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    Gully agriculture system and optimization mode in the Loess Plateau
    QU Lu-lu, LI Yu-rui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3252-3266.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221215
    Abstract1269)   HTML28)    PDF (2971KB)(210)      

    Gully agriculture is a new type of agricultural region resulting from the coupling development of human-earth relationship in the loess hilly and gully region. Its sustainable development is of great practical significance for regional agricultural improving quality and efficiency, rural revitalization and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Based on the principle of human-earth system science, this paper expounds the concept connotation, scientific cognition, optimization mode and security policy. The results show that: (1) The sustainability of gully agriculture should follow the principle of "element system" to "structure function", and the multi-objective organic combination of "gully slope soil and water conservation, ecological construction and rural revitalization", aiming to correctly handle the macro and micro benefits and the hierarchical system of gully water and soil configuration, farmland landscape and agricultural system at different scales, deepen the through research, and comprehensively reveal the evolution process and micro action mechanism. (2) This paper puts forward the optimization mode of gully agriculture, builds the framework of different modes, and improves the relevant technical and institutional guarantee system, so as to support the realization of rural revitalization and high-quality development. (3) The high-quality development of gully agriculture should be based on the scientific frontier of the human-earth system, comprehensively construct the theory and methods, and deeply explore new ways to optimize production methods and innovate management modes. (4) Based on the element flow, industrial chain and circulation network, the agricultural state assessment and scenario simulation of different scales for the SDGs target and rural revitalization, food and ecological security are going to support the decision-making of regional modernization construction. The research on gully agriculture characteristics and optimization mode is an important way to promote the innovation of agricultural geography research theories and methods and provide scientific basis for the high-quality development of agriculture in the Loess Plateau. Based on the factor flow, industrial chain, and circulation network, the agricultural state assessment and scenario simulation of different scales for the SDGs target and rural revitalization in 2035 will serve to support the decision-making of regional modernization construction.

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    Research patterns, hotspots and development prospects of land resource and natural resource management field within the National Natural Science Foundation of China
    GAO Yang, WU Hao, LI Xin, CAI Shun, XIONG Ju-hua
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3049-3059.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221202
    Abstract945)   HTML6)    PDF (1237KB)(123)      

    Supporting fundamental research is the responsibility and mission of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). Natural resource management is an important research field of interdisciplinary integration and innovation in geographical sciences. This paper constructs a classification framework for research interests from the perceptive of logic and applicability, classifies relevant research interests in land sciences and natural resource management of geographical science of NSFC, analyzes the existing pattern of projects application and funding in this field, inspects the research hotspots, and proposes the development prospects of this field. Results show that: The application pattern in natural resource management since 2021 is dominated by the intersectional and human element-oriented studies, with over 55% of the intersectional category, 30% of the human element-oriented category, and around 15% of the natural element-oriented category, and from the perspective studied objects, around 73% is the land resource-oriented studies, around 14% of the ecological resource-oriented studies, and around 13% of the other natural resource-oriented studies; the funding pattern of projects is dominated by land resource studies, at more than 75%, while other natural resource funding is low in number and unstable in rate; agricultural land, construction land, and land use system are the main funding fields of land resources. To promote the healthy and sustainable development of the natural resource management research, it is necessary to innovate the research paradigm in this field, set an example of interdisciplinary integration research for geographical science, enhance its attributes of fundamental research, persist in the initial connotation of the code set, and prevent the polarization of the research pattern.

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    Development of rural tourism resources in China under the goal of common prosperity: Current situation, problems and the development path
    SUN Jiu-xia, ZHANG Ling-yuan, LUO Yi-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (2): 318-334.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230204
    Abstract810)   HTML41)    PDF (1246KB)(303)      

    Under the mission of the new era, guiding the development of rural tourism resources with the goal of common prosperity has the dual significance of enhancing the value of resources and promoting comprehensive rural revitalization. According to the logic of "development of rural tourism resources-realization of the common prosperity of rural farmers-attainment of material and spiritual prosperity of the entire society", this paper identifies the relationship between the development of rural tourism resources and common prosperity and clarifies the realistic predicament and the existing gap in achieving common prosperity. It is found that both traditional rural tourist destinations oriented by local resources and modern rural tourist destinations oriented by high-standard services are actively excavating advantageous resources and improving supporting facilities so as to adapt to market transformation. Meanwhile, two major characteristics are reflected: first, the participants of rural tourism resources have diversified cooperation, and the development mode is becoming mature; second, rural tourism has made outstanding contributions in helping reduce poverty, promoting social equity and satisfying spiritual and cultural needs, which fully fits the process of common prosperity. However, there is still a large gap between the development of rural tourism resources and the goal of common prosperity. In particular, different regions and different groups have multiple gaps in the efficiency, level and ability of development, which leads to the lack of extensive, in-depth and thorough solutions to contradictions between the unbalanced development of rural areas and the farmers' needs for a better life. Based on the the principle of "high-quality development of rural tourism, integrated development of urban and rural areas, and all-round development of people", this paper constructs an innovative path of rural tourism resources, which is composed of "effective development, collaborative development and sustainable development" to promote the high-quality transformation and development of China's rural tourism industry and help achieve common prosperity.

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    High-quality development of resource-based cities in China: Dilemmas and breakthroughs
    WU Kang, ZHANG Wen-zhong, ZHANG Ping-yu, XUE Bing, AN Shu-wei, SHAO Shuai, LONG Ying, LIU Yan-jun, TAO An-jun, HONG Hui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (1): 1-21.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230101
    Abstract808)   HTML25)    PDF (1179KB)(262)      

    The high-quality development of resource-based cities is of great importance. In order to clearly understand the problems existing in the transformation of resource-based cities and clarify the high-quality development path, experts from different fields are invited to discuss the current research frontiers of the main dilemmas and breakthrough paths of high-quality development of resource-based cities. The interview results show that the transformation of resource-based cities in China has made great achievements, but there is still a great distance from the requirements of high-quality development, highlighted by the fact that economic development still fails to get rid of the development path of resource dependence, the gathering of new factors to promote high-quality development is weak and resource-based cities are facing great pressure both internally and externally under the carbon emission reduction target. In the New Era, it is necessary to reconceptualize the role and status of resource-based cities and improve the ability of resource-based cities to ensure national resource and energy security; to realize the re-cognition of the new resource system based on a profound grasp of the connotation of the traditional concept of resource endowment, pay attention to the excavation of new resources and enrich the new knowledge system of resource-based city research. According to the development conditions of different types of resource-based cities, it is necessary to implement measures by categories and promote the innovative development of resource-based cities according to local conditions, and continue to improve the employment elasticity of economic growth, enhance the ability of economic development to pull employment, and pay full attention to the creation and cultivation of employment opportunities; accelerate the exploration of a green and efficient transformation and development path, and simultaneously realize the greening of "stock" and the greening of "increment"; to comprehensively consider the development basis and factor resource conditions of resource-based cities, and change from the traditional "growth and expansion type" to the development mode of "combination of efficient growth and smart shrinkage". It is necessary to integrate new data and new technological methods to scientifically/intelligently support the spatial governance of resource (exhausted) cities; to establish the guiding ideology of giving priority to people's livelihood, make up for the historical debts in the past construction process of resource-based cities through urban renewal, comprehensively improve the livability level and economic vitality of resource-based cities, and reshape the urban socio-spatial network; The "chain system" schemes and models such as "strengthen the chain, complement the chain and extend the chain" should be fully referenced for the industrial transformation of resource-based cities. The above viewpoints provide scientific and feasible theoretical and decision support for the high-quality development of resource-based cities.

