term low-carbon transition of the whole society. Focusing on natural resource management under the target of carbon emission peak and carbon neutrality, nine scholars put forward key strategies for the innovation of natural resource management, which mainly include resource coupling management, territorial space optimization and land control, fine farmland management, land use carbon metabolism regulation, ecological carbon sink system and sustainable forests management. This provides a vital guidance for the establishment of low-carbon natural resource management system based on multi-level perspectives of "resource elements-territorial space-ecosystem", which helps to comprehensively improve carbon sink/emission reduction function within the field of natural resources. Generally, the researchers suggested that the systematic response framework of natural resource management under the targets of carbon emission peak and carbon neutrality should be established. The future top-level design should be strengthened to establish a multi-level collaborative management system of natural resources based on element-space-system. Carbon cycle monitoring network and carbon accounting standards system related to natural resources and territorial space with Chinese characteristics should be regulated. Resources coupling management, elaborative spatial management and land structure optimization should be strengthened to explore different territorial space control schemes. The management of resource circulation within nature-economy-society system should be improved to establish a net-framework for carbon metabolism and its regional nexus and realize regional coordinated carbon emission reduction based on resource optimization management. The carbon sink function of natural resources and territorial space should be stressed, which should be incorporated into the carbon trading and ecological compensation system. The regional horizontal carbon compensation system should be established based on carbon neutrality evaluation of territorial space to promote the coordinated emission reduction and development among different regions.

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    Origin, realization path and key scientific issues of carbon neutrality: Climate change and sustainable urbanization
    CHEN Ming-xing, CHENG Jia-fan, ZHOU Yuan, DING Zi-jin, MA Hai-tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1233-1246.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220509
    Abstract534)   HTML7)    PDF (1903KB)(75)      

    China's announcement of its "carbon neutrality" target is an important commitment in tackling climate change, which has attracted extensive attention at home and abroad. How to realize the target is a complex systematic science question, which involves the multi-layer coupling process and action mechanism of atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and anthroposphere, requiring interdisciplinary, integrated and collaborative researches. This paper first briefly reviews the origins of carbon neutrality proposal including climate change and temperature control targets. Then it summarizes the multiple paths of carbon source and carbon sink to achieve carbon neutrality. It further emphasizes the importance of promoting sustainable urbanization from the demand side of carbon sources to the success of carbon neutrality, which is very likely to a direct and effective approach with low-cost and high potential. The core part of the target puts forward eight significant scientific topics: a nexus between climate change, carbon neutrality, and sustainable urbanization; the roadmaps and timetables for carbon neutrality of whole China and across regions; accurate accounting of carbon emissions at the urban regional scale; green lifestyles and low carbon society; green mode of production and low carbon economy; energy structural optimization; risk and uncertainty; and innovations of long-term governance mechanisms of carbon neutrality. Finally, the paper concludes opportunities and challenges of the field in the current situation.

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    The evaluation and spatial pattern of agricultural and rural innovation-driven development at county level in the context of rural revitalization:Take Gansu province as an example
    YIN Jun-feng, SHI Pei-ji, ZHANG Wei-ping, CAI Wen-shun, LI Xin-yang, LI Ya-li
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (2): 291-306.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220202
    Abstract534)   HTML153)    PDF (5176KB)(309)      