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    Evaluation of carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities and its policy enlightenment
    ZHANG Ming-dou, XI Sheng-jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (1): 220-237.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230114
    Abstract748)   HTML16)    PDF (3688KB)(140)      

    Based on the dual pressures of economic transformation and energy conservation and emission reduction faced by resource-based cities, this paper empirically measures the carbon emission efficiency of 114 resource-based cities in China from 2004 to 2019 by using a three-stage super-efficiency SBM model, and discusses the efficiency differences, spatio-temporal evolution and sources of differences by using the methods of Dagum Gini coefficient, kernel density estimation and QAP regression analysis. The results show that: (1) After the environmental factors and random interference is removed, the average carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities decreases to 0.230, but the overall trend is on the rise. (2) The areas with high carbon emission efficiency are concentrated in regenerating and mature cities, and the distribution is relatively scattered. The low value areas are mainly growing and declining cities, and they are clustered in northeast, central and other regions. (3) The carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities varies greatly, among which the contribution rate of inter-group difference is the highest, but it shows a downward trend; The differences within the groups of regenerating and mature cities are relatively stable, while the differences within the groups of growing and declining cities are gradually expanding. (4) The differences of population density, per capita disposable income and the number of large-scale enterprises will significantly expand the differences of carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities, and the differences in population density, population structure and disposable income of residents have a significant heterogeneous impact on the differences in carbon emission efficiency of different types of resource-based cities. Considering the characteristics of carbon emission efficiency of resource-based cities, this paper puts forward the following policy implications: Firstly, according to the types of resource-based cities, we should adopt emission reduction schemes that suit local conditions. Secondly, we should increase investment in low-carbon innovation and promote green transformation of industry. Resource-based cities can increase R&D investment by imitating innovation, and make low-carbon innovation more directional and targeted. At the same time, resource-based cities should encourage enterprises to carry out green technological transformation and upgrading. Thirdly, we will promote green consumption mode and strengthen emission reduction of residents. The government should enhance residents' cognitive level of consumption emission reduction ability and encourage consumers to make low-carbon consumption. Moreover, the government should explore green financial innovation, establish individual carbon credit and carbon account system, and encourage residents' participation in green financial market.

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    Theoretical debates and innovative practices of the development of China's nature protected area under the background of ecological civilization construction
    CAI Xiao-mei, SU Yang, WU Bi-hu, WANG Yi, YANG Rui, XU Wei-hua, MIN Qing-wen, ZHANG Hai-xia
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (4): 839-861.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230401
    Abstract735)   HTML59)    PDF (843KB)(454)      

    The establishment of the nature protected area system based on national parks is seen as the important implementation of Xi Jinping's Thought on ecological civilization from the perspective of reform. From the perspective of homeland space governance, it is the core carrier of ecological construction and the primary position of maintaining its primary position in national ecological security. In order to achieve harmonious coexistence between man and nature in the nature protected area, it is necessary to achieve "the strictest protection" and "lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets", which is both ecological and civilized. In order to better understand and interpret the development of China's protected areas and the driving factors behind them in the context of ecological civilization construction, we invited seven well-known experts from ecological civilization and national park related fields to discuss the following aspects of the protected areas: ecological civilization construction, human-land relations, conflict and symbiotic transformation mechanism between man and nature, the governance system of the protected areas and the contribution of Chinese governance system to the construction of global ecological civilization, natural resource asset property rights system, daily management and supervision of the protected areas, ecological compensation and concession of the protected areas, and etc.

    The main conclusions are: (1) Only through establishing the ecological civilization system can local governments deal with the relationship between the protection and development of the protected areas, and the establishment of the national park system has made the fastest overall progress and is the most systematic part in the reform of the ecological civilization system. (2) To achieve the "strictest protection", the development of the protected areas is inseparable from the support of the concept of the human-land relations. It stresses on the importance of paying attention to the "land" of the nature protected area, as well as emphasize the significance of the functions and participation of people from the perspectives of "adapting measures to local conditions" and "authenticity of land lovers". (3) The institutional causes of human-nature conflict in the nature protected area mainly stem from the conflict of interests and structures between governments at different levels. (4) To resolve conflicts and achieve symbiosis between man and nature, it is necessary to optimize the governance system, especially adjust the responsibility and rights system of governments at all levels. Moreover, in order to achieve the goals of "ecological protection first" and "public welfare for all people", we should reconstruct the dimension of interests, and form a community of common interests. (5) It is necessary to coordinate and efficiently allocate the responsibilities and rights of different stakeholders under the unified management goals, and construct a co-governance pattern and pluralistic co-governance system of the nature protected area so as to handle various relationships of multiple subjects in the governance system of the nature protected area. (6) There are deep-seated contradictions between the logic of capital and ecology, between the protected areas and human settlements systems, between nature conservation goals and global execution. The institutional advantages of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era and the cultural tradition of "man and heaven" formed by thousands of years of accumulation can contribute Chinese wisdom to the construction of global ecological civilization. (7) In view of the construction needs of the protected areas system and its positioning in the spatial planning, it is necessary to optimize the property rights system of natural resource assets, and explore the control system of the territorial space that is conducive to handling the relationship between protection and development. Before the reform of the national institutions, there was a problem of fragmented management ("Nine-Dragon Water Governing" in Chinese) in the protected areas. The daily comprehensive management and supervision and law enforcement of the protected areas have been carried out to realize the unification, standardization and orderliness of management and supervision after the institutional reform. (8) In order to achieve ecological protection goals, it is necessary to universally realize the transformation of "two mountain theory", especially under the market economy. The national concession system can be seen as a market-oriented and diversified ecological compensation path and an effective way of green development, which requires the exploration of governmental franchise and brand franchising in active and diverse means.

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    Research on industrial transformation and its economic resilience in resource-exhausted cities: A case study of Daye city, Hubei province
    ZHU Yuan-yuan, LUO Yuan, CHEN Jing, JIANG Zi-long
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (1): 73-90.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230105
    Abstract687)   HTML20)    PDF (3375KB)(159)      

    Industrial transformation is an important development problem faced by resource- exhausted cities, and exploring the evolutionary mechanisms of industrial transformation and its economic resilience in resources-exhausted cities is of great significance to realize high-quality urban development. From the perspective of evolutionary economic resilience, taking Daye city of Hubei province as an example, this paper constructed an evaluation index system of economic resilience in resource-exhausted cities, and the entropy value method and partial least squares (PLS) are adopted to quantitatively reveal the evolutionary characteristics and driving mechanisms of economic resilience during the industrial transformation of Daye city from 2000 to 2019. The results showed that: (1) The economic resilience of the study area had undergone the evolutionary stages of recession adaptation, resistance to recovery, and response improvement, which corresponded to the study area's economic recession transition period (2000-2009), development recovery period (2010-2014), and efficient improvement period (2015-2019), and the level of economic resilience showed a "slow to fast" rising trend. (2) From 2000 to 2019, the driving factors of the evolution of economic resilience in the study area changed from the transformation of industrial structure and the improvement of innovation level to multi-factors. Among them, residents' income, market scale, government regulation ability, industrial technology level are the key factors to promote the evolution of economic resilience in the study area. (3) The transformation of industrial diversification is the direct driving force for the improvement of economic resilience in the study area, and the evolution of the study area to a higher level of urban life stage is driven by multiple factors. When the pressure factor is eliminated, the urban state is adjusted and the response mode is optimized, the economic resilience will promote the "path breakthrough" of the industry by activating the industrial factors and balancing the driving force, and then evolve into a higher-level state, so as to promote the high-quality development of resource-exhausted cities.

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    Ecological compensation standards of carbon sink resources in the marine ranch
    CAO Gang-cheng, SHEN Jin-sheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3153-3166.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221209
    Abstract626)   HTML10)    PDF (1510KB)(101)      

    The construction of marine ranches is an effective way to increase the ocean carbon sink and achieve the strategic goal of carbon neutrality in China. Carbon sink has obvious externality, only to determine a reasonable compensation standard to mobilize the enthusiasm of marine ranch construction operators. This paper takes economic carbon sink resources such as algae, shellfish, fish, crustacean and other species in the marine ranch as the research object, and accounted for the compensation criteria for the ecological value of carbon sink resources using an optimization model. The results indicated that the ecological compensation standards of algae, shellfish, fish, crustacean and other species were 134.94 yuan/t, 820.05 yuan/t, 782.39 yuan/t, and 3764.16 yuan/t, respectively, and there was inter-species variability in compensation standards. The results can provide a theoretical reference for optimizing the current ecological compensation policy for the marine ranch.

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    Research on mechanism and path of rural tourism development promoting common prosperity: Based on a symbiotic perspective
    WANG Cai-cai, XI Wei, XU Hong, XU Feng-zeng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (2): 335-356.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230205
    Abstract622)   HTML16)    PDF (2598KB)(201)      

    Rural tourism plays an important role in the development of rural economy, the realization of rural transformation and the promotion of people's prosperity, and becomes an effective way to promote rural prosperity and common prosperity in an all-round way. Taking Yuanjia village in Shaanxi province as a case, based on symbiosis theory, single case study method is adopted to construct the mechanism and path of rural tourism development promoting common prosperity through structured data analysis. The results show that: (1) The symbiotic system of rural tourism includes symbiotic unit, symbiotic mode and symbiotic environment, and presents dynamic evolution characteristics in the process of promoting common prosperity through tourism development. (2) The operation mechanism and connotation of tourism development to promote common prosperity present stage characteristics. Symbiotic unit creates symbiotic energy with the help of symbiotic environment, resulting in symbiotic energy distribution, symbiotic energy infection, and ultimately promoting symbiotic effect. (3) The realization path of tourism development promoting common prosperity reflects the co-construction and co-sharing of tourism symbiosis system. Under the leadership of grass-roots Party organizations, Yuanjia village has always promoted common prosperity through extensive absorption of tourism management talents, promotion of tourism industry upgrading and transformation, and implementation of farmers' shareholding system. This paper has positive practical significance for the high-quality development of rural tourism and the realization of common prosperity.

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    Innovative utilization and development of rural tourism resources under the goal of common prosperity
    SUN Jiu-xia, MING Qing-zhong, XU Chun-xiao, MA Xue-feng, YANG Yong, ZHU He, WANG Xin-rui, SUN Jiao-jiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (2): 271-285.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230201
    Abstract608)   HTML51)    PDF (930KB)(391)      

    Under the goal of common prosperity, how to achieve innovative rural development by utilizing rural tourism resources is an important topic of rural research in the new era. Eight scholars from the fields of geography, tourism, management, and other fields discussed the innovative development of rural tourism and the realization of common prosperity goals from different perspectives, including resources, participants, and mechanisms. Specifically: in terms of resource utilization, it is necessary to attach importance to the inheritance and utilization of rural intangible cultural heritage and empower the development of rural tourism resources with art, at the same time, solve rural problems through the development of digital economy. As for participation subjects, we should emphasize the importance of enterprises, and continue to improve the distribution mechanism between the enterprise and the rural community. In the innovative utilization of rural tourism resources, we should build a mechanism system related to both rural industry development and residents' well-being and pay more attention to the spatial value of rural tourism resources. On this basis, rural areas should continue to promote a new development model including tourism development, rural revitalization, urban-rural integration and common prosperity.

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    Study on security guarantee and implementation strategy of China's natural resources towards carbon neutrality
    SHEN Lei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3037-3048.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221201
    Abstract601)   HTML7)    PDF (1884KB)(183)      

    The Covid-19 lasting for years and the geopolitical and economic changes around the world have a significant impact on China's carbon neutral strategy and the protection of natural resources in the near term and future. How to combine the goals of realizing carbon neutrality and ensuring natural resource security, and put forward the security and realization strategy of natural resources from the perspective of the technical logic of carbon neutrality and the practical logic in the field of natural resources, has important practical significance and theoretical value for China. Starting from the important supporting role of natural resources in national economic and social development along with the analysis of the current practice of natural resource utilization and protection, this paper systematically reviewed some related problems of carbon neutrality and main paths to realize carbon neutrality in the field of natural resources. The author believes that the current understanding of carbon emissions has not only the uncertainty of quantitative indicators, but many other misunderstandings as well. Facing the multi-dimensions of development goals towards the years of 2030 and 2060, China needs to coordinate the rational utilization of various energy and natural resources. In order to achieve carbon neutrality in the field of natural resources, China should adhere to its own technical and practical logics, clarifying various boundaries between carbon neutrality actions, and strengthening the research on the basic theories and methods of natural resources, revealing the coupling mechanism between carbon peak and carbon neutrality (2060 goals) and energy and resources, studying and formulating the seceding path and other utilization strategies of fossil energy, enhancing applicable technologies to improve the efficiency of resource and energy utilization, exploring the potential and implementation path of carbon sink increase through forest and grass, wetland, land use and carbon sequestration, and developing the new model of systematic governance of mountains, rivers, forests, lakes, grass, sand, ice and natural resources, carrying out strategic research, simulation and early warning, dynamic assessment, method innovation and application demonstration of natural resource security oriented to the strategic goal of carbon neutrality. The author also proposes ten key strategic plans to be implemented immediately, including the action of dual control of fossil energy, the action of renewable energy exploration, the action of resource utilization and efficiency improvement, the action of increasing storage of key minerals, the action of farmland protection and restoration, the action of forest and grass expansion and conservation, the action of wetland restoration and protection, the action of land and sea coordination, the action of resource management intelligence, and the action of talent and technology innovation.