    The implementation of agricultural and rural modernization and innovation-driven development will effectively promote the long-term rural revitalization strategy so as to form a new situation for the development of China's agriculture and rural areas. Based on 86 county-level units in Gansu province, this paper constructs an agricultural and rural innovation-driven development evaluation index system, including 28 secondary indexes from three dimensions of innovation input, innovation guarantee, and innovation effect, and comprehensively evaluates the level of innovation development in rural areas. The results show that: (1) The overall innovation score of agriculture and rural areas in the study area is on the rise, but the growth rate is relatively low. The counties and districts with higher scores on comprehensive innovation ability are mainly concentrated in the eastern Hexi region, and those with lower scores are mainly in the southern ethnic regions. The level of innovation guarantee and innovation effect in Hexi is at the forefront of the province, and the level of innovation input in the southern ethnic regions is relatively low. (2) In the east-west direction, the innovation level of agriculture and rural areas is high in the west and low in the east. After 2013, the pattern of "high at both ends and low in the middle" has gradually formed in terms of the innovation level; in the north-south direction, the innovation level is high in the north and low in the south; in the southeast-northwest direction, it is high in the northwest and low in the southeast; in the southwest-northeast direction, it is high in the northeast and low in the southwest. The direction of the innovation index has not changed significantly, and it has a certain degree of lock-in in space. (3) The hot spots of innovation are concentrated in cities of Zhangye, Wuwei and Jinchang in the Hexi region, while the cold spots are mainly in the southern ethnic regions; the number of extremely cold spots and hot spots has decreased, and the gap between county-level agricultural and rural innovation is narrowing. (4) Multiple capital investment, agricultural economic development, natural geographical conditions and resource endowments, agricultural infrastructure allocation, agricultural development policies and other factors act on the spatio-temporal evolution of agricultural and rural innovation in Gansu through internal and external factors combined with both supply and demand of innovation-driven development.

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    Performance evaluation and influence factors of ecological compensation policy in the Yangtze River Basin: The case study of Hubei and Guizhou provinces
    CHEN Ting-gui, LIU Fang, YANG Yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 3144-3155.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211210
    Abstract518)   HTML52)    PDF (1343KB)(149)      

    Fishermen are the core role of the ecological compensation policy for the fishing ban in the Yangtze River, so their satisfaction is related to the performance of the ecological compensation policy introduces with the fishing ban. Chishui River and Honghu, which were the first places in China to implement the policy, were selected as the research areas. Based on survey data from fishermen who have withdrawn from fishing, the TOPSIS which improved by entropy weights combined with the obstacle degree model was employed to evaluate the policy performance and to diagnose its influence factors. The results indicate that: (1) The values of positive and ideal solutions of fishermen's evaluation for the policy in Chishui River and Honghu is 0.45, 0.27 respectively, indicating the performance in the poor level; (2) The top three main factors are the social activities , social status , and living standards of the family, which may related to the satisfaction with government work after the fishing ban, This study provides an alternative analysis framework for the assetment of the performance of the fishing ban's ecological compensation policy, and provides a reference for other regions to improve the performance of policy.

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    Analysis on issues of water-energy-food nexus
    WANG Hong-rui, ZHAO Wei-jing, DENG Cai-yun, YAN Jia-wei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (2): 307-319.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220203
    Abstract507)   HTML141)    PDF (1908KB)(240)      

    Water, energy and food are indispensable resources in production and life. They are closely linked and mutually restricted, but their spatial distribution is not harmonious. Affected by climate change, economic and social change, the production and life are restricted. By sorting out the research contents, methods, scales of the WEF Nexus, the comprehensive conceptual framework of WEF Nexus and the transmission and expression of its risk relationship under the influence of changing environment are clarified. In the comprehensive conceptual framework, water, energy and food are regarded as the core of the WEF Nexus, and the influencing factors and potential risks of the water-energy-food system are regarded as the extension of the nexus. This paper points out that the definition of WEF Nexus has not been unified, and "connectionism" and "methodology" are two common explanations. The existing studies have assessed the status of the WEF Nexus, quantified the consumption relationship between resources and simulated it under different economic, social and climate scenarios. Status assessment includes safety, pressure, efficiency, resilience, and sustainability. There are some problems in the current research of WEF Nexus. Data missing and inconsistency hinder the calculation. Only one or several factors are considered in the application of the model, which can not fully describe the complexity of the system. Dynamic feedback research is limited by data and quantitative methods. Existing research is difficult to really apply to policy control. Therefore, monitoring, collection and integration of data, exploration of standardization model and establishment of multi-factor integration tool, system risk assessment and dynamic adjustment, resilience improvement, urban scale research and smart management are all the focus of attention in the development of the WEF Nexus.