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    Evaluation on the degree and potential of ecological restoration in Loess Plateau
    NIU Li-nan, SHAO Quan-qin, NING Jia, YANG Xue-qing, LIU Shu-chao, LIU Guo-bo, ZHANG Xiong-yi, HUANG Hai-bo
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (3): 779-794.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230314
    Abstract598)   HTML29)    PDF (9302KB)(339)      

    The Loess Plateau is the most fragile ecological environment and one of the most serious soil erosion areas in the world. China has implemented the Grain for Green Project and a series of ecological engineering in the Loess Plateau since 2000. They play a good role for ecosystem restoration. In order to assess the present situation, the ecological restoration degree and the ecological restoration potential in the Loess Plateau over the past 20 years, we selected ecological quality and ecosystem services to comprehensively analyze and evaluate the degree and potential of ecological restoration in this region from 2000 to 2019 by using ground and remote sensing monitoring data and model simulation. The results showed that: (1) The ecological quality was improved: Vegetation coverage and NPP showed an increasing trend. Compared with the changes from 2000 to 2009 and from 2010 to 2019, the proportion of the area with vegetation coverage and NPP continuously improved were 39.90% and 82.71%, respectively. (2) The ecosystem services improved: The areal proportion of water conservation service with continuous improvement was 15.46%, the areal proportion of soil conservation services first improved and then stabilized or first stabilized and then improved was 18.88%, the areal proportion of wind prevention and sand fixation service with continuous improvement was 6.30%. Water and soil conservation services were improved mainly in the farming-pastoral transitional zone of the gully region, while windbreak and sand-fixing service was improved mainly in the sandy and desert areas. (3) The areas with high degree of comprehensive ecological restoration accounted for 11.08%, which was mainly located in the gully region. Only a few non-restoration areas were mainly distributed in the northwest of the sandy land and desert region, accounting for 3.51%. (4) The restoration potential of vegetation coverage was 13.10%, the high value region was mainly located in the west of the gully region, and the low value region was mainly found in the southeast of the gully region and parts of the valley plain. The restoration potential of vegetation NPP is low on the whole, and the regions with greater potential are mainly located in the loess hilly-gully region.

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    Theoretical debates and practical development of the "three rural issues" and rural revitalization in the New Era
    ZHOU Guo-hua, LONG Hua-lou, LIN Wan-long, QIAO Jia-jun, TAN Hua-yun, YANG Kai-zhong, YUE Wen-ze, YUN Wen-ju, HUANG Xian-jin, LU Han-wen, LI Xun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (8): 1919-1940.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230801
    Abstract598)   HTML28)    PDF (878KB)(289)      

    "Three rural issues" (issues concerning agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) is an important mainline of the CPC's centennial course of party building and China's urban-rural development. In order to solve the "three rural issues" in the New Era and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy, we hereby invite ten experts in the research field of "three rural issues" and rural revitalization research to conduct interviews. The interview mainly focuses on three perspectives: Historical process and institutional context, urban-rural system and cross scale space, and the integration of policy theory, technical methods, and rural construction practice. It revolves three main lines: The strategic stage and institutional changes of "three rural issues", the essence of "three rural issues" and the ways to solve new "three rural issues", and the rural revitalization mechanism and rural construction practice. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The essence, key areas, and institutional mechanism innovation of the "three rural issues" in the context of spatio-temporal processes and institutional contexts. It is necessary to grasp the laws of "three rural" (agriculture, rural areas, and farmers) and diagnose the "three rural issues" from the perspective of urban and rural regional systems and even the global perspective space. The "three rural issues" is an optimization decision-making problem for improving the functions of rural regional systems within the overall framework of urban and rural regional systems. The imbalance in urban-rural development and insufficient rural development are the concentrated reflection of the "three rural issues" in the New Era. The crux of the "three rural issues" lies in the uncoordinated development of "human, land, and industry". The core goal of China's "three rural issues" in the new development stage is to move towards the common prosperity of farmers and rural areas. The corresponding development system and working mechanism of "agriculture, rural areas, and farmers" need to grasp the two "bottom lines", do a good job in the two "connections", and promote the two "integrations" in key areas such as national food security, farmers' livelihood development, modern agriculture and rural development, rural revitalization, and urban-rural integration development. (2) The theory of rural revitalization and the rural spatial planning under the requirements of urban-rural system interaction and people's common prosperity. The research and solution of China's "three rural issues" are rooted in the geographical theory of territorial system theory of human-environment interaction and location theory, the sector economy theory and the economic cycle theory, as well as the theory of development economics, sociological function theory and social conflict theories. In the research practice of the "three rural issues", land use transformation theory, rural reconstruction theory, rural development multi-body and multi-pole theory, interface theory, rural attraction theory, and rural sustainability have also been developed. The urban-rural integrated development and the common prosperity of the people should be the result of balanced regional development and Chinese path to modernization. The folk expression of "making rural life attractive" and the strategic goal of "basically realizing rural modernization by 2035" are mutually "exterior-interior" relationship, which can be comprehensively explained from the following three aspects: The spatio-temporal differences and path differentiation of rural settlement evolution and multi-functional transformation, and the phenomenon explanation of rural gentrification and the theoretical application of rural attraction in the context of urban-rural interaction, as well as the theoretical significance and practical path of rural modernization under the guidance of rural sustainability science. Improving local quality is an inherent requirement to meet the people's needs for a better life, and it is an essential requirement and general law of rural revitalization driven by innovation. As the edge of the national urban-rural system, rural areas face constraints such as segmentation, remoteness, low density, and insufficient heterogeneity dividends in improving local quality. Therefore, to improve local quality of rural areas, it is necessary to adapt to and alleviate the relative inefficiency of rural geography, and its important promotion paths include the characteristic development based on endowment, digital transformation and rural agglomeration centered around cities and towns. Guided by spatial planning and taking into account the integrated functional development of production-living-ecological spaces in rural areas, as well as the integration of urban and rural space through spatial planning, through promoting the quality of living space through comprehensive land improvement, assisting in the realization of multifunctional value in agricultural space through refined management, ensuring the sustainable use of ecological space through systematic protection and restoration, which is a solid foundation for rural revitalization and the construction of a new urban-rural relationship. (3) The path mechanism and technical support for the comprehensive rural revitalization and rural construction under the new needs of ecological civilization construction and governance modernization. Comprehensive rural revitalization requires the revitalization of industries, the reform of land, the development of human well-being, and the intelligent updating of technology. First, the essence of operating rural areas is the rational allocation of resources as the object of factors. It is necessary to integrate the high-quality development of agriculture with the high-quality and livable rural areas, promote the interaction and integration of urban and rural systems, actively link natural science, engineering technology innovation, and institutional innovation from the perspective of the big food concept, and implement food safety and important agricultural product supply security. Second, facing the new demand of rural sustainable development and governance modernization, we should innovate the property right governance integration mechanism of rural land system, especially actively build a rural green development mechanism with farmers' participation and an external benefit sharing mechanism of ecological environment governance. Third, it is urgent to break through the barriers that farmers share the gains from the appreciation of rural assets, fill the gap between small farmers and modern agriculture, and establish a concept of county governance that meets the needs of Chinese path to modernization. Fourth, rural construction is an organic combination of the governance of public spaces by the state and the daily life practices of farmers. Through the theory and technology of "computational" rural areas, effective connection and information sharing between the state and rural areas can be achieved, promoting coordinated development from micro to macro, and from local to whole. And we should achieve the aim of building livable, suitable for work, and beautiful rural areas, through multi-level main body co-construction, co-governance, and management. To sum up, the interview views can provide theoretical reference and decision-making reference for the "three rural issues" work innovation and rural revitalization practice towards Chinese path to modernization.

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    The driving mechanism of tourists' pro-environmental behavior in natural protected areas: A case study of Yuzui Wetland Park in Nanjing
    HE Yun-meng, XU Fei-fei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (4): 1010-1024.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230412
    Abstract596)   HTML15)    PDF (853KB)(172)      

    The pro-environmental behavior of tourists is an effective way to fully implement the concept of ecological civilization and vigorously promote the more efficient, more equitable and more sustainable development of natural protected areas. Based on the value-belief-norm theory and the emotional appraisal theory, Yuzui Wetland Park in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province was selected as the sample collection site, and the mixture methods of online survey and on-site survey were used to collect the data. The AMOS 26.0 software was used to construct a second-order structural equation model and explore the driving mechanism of tourists' pro-environmental behavior in natural protected areas. The results showed that: (1) Environmental values, environmental beliefs, moral norms and moral emotions are the key influencing factors of tourists' pro-environmental behavior. (2) Environmental values are the basic variables, which indirectly and positively affect pro-environmental behavior of tourists through the environmental beliefs, the moral norms and the moral emotions. (3) Environmental beliefs and moral norms are important mediating variables of tourists' pro-environmental behavior, and they both have multiple chain mediating effects in the relationship between environmental values and pro-environmental behavior. Moral norms can directly affect tourists' pro-environmental behavior and indirectly affect tourists' pro-environmental behavior through moral emotions. (4) Moral emotions are the most direct and important factors, which have a positive and significant promoting effect on tourists' pro-environmental behavior. Accordingly, suggestions were provided for the stimulation of tourists' pro-environmental behavior from the aspects of ecocentrism values cultivation, environmental beliefs education, moral norms regulation and moral emotions edification, etc., so as to realize the high-quality development of natural protected areas.

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    On the normative path of perfecting natural resources supervision system in China
    JIANG Wen-yuan, CHEN Hai-song
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3073-3087.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221204
    Abstract586)   HTML2)    PDF (1255KB)(106)      

    The establishment of the natural resources supervision system is an important measure for the reform of China's ecological civilization system; however, this system is facing such practical difficulties as the decentralization of supervision, the overlap with the ecological environmental protection supervision system, and the limitation of the effectiveness of the supervision accountability. This paper holds that the unclear responsibilities of the departments in the field of resources and ecology, the inherent conflicts of different resource management models and the lack of the basis for supervision and regulation all contribute to the above-mentioned predicament. From the point of view of perfecting the supervisory mechanism, it is necessary not only to integrate the decentralized supervisory teams, but also to construct a central and provincial-level government supervisory system. The natural resources supervision shall be responsible for the control of natural resources, spacial planning and use, consistent with the "execution-supervision" responsibility assumed by the competent department. From the perspective of supervision by the rule of law, it is necessary to formulate the "Regulations on Natural Resources Supervision" and introduce the mechanism of co-supervision towards party and government, so as to provide normative bases for all aspects of supervision, and enhance the level of supervision accountability and deterrent effect.

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    Status, problems and prospects of domestic research on protected areas
    XU Fei-fei, ZHONG Xue-qing, WANG Li-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (4): 902-917.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230405
    Abstract574)   HTML41)    PDF (2585KB)(406)      

    As important symbols of beautiful China, protected areas are the core carriers of ecological civilization construction. Through content analysis with visualized software CiteSpace, this paper explores the topical changing process and characteristics of domestic study on protected areas, to penetratingly reveal the research status and problems, and put forward research prospects. The results show that: (1) The research course can be divided into three stages: the initial exploration (1998-2008), the diversified expansion (2009-2018), and the deepening development (2019-present). (2) Domestic research generally evolves from "natural resource investigation", "exploitation", "system construction", to "multi-governance". The research centers around five topics: system construction, spatial distribution and control, monitoring and evaluation of ecology, the mutual development of protected areas and community and the recreational exploitation of protected areas. Each topic presents different stage characteristics and evolution trends. (3) Based on the current research status and the new era background, the research framework of protected areas and the scientific issues of five research directions are proposed, including the deepening research on institutional construction in the context of protected areas system construction, the research on "nature-human-society" composite ecosystem of protected areas, the research on benign interaction between protected areas and communities, and the research on recreational exploitation and management of protected areas.

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    Whole lifecycle assessment of carbon reduction benefits of polysilicon photovoltaics in Xinjiang
    DU Wen-jie, JIANG Yuan, GUAN Meng-xi, LIU Xiang-lan, KANG Mu-yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (3): 694-706.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230309
    Abstract557)   HTML14)    PDF (2145KB)(163)      

    Photovoltaic power, affected by a variety of natural and technical factors, is an important way to achieve deep carbon reduction in energy system. But its real carbon emission reduction still needs to be accurately reevaluated. Xinjiang, where the overall natural conditions are suitable for the development of photovoltaic power generation, but the vast spatial differentiation in local geographical features is also prominent, could be no doubt chosen as a study area to conduct this research. By ways of the life cycle assessment, LCA, the power generation model and carbon emission reduction model, this paper has calculated the carbon emission, power generation and carbon emission reduction in the whole life cycle of the 1 kW multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic power under two degradation rates (DR) in Xinjiang, so as to provide a sound scientific basis for the further development of local photovoltaic industry in the region as well as research references to other regions alike. The research results show that: (1) Compared with thermal power, the carbon emission reduction of photovoltaic power in Xinjiang reaches 863 g CO2-eq (DR=1%) or 738 g CO2-eq (DR=3%) per kilowatt-hour, accounting for 93% or 79% carbon emission of thermal power separately, which is of great significance to the decarbonization of energy system in the region. (2) The spatial differentiation of carbon emission reduction in Xinjiang is prominent, showing a spatial trend of decreasing from east to west. Clustering analysis shows that photovoltaic layout in the study area should focus on the first- and second-level areas in potential grades, such as Hami, Turpan and Bayangol. (3) The future development of photovoltaic power in Xinjiang should concentrate on the perspective of the whole lifecycle carbon reduction, improve the middle to downstream industrial chain of photovoltaic production to meet the goal of realization of full local production, and fully consider the influencing factors in the construction and operation processes, such as solar radiation, degradation rate, and reasonable layout, as well as accelerate the development of end-of-life treatment and recovery technology.