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    Study on the ecological-economic effects of rice-aquatic coculture land use pattern: The case of rice-crayfish coculture in Hubei province
    TAN Shu-hao, LIU Qing, ZHANG Qing-yong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 3131-3143.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211209
    Abstract491)   HTML53)    PDF (1228KB)(64)      

    In this paper, we focused on a new land-use model of integrated rice-aquatic coculture systems and based on the survey data in Qianjiang and Jingzhou, calculated and compared the ecological-economic effects of rice-crayfish co-culture and rice monoculture. The results show that compared with rice monoculture, rice-crayfish co-culture can improve the ecological-economic effects of land use. However, more than half of the co-farming households in the surveyed area continue the traditional extensive production mode, and there is a serious excessive investment in production, which hinders the further optimization of the ecological-economic effects of their land use. In addition, if we only consider the economic effects but ignore possible negative effects on environment, the land-use efficiency of rice-crayfish co-culture will be overestimated by 45.28%. At present, it is urgent to incorporate environmental impact into land-use efficiency assessment, implement the development concept of "double water and double green", guide farmers to rationally arrange various production inputs, and effectively optimize the ecological-economic effect of rice-crayfish co-culture, so as to promote sustainable land use.

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    Influencing factors and mechanism of living space integration in an ecological migrant community of Ningxia:Taking Minning town as an example
    ZHAO Duo-ping, ZHAO Wei-yi, SA Xiao-long, CAO Lan-zhou, TIAN Wei-rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (1): 121-134.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220109
    Abstract482)   HTML27)    PDF (1370KB)(51)      

    In the process of ecological migration, the displacement of living space of migrants leads to the interaction and long-term evolution of the economic, social, cultural, geographical and environmental factors of the migration area and emigration area, which has become an important part of multidisciplinary inquiry problem. Taking the ecological migrant community in Minning town as the research object, the relevant data information was obtained through the questionnaire, and the influencing factors and mechanism of the living space integration of the ecological migrant community were studied by principal component analysis method and geographic detector analysis method. The results show that: (1) The principal component analysis indicates that the influence of living infrastructure, economic income growth, migrant community environment, neighborhood relationship, government policy and "national life" on the integration of living space in ecological migrant communities can be explained. (2) Factor detection shows that the explanatory factors affecting the living space of the ecological migrant community are ranked in the order of X1 living infrastructure>X2 economic income growth>X3 neighborhood relationship>X4 government policy>X5 national life>X6 migrant community environment. The results of interactive detection show that the explanatory power after factor interaction was enhanced bilinear, that is, the interaction of any two factors on the spatial fusion of ecological migration community is greater than that of a single factor. (3) The interaction between the influencing factors promotes the reconstruction of the inherent living customs, cultural beliefs and social relations of the ecological migrant community.

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    Quantifying the spatial pattern for the importance of natural resource ecosystem services in China
    WU Ying-di, MENG Ji-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (1): 17-33.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220102
    Abstract478)   HTML73)    PDF (6454KB)(217)      

    Natural resources are essential for ensuring economic and social development, and also provide important ecosystem services. This study selected five types of ecosystem services, including water conservation, soil erosion prevention, windbreak and sand fixation, biodiversity maintenance and product provision, and used NPP-associated index to determine the importance of natural resource ecosystem services in China. The spatial pattern of the importance of ecosystem services were then analyzed using spatial statistics methods. The results showed that the areas with extreme and high importance of natural resource ecosystem services are mainly distributed in the mountainous areas of Northeast China, the Southern and Southwestern parts of China, and the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, accounting for about 25% of the country's total area. These areas were often characterized by high water conservation capacity, strong capability for soil erosion prevention, windbreak and sand fixation, and rich biodiversity. There were significant differences in the importance of ecosystem services among different natural resource types. Cultivated land resources played an important role in providing products; forest and grassland resources dominated the ecosystem services of water conservation, soil erosion prevention, windbreak and sand fixation, and biodiversity maintenance; water areas mainly provided the service of water conservation. The importance of ecosystem services showed a significantly clustered pattern. The hot spots of natural resource integrated ecosystem service are mainly distributed in the Da Hinggan Mountains, Changbai Mountains, Zhejiang-Fujian Mountains, Wuyi Mountains, Nanling Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Southwestern Yunnan, and Southeastern Tibet. The spatial distribution of the importance of integrated ecosystem service in China is highly consistent with the natural zones and subzones of agriculture, with higher level of importance in tropical and temperate regions. Our research provides sound decision-making support for the exploitation and management of natural resources, and is also useful for ecological protection and restoration.