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    Scientific cognition and research framework of territorial space function in the New Era
    ZOU Li-lin, ZHANG Li-jun, LIANG Yi-fan, WEN Qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3060-3072.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221203
    Abstract555)   HTML14)    PDF (1812KB)(149)      

    With the rapid urbanization and industrialization, China is facing many problems, such as the imbalance between urban and rural land structure, the disorder of territorial spatial development, and the regional difference. Especially, the confusion, conflict, and degradation of territorial space function are very serious, which has brought great pressure and challenges to the territorial spatial development, protection, and governance in the New Era. As an important part of the theoretical system and practical framework of structured territorial spatial planning, territorial space function referred to develop, control, and protect space according to a scheme confirmed by territorial spatial planning under the specific regional spatial scope and the human-environment interaction, with the purpose of satisfying human demands or enhancing human well-being, so as to provide utility of different products and services for human society directly or indirectly. The territorial space function was also an important scale to investigate the harmonious coexistence between human and nature. To establish the theory and reality demands of the current major strategic decisions, this paper pointed out that the regional function theory was the logical starting point of territorial space function, the theory of territorial system of human-earth interaction was the core of constructing the theory system of territorial space function, and the spatial integration was an important dimension in the evolution of the theoretical system of territorial space function. A theoretical cognitive model of territorial space function (snowflake model) was constructed from the aspects of strategic decision-making, major function, baseline control, use regulation, zoning governance and spatial coordination, in which the strategic decision-making was the policy guidance for the territorial space function, the major function was the overall plan for the spatial function pattern, the baseline control was the basic premise to realize the territorial space function, the use regulation was the institutional guarantee to strengthen the territorial space function, the zoning governance was an effective way to optimize the territorial space function, and the spatial coordination was the fundamental goal of regulating the territorial space function. Facing the needs of serving national important strategic decisions, optimizing territorial spatial development pattern and sustainable development, this paper discussed the basic problem domains of territorial space function research in the New Era, such as theoretical cognition, classification and identification, evolution mechanism and dynamic trade-off, by which a preliminary research framework of territorial space function was constructed.

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    Assessment of forest carbon sequestration potential and the cost of increasing carbon sequestration in China: Based on meta-analysis method
    XU Qian-qian, CAO Xian-lei, SUN Ting, ZHU Ying, WU Wei-guang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3217-3233.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221213
    Abstract544)   HTML8)    PDF (1446KB)(228)      

    Accurately assessing China's forest carbon sequestration potential and the cost of increasing carbon sequestration serves as the basis for carbon neutrality forestry action plans and forestry sequestration policies. In spite of the fact that there have been numerous studies conducted on the potential for forest carbon sequestration in China, as well as the costs associated with increasing carbon sequestration, the results are very different, and the reliability of the research results needs further verification. In this article, we review the research literature on China's forest carbon sequestration potential and the cost of increasing carbon sequestration. We use meta-analytical techniques to conduct a comprehensive and systematic assessment, as well as the reasons for these differences. The results indicated that: (1) China's forest carbon sequestration shows a trend of continuous growth. Nevertheless, the results of measuring forest carbon sequestration potential in different studies are quite diverse. (2) In China, the average cost for increasing forest carbon sequestration is 220.45 yuan/t CO2e (range value: 3.9-1457.02 yuan/t CO2e). Compared with the cost of industrial emission reduction, increasing forest carbon sequestration is more economically feasible, while the range of fluctuation is much larger. (3) It has been found that the factors responsible for the variation in estimation results of forest carbon sequestration potential in existing literature include assessment methods, carbon pool quantity, different sources of measurement micro parameters, forest resource structure, and spatial heterogeneity within forest carbon sequestration measurements. Forest carbon sequestration costs are primarily influenced by the research methods of carbon sequestration cost measurement, the source of cost-benefit data, the selection of cost-benefit indicators, and the characteristics of the evaluation object. (4) The contribution of China's forest to carbon neutrality is likely to continue to increase. Furthermore, based on the results, policies were proposed to further deepen the relevant research on the potential and cost calculation of forest carbon sequestration.

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    Establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution in China
    ZHONG Peng-yu, YUE Wen-ze
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (7): 1667-1681.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230701
    Abstract537)   HTML48)    PDF (2705KB)(324)      

    The establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution is the core grip to realize the unified planning, storage, supply, development and protection of natural resource assets, which is the important creation of the natural resource management institution with Chinese characteristics. Based on Marxist reserve theory, the logic and practical path of natural resource asset reserve institution are explored from the perspective of capital circulation. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The reserve of natural resource assets occurs during the 'stagnant' phase of different capital forms replacement, and it is a key intermediary for promoting the capitalization of natural resources. Its core connotations include public goods characteristics, government leadership, and value appreciation. (2) The reserve institution covers three basic steps of reserving, managing, and supplying, the core logic of which lies in achieving sustainable accumulation and circulation of capital, with clear property rights, holistic governance, and value realization as the main tasks. (3) The establishment of natural resource asset reserve institution has five key steps in practice, including planning-led approach, centralized storage, systematic governance, efficient allocation, and coordinated funding. In the future, the institution should be gradually advanced through pilot programs to further enhance its framework.

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    "National carbon source" or "national carbon sink"?Based on the carbon balance analysis of Wuyi Mountain National Park
    CAO Hui, WU Hui-zhen, SHEN Shan-shan, ZHAN Xin-ying, YAN Shu-jun
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (4): 934-950.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230407
    Abstract525)   HTML19)    PDF (2206KB)(213)      

    The nature reserve system, mainly national parks, is an important source of carbon sinks for China's terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Taking the Wuyi Mountain National Park tourism-ecosystem as the main research object, using a bottom-up approach and the whole life cycle (lca) tourism carbon footprint analysis method, and using data from the national park's land geographic information system (GIS) platform, we focused on the Wuyi Mountain National Park's full-cycle carbon footprint measurement, the carbon sequestration capacity and analysis of different land types, the carbon source and carbon sink. The results show that: (1) The total carbon emission of the national park in 2019 was 2864481.86 t, of which the carbon footprint of tourism was 2836467.58 t. Transportation, catering and accommodation were the three segments with the highest carbon footprint, accounting for 65.28%, 28.58% and 3.04% respectively, and the overall carbon emission of tourism in general showed a more obvious upward trend between 2015 and 2019, but the growth rate of carbon emissions was not entirely consistent with the trend of changes in the growth of the number of tourists. (2) The carbon sequestration in national parks in 2019 was 126862.61 t. Tree woodland, bamboo woodland and shrub woodland were the three land types with the highest carbon sequestration capacity, at 103664.98 t, 219035.11 t and 1054.87 t, hard broad species and horsetail pine are the forest types with the most important carbon sink capacity. (3) Wuyi Mountain National Park tourism-ecosystem is a carbon sink with an average annual net carbon sink of 88241.86 t. However, the national park is a significant carbon source based on the analysis of the whole life cycle results, with the ratio of ecosystem carbon uptake to total carbon emission of 4.48% and the net carbon source value of 2737619.25 t. The carbon footprint efficiency of ecotourism in national parks in 2019 was 12698.28 yuan/t, which is a high efficiency level globally. (4) Building a tourist growth system, developing a carbon neutral behaviour promotion system for enterprises and improving the legal protection system for nature reserves are important carbon neutrality path options for national parks.