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    High-quality integrated development in the Yangtze River Delta region: Problems and solutions
    CAO Wei-dong, ZENG Gang, ZHU Sheng-jun, CAO You-hui, SUN Bin-dong, CAO Bing-ru, CUI Can, DUAN Xue-jun, ZHANG Jing-xiang, SUN Wei, YANG Shan, CHEN Ming-xing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (6): 1385-1402.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220601
    Abstract476)   HTML5)    PDF (1084KB)(60)      

    The integrated high-quality development of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) is of great importance for the long-term development and stability of China's economy. In order to scientifically and comprehensively understand the problems existing in the development of the YRD in the New Era and clarify the future development path, experts from different fields are invited to discuss the regional coordination, industrial coordination, and transportation organization. Interviews were conducted on research frontiers such as urban system evolution, cross-regional cooperation, factor allocation, river basin planning, integration paths, and green and low-carbon development. The interview results show that the YRD is the region with the most active economic development, the highest degree of openness and the strongest innovation ability in China. But it is still characterized by prominent problems, such as unbalanced internal development, fragmented inter-regional traffic, remaining administrative barriers, unsound river basin ecological cooperation, insufficient coordinated industrial development and weak green economic system. The strategic position of the study area in the development of China and the world requires the integration of theoretical knowledge of various disciplines and subjects, and continuous attention to the major scientific proposition of the integrated high-quality development of the delta region from different perspectives. Closely related to "integration" and "high quality", the integration of the YRD should first innovate the mechanism to narrow the development differences within the region, strengthen the basic support for comprehensive transportation integration, and break through the constraints of administrative boundaries. Secondly, to innovate the mechanism and system to ensure the effective flow and allocation of production factors, through the integration and development of the value chain, industrial chain, and innovation chain to consolidate the integration; again, to promote the centralized use of land elements in the YRD, improve the land carrying capacity of the YRD, and integrate the whole delta region. High-quality development provides sufficient land element guarantee. Thus, it is necessary to optimize the spatial structure of population and employment, strengthen inter-city environmental pollution prevention and control, advance inter-provincial coordination and cooperation in major river basins, improve the ecosystem services function and promote green integrated development in the YRD. Finally, we should develop new concepts, achieve low-carbon development through scientific research breakthroughs and market mechanisms, and build a world-class hub of flow space under the guidance of the national innovation-driven strategy, so as to create a new situation in the high-quality integration of the YRD region. The above viewpoints provide scientific and feasible theoretical and decision support for the integrated high-quality development of the YRD.

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    Zoning and functions of China's grassland in the New Era of ecological civilization
    DONG Shi-kui, TANG Fang-lin, PING Xiao-yan, YANG Xiu-chun, YANG Zhi, LIN Chang-cun, LU Xin-shi, WANG Tie-mei, JI Bao-ming, XU Bin, SU De-rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (3): 568-581.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220302
    Abstract456)   HTML53)    PDF (1537KB)(78)      

    Grasslands in China are key natural resources and ecosystems, which provide very important ecological functions such as primary production, water reservoir and regulation, erosion and dust control, biodiversity conservation, as well as socio-economic values such as sustainable animal husbandry, pastoral livelihood, ethnic culture and tradition. Scientific protection, rational utilization and effective restoration are the fundamental basis for the sustainable grassland resources and ecosystem management. With the reformation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration derived from the re-arrangement of Chinese central government institution and organization in 2018, the position of grasslands in ecological civilization construction in China has been promoted. In the process of ecological civilization construction in the New Era, the regionalized management of grassland resources and ecosystems for high-quality development based on geographical variation and functional characteristics is an emerging issue to be solved. Grassland regionalization in the New Era should be oriented to national strategy of "Systematic Governing Life Community of Mountains, Rivers, Forests, Farmlands, Lakes, and Grasslands", and focused on new concepts of "Green Development" and "Construction of Beautiful China". In this study, methods including literature reviews, professional questionaries and experts consultation were applied to develop China's grassland regionalization system with the guiding ideology "Prioritized Ecological Protection, Coupled Green Development". Five rules include harmony with eco-geographic differentiation, prioritization of key functions, coordination with industry patterns, integration with historical tradition, and integrity of administrative units. The grasslands in China were divided into 5 first-level zones (macro-regions, including Inner Mongolia Plateau Grassland Zone, Northwestern China's Mountain-Basin Grassland Zone, Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Grassland Zone, Northeastern and Northern China's Plain-Mountain-Hill Grassland Zone, Southern China's Mountain-Hill Grassland Zone), 47 second-level zones (sub-regions) and 2899 third-level zones (micro-regions). The regionalization was comprehensive, coordinative, and closely linked with the times. The ecological functions and potential industries for development in different zones were proposed so as to provide a sound basis for the grassland ecological civilization construction and holistic governing the mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes, and grasslands in China.