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    Contribution of land consolidation to poverty alleviation from the perspective of "strong-weak sustainability"
    LI Han-bing, JIN Xiao-bin, SUN Rui, HAN Bo, MA Li, ZHOU Yin-kang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (3): 642-657.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230306
    Abstract505)   HTML28)    PDF (2843KB)(214)      

    As an effective means to solve the problem of regional poverty, land consolidation plays an important role in promoting regional sustainable poverty alleviation. Regarding the extent to which land consolidation supports sustainable poverty alleviation, based on the theory of strong sustainability and weak sustainability, taking the Wumeng Mountain as the study area, we constructed the analytical framework of the poverty alleviation mechanism of land consolidation, and proposed and verified the hypothesis of land consolidation supporting poverty alleviation with the help of the structural equation model. The results showed that: (1) Land consolidation project of poverty alleviation engines produce direct benefits of total effect value of 0.72, contribute to the total effect of the indirect benefits of a value of 0.42, indicating that land consolidation can directly support the crucial direct benefits out of poverty, but the indirect benefits of regional development contribution are still inadequate. (2) The total effect value of direct benefits on indirect benefits is 0.96. The direct benefits brought by land consolidation for poverty alleviation contribute more to the indirect benefits of regional development. (3) The contribution rates of each element of land consolidation to the initial improvement degree of resources and the indirect and direct benefits are different. New cultivated land and land leveling contribute more to the initial improvement of resources, land transfer and mechanization contribute more to the direct benefits, and corporate income and tax contribute more to the indirect benefits. In order to improve the effect of land consolidation on regional poverty alleviation, it is necessary to strengthen the consolidation of direct benefits to promote the strong sustainability of indirect benefits. This study provides references for the excavation and play of land consolidation benefits, and suggestions for the comprehensive land consolidation and rural revitalization strategy in the context of territorial spatial planning.

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    Sustainable livelihood effect of integrated rural tourism development under the goal of common prosperity: Based on a case study of Lujia village, Anji county, Zhejiang province
    LI Dong-hua, WANG Yong, LU Lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (2): 511-528.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230215
    Abstract504)   HTML6)    PDF (2867KB)(170)      

    To realize the common prosperity of all the people is the essential requirement and important characteristic of Chinese modernization. Taking Lujia village in Anji county, Zhejiang province as an example, this study explores the sustainable livelihood effect of integrated rural tourism development under the goal of common prosperity based on multiple linear regression analysis and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: (1) Integrated rural tourism is an effective mode for rural tourist destinations to achieve common prosperity. The development of key variables such as embedding, endogenesis, complementarity, and empowerment can establish a stable cooperation network and information network between internal and external actors in rural areas, and promote the joint efforts of multiple subjects to develop the creative inheritance and innovative development of rural resources into tourism resources, and further act on the livelihood optimization and sustainable livelihood of community residents. (2) The complementary development of integrated rural tourism in Lujia village is the most significant, followed by empowerment. The sustainable livelihood effect of comprehensive rural tourism is mainly reflected in the impact of the development of key variables such as network, complementarity and empowerment on residents' livelihood capital. (3) Integrated rural tourism has a significant impact on the livelihood development of different types of residents. Tourism-led and tourism-participating residents need to carry out livelihood optimization actions based on social network relations. Tourism specialty residents need to establish the direction of livelihood optimization based on the development of individual ability and the in-depth experience and participation of tourists. The cooperation network, empowerment and information network need to be further expanded to non-tourism participating residents, so as to promote the optimization of livelihood development and common prosperity of all residents. Based on the above analysis, this study summarizes the practical mechanism of common prosperity of rural tourist destinations from three aspects: empowerment mechanism, complementary mechanism and comprehensive driving mechanism.

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    Discussion on method of controlled zoning and functional zoning of national parks:Take Shennongjia National Park System Pilot Area as an example
    YE Ya-hui, ZHANG Jing-ya
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (4): 1075-1088.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230416
    Abstract504)   HTML12)    PDF (3729KB)(205)      

    Scientific zoning is an important step for national parks to maintain the integrity and stability of natural ecosystem and achieve multi-objective integrated management, which is conducive to the efficient management and protection of natural resources. As a new mode of national park practice in China, "controlled zoning and functional zoning" aims to realize the hierarchical transmission from unified management and control of land space to classified management and protection of park resources, and make up for the deficiency of the controlled zoning, such as extensive planning and management. By analyzing the national park zoning experience in China, the two-level zoning model has three characteristics "consistency, difference and resilience". There are complex and diverse problems in the spatial relationship between the two types of zoning in the practice of two-level zoning model of national parks in China. After combing the connotation and management and control requirements of the two types, we find that they have three characteristics of consistency, difference and elasticity. Based on the three characteristics of the two-level zoning model, this paper establishes an evaluation index system of ecological importance, ecological sensitivity, recreation suitability and community development suitability. Selecting Shennongjia National Park system pilot area as the study area, we proposed the technical process of demarcation of the two-level zoning model. Considering the comprehensive analysis and evaluation results, the controlled zoning of Shennongjia National Park can be divided into core protected area and general controlled area; the functional zoning of the park can be divided into strict protection area, ecological conservation area, traditional using area and recreational area. In order to coordinate the relationship between ecological protection, community and recreational utilization, this paper further expounds the zoning demarcation and planning strategy of the area where the contradiction between man and land is prominent. This method of the two-level zoning provides reference for the demarcation of the secondary zoning of national parks.

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    Multi-dimensional identification technology and application of water ecological space and protection line in the territorial spatial planning
    ZHOU Gugang-jin, TONG Ya-li, WANG Ling-qing, CHI Hai-long, ZHU Xin-hong, LIANG Tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3102-3117.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221206
    Abstract500)   HTML1)    PDF (3979KB)(157)      

    The urban development is mainly restricted by the shortage of water resources. The potential of sustainable utilization and carrying capacity of water resources are closely related to the water ecological space. Taking Jinan as an example, this research clarified the basic definition of water ecological space and water ecological protection line by comprehensively considering the systematism and integrity of water ecosystem; defined the functional attributes of water ecosystem; proposed the technical methods for identifying water ecological space and water ecological protection line, based on various water-related plans and integrating complex water ecosystem functions, and the Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technology. This research can help to protect urban water ecosystem and optimize territorial spatial pattern. The results show that the area of water ecological space in Jinan is 3307.5 km2, and the area of water ecological protection line is 1992.2 km2, accounting for only 60.2% of water ecological space. There are obvious differences between the two protection scopes. From a multi-dimensional perspective, the protection of water ecosystem presents different characteristics. Specifically, territorial space is an important part in ensuring the service function of water ecosystem; waterfront is the most vulnerable area of water ecosystem; and there is still great potential for water cultural space to be tapped. Jinan is under great pressure to protect water security and improve water environment.

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    Spatial structure and driving pathways of the coupling between ecosystem services and human well-beings:A case study of Guangzhou
    QIU Jian-jian, LIU Yi-hua, CHEN Cheng-jing, HUANG Qing-yao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (3): 760-778.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230313
    Abstract496)   HTML25)    PDF (5104KB)(294)      