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    Spatio-temporal distribution, competitive development and emission reduction of China's photovoltaic power generation
    HAN Meng-yao, XIONG Jiao, LIU Wei-dong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1338-1351.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220516
    Abstract448)   HTML9)    PDF (2277KB)(70)      

    Since China's carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals were put forward, photovoltaic power generation has gradually become one of the important fields to accelerate low carbon transition. Through the analysis of spatio-temporal distribution, competitive development and emission reduction of China's photovoltaic power generation, the main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) From 2012 to 2020, the total installed photovoltaic capacities increased from 6.25 million kW to 253.17 million kW, dominated by centralized power stations. (2) Regions including Shandong, Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, and Shanxi showed a high-high autocorrelation, while regions such as Guizhou showed a high-low autocorrelation. (3) Electricity consumption, carbon emissions, and R&D investment were the positive driving factors for the growth of photovoltaic installed capacities, and R&D investment had a positive impact on the growth of photovoltaic installed capacities in neighboring provinces. (4) The potential emission reduction benefits per year of China's existing photovoltaic installations could almost reach 2.0E+08 tons and the accumulated emission reduction benefits could reach 19.2E+08 tons by 2030, revealing significant emission reduction potentials for promoting the achievement of carbon peak and carbon neutrality goals.

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    Influence of agricultural factor input regulation on internal disturbance and coupling of agro-product quality and safety
    YANG Jian-hui, YANG Lun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (2): 494-507.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220215
    Abstract447)   HTML126)    PDF (1461KB)(60)      

    On the basis of discussing the connotation of agro-product quality and safety, this paper constructs an index system of agro-product quantity safety and quality safety. Based on the methods of weight calculation and Ganger causality test, this paper analyzes the internal disturbance and coupling status of agro-product quality and safety by using China's time series data from 2005 to 2018, and examines the impact of agricultural factor input and regulation on the internal coordination degree of agro-product quality and safety. The results show that, firstly, there is a relatively unidirectional disturbance in agro-product quality and safety, and the internal system of agro-product quality and safety belongs to the unbalanced system in which the level of quantity safety is higher than that of quality safety; secondly, the internal coupling degree of agro-product quality and safety is high, but that of development coordination is not; thirdly, the chemical input and industrial input have a promoting effect on the internal coordinated development of agro-product quality and safety; fourthly, regulation has a positive impact on the internal coordination degree of agro-product quality and safety, and the positive impact of agricultural support and protection subsidies and the number of registrations of Agro-Product Geographical Indications is the largest. In the future, we should improve the input efficiency of technology input and other elements by optimizing the control efficiency.

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    Effects of China's trade in environmental goodson carbon emissions
    MAO Xi-yan, HE Can-fei, WANG Pei-yu, XU Rui, HU Xing-mu-zi, HE Shu-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (5): 1321-1337.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220515
    Abstract444)   HTML6)    PDF (1898KB)(55)      