    In the New Era of 'Anthropocene', the conflict between the degradation of ecosystem and the increase of human needs has become increasingly intensified. To scientifically solve this issue, we need to realize the coordination between ecosystem services (ES) and human well-being (HWB) for modern sustainable development. Firstly, this article is well conducted on the premise of the 'from cascade to coupling' new turn of ES-HWB relationship research. Taking Guangzhou as a case study, it analyses the levels and spatial structures of ES and HWB in a micro-scale way through ES value (ESV) evaluation and HWB comprehensive assessment. Then, the coupling coordination degree model is used for clarifying the phases and spatial differentiation of ES-HWB coupling. With the construction of ES-HWB coupling theoretical framework on the paradigm of coupled human and natural systems, the driving factors and pathway differences of three typical ES-HWB coupling types are divergently explored, and the coupling problems are diagnosed. The results are as follows. (1) ESVs in Guangzhou are becoming severely weakened owing to the coercing effects from the assimilated promotion of HWB. The ES-HWB coupling performs poor coordination with notable spatial trade-offs. (2) Dominant by ES, the coupling is spatially diffuse with an uncoordinated state on account of the continuous spreading of low ESV areas. Significantly, the spatial imbalance between ES supply and HWB demand emerges. (3) By means of capital flows, land use changes, scale effect and benefit allocation, the ES-HWB coupling is divergent in different development phases and supply-demand matches. It mainly contains spatial scramble-oriented low uncoordinated, spatial weak correlated-oriented antagonistic and spatial synergies-oriented high coordinated coupling. Based on the coupling problems, it is a necessity to take both ecological civilization and high quality development as guidance for relieving human-nature conflict. In such regards, ecological spaces should get rigorously protected while the quality of urban spaces improved. Moreover, the integrated management of human and natural systems is also pivotal to weaken land trade-offs and spatial gambling. With the reinforcement of ES-HWB supply-demand coupling synergies, it is conducive for the emergence of coordination of the ES-HWB open complex giant system to achieve the harmony between human and nature.

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    Research on land-space ecological restoration zoning based on ecosystem health: A case study of the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches along the Yangtze River
    ZENG Chen, CHENG Yi-jiao, LYU Tian-yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2022, 37 (12): 3118-3135.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20221207
    Abstract491)   HTML6)    PDF (6097KB)(103)      

    High-intensity social and economic activities have caused ecological problems such as shrinking rivers, lakes and wetlands, landscape fragmentation and biodiversity loss. Therefore, the implementation of territorial space ecological restoration has become an inevitable way to realizing eco-environmental governance. In this study, we have established grid-based "Vigor-Organization-Resilience-Service" (VORS) model to evaluate ecosystem health in the middle reaches along the Yangtze River in 2010 and 2020. Based on the natural breakpoint method and intelligent correction approach, the bottom-up territorial space ecological restoration zoning was carried out, and the corresponding ecological restoration measures were proposed. The results have shown that from 2010 to 2020, the cultivated land area in the urban agglomeration in the middle reaches along the Yangtze River decreased, whereas the built-up land expanded greatly. The ecosystem health status was relatively stable, but there was obvious spatial heterogeneity. The vigor and service values improved greatly, whereas the organization and resilience values showed a downward trend. Based on the assessment result, the study area was divided into "two areas and three circles", namely, the ecosystem conservation area, the ecosystem improvement area, the ecosystem buffer circle, the ecosystem improvement circle and ecosystem remolding circle. The ecological restoration countermeasures for each area and circle were proposed.

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    Policy evolution and transformation effect analysis of sustainable development of resource-based cities in China
    ZHANG Wen-zhong, YU Jian-hui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (1): 22-38.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230102
    Abstract490)   HTML19)    PDF (3809KB)(157)      

    This paper summarizes the policy evolution of sustainable development of resource-based cities (RBCs) in China over the past 20 years and analyzes the results of promoting sustainable development of RBCs. The main points of this paper are as follows: (1) The evolution path of sustainable development policy of RBCs in China in the study period basically follows the development logic of combining problem orientation and goal orientation, experiencing from "administrative intervention", "administrative guidance" to "comprehensive governance" changes. Generally speaking, the policy evolution can be roughly divided into three stages, namely, the stage of resolving difficulties, the stage of comprehensive promotion and the stage of high-quality development. (2) At present, China has formed a "four-in-one" policy framework for sustainable development of RBCs, which includes the transformation of resource-exhausted cities, innovative development of resource-rich cities, transformation and upgrading of independent industrial and mining areas, and comprehensive treatment of coal mining subsidence areas. (3) RBCs make full use of local advantages, and initially form some characteristic transformation development models. (4) In the New Era, RBCs are faced with severe challenges such as large carbon emission reduction tasks, weak economic growth, and bottlenecks hindering balanced and high-quality development in special areas. It is urgent to make all-out efforts to solve key problems and promote sustaibable development.

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    Theoretical cognition and application innovation of Chinese rural tourism resources under the goal of common prosperity
    MING Qing-zhong, LI Zhi-fei, XU Hong, LU Lin, LI Yan-qin, SUN Jiu-xia, LI Jun-yi, ZHANG Jin-he, ZHOU Guo-hua, LI Tong-sheng, ZHANG Yuan-gang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (2): 286-304.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230202
    Abstract490)   HTML21)    PDF (1073KB)(238)      

    The creative utilization of resources is an important foundation and key driving force for rural tourism to promote common prosperity, as well as a major scientific issue and practical demand. The interview shows that rural tourism is developing vigorously, but there are still some practical problems such as insufficient understanding, unclear mechanisms and limited promotion effect. Given that the weaknesses and potential of common prosperity are all in the countryside, we should continue to pay attention to them from different perspectives. To solve the above problems, we should clarify the connotation and driving logic of the theory of rural tourism promoting common prosperity, innovate the rural tourism industry system, and build a model and realization mechanism for promoting common prosperity based on the practice of villagers' participation mechanism and endogenous power cultivation, cultural resources protection and inheritance and the promotion mechanism for common prosperity of spiritual life, digital empowerment mechanism and path, tourism income distribution system reform, spatial effect and land use optimization; and we also should promote balanced, coordinated and inclusive development. This paper aims to provide theoretical support and application basis for the creative use of rural tourism resources and the promotion of common prosperity.

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    The mechanisms of industrial transformation on the evolutionary trajectory of growth and shrinkage in Chinese resource-based cities
    WU Kang, LIU Xiao-xiao, YAO Chang-cheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2023, 38 (1): 109-125.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20230107
    Abstract488)   HTML14)    PDF (3339KB)(158)      

    In the new high-quality development stage, the growth and shrinkage of resource-based cities face a systematic reconfiguration of internal and external conditions. There is a lack of empirical evidence on how resource-based cities can escape from the historical fate of "exhaustion of mines and decline of cities" and achieve positive urban population growth in the process of transformation and development. This paper uses cross-sectional and panel data of 116 resource-based cities from 2010 to 2020 to quantitatively characterize their trajectory of growth and shrinkage, and empirically investigate the influence mechanism of industrial structure transformation on population growth and decline. The study finds that more than 60% of resource-based cities in China were shrinking during the study period, showing a geographical distribution pattern of "one belt and two areas". The rationalization and upgrading of industrial structure both show crowding-out effects on the population growth of resource-based cities in the short term, and in the long term, the effect of industrial structure rationalization turns positive, while the compensating effect of industrial structure upgrading is not yet apparent. In the long run, the impact of industrial structure rationalization turns positive, while the compensating effect of industrial structure upgrading has not yet appeared. The diversity of industrial structure can promote the population growth of resource-based cities in the short term, but this effect is not significant in the long term. Based on those findings, the transformation and development of resource-based cities need to improve the level of industrial structure rationalization as an important breakthrough, take industrial structure upgrading as a long-term main line, implement parallel strategies of industrial extension and industrial renewal based on local comparative advantages, and build a diversified industrial system. The industrial structure transformation of resource-based cities of different types and development stages should emphasize strategic differentiation.

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