    Trade liberalization of environmental goods offers new insights into the global efforts in response to global environmental changes. China has comparative advantages in trading energy-related products such as renewable energy equipment. The emerging environmental goods trade in China may contribute to China's commitment to carbon peak before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060. This study traces the trade development of environmental goods in China during 1996-2019, and depicts its structural changes in products and trading partners. Using the LMDI approach, this study decomposes carbon emissions into four components, namely, emission intensities, energy efficiencies, economic growth, and population growth. Then, the ARDL-ECM model is used to examine the co-integration of environmental goods trade and carbon emission reduction, and its long-and short-term effects. The results reveal that: (1) The development of environmental goods trade has a negative effect in terms of the short-term carbon emissions, but a positive one in the long run. (2) Environmental goods trade enlarges the carbon reduction effects of energy efficiencies, and ruduces the carbon emissions aroused by economic growth. (3) The concentration of specific products may promote carbon reduction in the short run. Nevertheless, carbon reduction, in the long run, requires a diversity of products. The improvement of the trade network benefits the carbon reduction in the short run. However, the increasing reliance on imports, in the long run, has adverse effects on carbon reduction. (4) Effects of environmental goods trade on carbon reduction origin from both energy-related products and the others. Non-energy-related products also exhibit their capacity in promoting energy efficiencies and economic restructuring, which contributes to carbon reduction.

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    Spatio-temporal pattern and mechanism analysis of coupling between ecological protection and economic development of urban agglomerations in the Yellow River Basin
    SUN Jiu-wen, CUI Ya-qi, ZHANG Hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (7): 1673-1690.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220702
    Abstract439)   HTML16)    PDF (9340KB)(56)      

    By studying the strategic background of the Yellow River Basin and the development plan of urban agglomerations in the basin, this paper constructs an index system for evaluating ecological protection and economic development that can be applied to a comparative study of urban agglomerations. Based on the index system, this paper analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics and driving mechanism of the coupling coordination between ecological protection and economic development of seven major urban agglomerations in the basin from 2007 to 2019 by using the coupling coordination degree model, spatial autocorrelation and geographic detectors. The results show that: (1) During the study period, the economic development level of the seven major urban agglomerations has been greatly improved, the progress of ecological protection construction is relatively slow, and the coupling degree between them rises in a fluctuating manner. (2) The eco-economic coordination degree of the urban agglomerations in the upper reaches is lower than that of the middle and lower reaches, and the overall coordination degree is improved to a higher level compared with that of the development mode which was significantly unbalanced in the past. (3) Urban agglomerations in the Yellow River Basin have experienced a transformation from economic development lag to ecological protection lag. (4) The coordination degree between ecological protection and economic development of each urban agglomeration has correlation effect. (5) The coupling mechanism is closely related to people's livelihood development and opening-up, technological innovation and industrial expansion, green development and agricultural construction, basic public service system and so on.

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    Impact of land use change on coupling coordination degree of regional water-energy-food system: A case study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration
    WANG Yong, SUN Rui-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (3): 582-599.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220303
    Abstract438)   HTML57)    PDF (3178KB)(83)      

    In this paper, the land factor is introduced into the water-energy-food system, and the coupling coordination model is used to study the spatio-temporal change characteristics of the water-energy-food-land system in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration from 2004 to 2017. The results show that: (1) On the spatial scale, the construction land of the study area diffuses from the center to the periphery. In terms of land use pattern of the urban agglomeration, the area of cultivated land and construction land showed a relatively obvious decline and growth trend, respectively. (2) The integration of land into the water-energy-food system reduces the coupling degree and co-scheduling of water-energy-food systems in most cities of this urban agglomeration. (3) The coordination level of land and water-energy-food subsystem will be superimposed or offset, which will affect the coupling coordination of water-energy-food-land system. The research enlightenment of this paper is that considering the coordinated development of water, energy and grain, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration should understand the impact of land on the whole and internal subsystems of the water-energy-food system, allocate resources reasonably and optimize the industrial layout according to the city's own resource advantages, so as to achieve sustainable development.

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    Technological innovation, industrial structure upgrading and carbon emissions efficiency: An analysis based on PVAR model of panel data at provincial level
    LIU Zhi-hua, XU Jun-wei, ZHANG Cai-hong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (2): 508-520.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220216
    Abstract437)   HTML134)    PDF (2917KB)(168)      

    Based on the 2010-2018 Chinese provincial panel data, a PVAR model is constructed to analyze the dynamic relationship between technological innovation, industrial structure upgrading and carbon emissions efficiency at the national and regional levels. The results show that: (1) From the national level, technological innovation, industrial structure upgrading and carbon emissions efficiency have strong self-coordination and mutual positive promotion; (2) From the regional level, from east to west, technological innovation, industrial structure upgrading and carbon emissions efficiency of coordination degree decrease, the eastern region have basically achieved the coordinated development of the three variables, industrial structure upgrade and carbon emissions efficiency in the central region have not yet formed a two-way interaction, carbon emissions efficiency has insufficient impetus to improve industrial structure upgrade. In the western region, the level of technological innovation is low, the industrial structure is unreasonable, and the carbon emissions efficiency is low as well. There is no positive interaction among the three factors in Western China.

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    Marine resource economy and strategy under the background of marine ecological civilization construction
    LI Jia-lin, SHEN Man-hong, MA Ren-feng, YANG Hong-sheng, CHEN Yi-ning, SUN Cai-zhi, LIU Ming, HAN Xi-qiu, HU Zhi-ding, MA Xue-guang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (4): 829-849.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20220401
    Abstract430)   HTML7)    PDF (1204KB)(73)      

    To develop the marine economy and build a strong marine country, we need to care about, understand and manage the ocean from the perspective of national strategy. In order to systematically understand China's marine resource economy and strategy under the background of marine ecological civilization construction, nine well-known experts from marine-related fields were invited to discuss marine ecological civilization construction, marine land space planning, marine ecological pasture construction, and coastal ecological restoration. They conducted exchanges and interviews in frontier research fields such as marine strategic emerging industries, marine science and technology development, deep-sea mineral resources development, marine geopolitics, and China's participation in global ocean governance. According to their interviews: (1) The construction of marine ecological civilization is an important part of the construction of a powerful marine country. In the construction of marine ecological civilization, we should clarify the goal of building a beautiful ocean, master the methods of marine ecosystems, adhere to the major strategy of coordinating land and sea, and build an institutional system for marine ecological civilization. (2) National marine space planning should integrate existing sea-related plans, rationally develop, utilize and protect marine resources, innovate planning technologies and planning governance concepts, and strengthen marine space control indicators, marine space development capabilities, and local characteristic mechanisms for marine space governance, etc. (3) The construction of marine ranches should focus on the industrial chain and promote the construction of "all-for-one" marine ranches; strengthen the original drive, build an "all-for-all" marine ranch technology system; advocate integrated development and cultivate new "all-for-one" marine ranches. (4) Coastal ecological restoration based on "natural restoration" emphasizes the use of technologies to optimize the spatial layout and resource management of land-ocean staggered areas, fully consider the process and mechanism of natural restoration of coastal ecosystems, and improve the efficiency of ecological restoration. (5) The development of marine strategic emerging industries should grasp the general trend of the digital economy, focus on the development of intelligent manufacturing, accelerate the upgrading of the industrial structure, adhere to green and low-carbon development, and actively connect with regional strategies. (6) The key tasks for the future development of marine science and technology are to focus on the new strategic fields of deep sea and polar regions, improve the real-time fine observation and forecasting capabilities of key sea areas, focus on the intensive use of marine resources and energy, and strengthen the research and development of key core technologies of marine engineering equipment. (7) In the development of deep-sea mineral resources, it is necessary to strengthen international cooperation, carry out multidisciplinary investigation, long-term monitoring, enhance the research and development level of deep-sea development technology, evaluate the environmental impact of deep-sea mining, reduce the disturbance of the deep-sea development process to the marine environment, and realize deep-sea mining and deep-sea environmental protection coordinated development. (8) China should implement a spatially differentiated and targeted marine geostrategy to serve the unification of the motherland, the maintenance of marine rights and interests and the utilization of marine resources, and the safety of marine transportation and ecological environment, so as to ultimately serve the construction of a community with a shared future for the ocean. (9) We should implement the "going out" strategy of China's marine spatial planning technology, actively promote the strategy of building a "node network system" in China's overseas parks, and implement the talent training and training strategy for the needs of the Belt and Road Initiative, in order to provide necessary space fulcrum and technical support for global marine governance.

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