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    Research on misuses and modification of coupling coordination degree model in China
    WANG Shu-jia, KONG Wei, REN Liang, ZHI Dan-dan, DAI Bin-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 793-810.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210319
    Abstract922)   HTML25)    PDF (1280KB)(277)      

    With the deepening understanding of the Scientific Outlook on Development, the coupling coordination degree model has become an effective evaluation and research tool for the regional overall balanced development. However, for this model, there are four types of misuses, including writing errors, coefficients loss, weight misuses and model failures, which have significantly affected the scientific nature of academic research. Therefore, this study firstly clarified the normative formula of the traditional coupling coordination degree model. On the basis of discussing the validity of the traditional model in the field of social science research, this study further proposed a modified model of coupling degree. In addition, the coupling coordination degree model has three reliability issues: the subjectivity of index construction, and the volatility and incomparability of coupling results. Taking the ecological and economic system of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example, we proved that the modified coupling coordination degree model has better validity, and the spatial and temporal changes of the research object will affect the reliability of the coupled coordination model.

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    Discussion on scientific foundation and approach for the overall optimization of "Production-Living-Ecological" space
    JIANG Dong, LIN Gang, FU Jing-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1085-1101.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210501
    Abstract810)   HTML28)    PDF (1273KB)(162)      

    The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 figured out that the territorial space optimization was the primary task of the ecological civilization construction and to make production space intensive and efficient, living space livable and suitable, ecological space. This study systematically reviews the recent advances for the overall optimization of production space, living space and ecological space (PLES) by the method of literature review and summary induction. It is concluded that the present studies of the overall optimization of PLES were mainly carried out from the perspective of the utilization quality of land space, land suitability evaluation, resource environmental bearing-capacity and comparative advantage. But because of the short of recognition of the scientific intension of PLES and the incompleteness of quantitative identification and classification system construction, there are still problems that the technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES may still have to overcome. The technological approaches of the overall optimization of PLES should build the theoretical basis and technical system of PLES identification and optimization aiming for Beautiful China Initiative by the theory of human-earth coupled systems. On the theoretical level, the initiative should give full consideration to the mechanism of material and energy transfer within the PLES system and the parsing of the transfer pathway, flow process and metabolic mechanism of water, soil, energy, carbon and other key elements of PLES system by the combination of the resource metabolism theory and the geographical pattern of PLES. On the technological level, it should pay attention to the development and application of the system simulation model and the multi-objective optimization model, and synthetically consider the dynamic mechanism between population, resources, environment and land space elements, and combine the results of evolution rule and the conflict and problem diagnosis of PLES, and consequently to achieve the overall optimization of PLES by the design of different scenarios and parameters.

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    The "Double Evaluation" under the context of spatial planning: Wicked problems and restricted rationality
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 541-551.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210301
    Abstract717)   HTML27)    PDF (974KB)(189)      

    Resources and environment carrying capacity evaluation and spatial development suitability evaluation (referred to as "Double Evaluation") are considered as scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper analyzes and summarizes the "Double Evaluation" work in current spatial planning. The "Double Evaluation" plays an active role, but it has many problems, including insufficient recognition on the scientific nature and internal mechanisms of resources and environment carrying capacity and spatial development suitability, imperfect evaluation methods and application system, and so on. This paper intends to put forward the realistic needs of spatial planning under the concept of ecological civilization. And it is necessary to improve the scientific logic, technical logic and application logic of "Double Evaluation", so that we can improve the scientificity and practicability of "Double Evaluation". At the same time, it should be recognized that essential problems of spatial planning are wicked problems as "Double Evaluation" can only play a limited rational role. We should solve such problems through communication and cooperation so as to avoid falling into the misunderstanding of technical rationality.

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    Urban agglomeration and industrial transformation and development in the Yellow River Basin
    DENG Xiang-zheng, YANG Kai-zhong, SHAN Jing-jing, DONG Suo-cheng, ZHANG Wen-ge, GUO Rong-xing, TAN Ming-hong, ZHAO Peng-jun, LI Yu, MIAO Chang-hong, CUI Yao-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 273-289.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210201
    Abstract662)   HTML26)    PDF (1885KB)(321)      

    Ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin is one of the major national strategies, in which urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development are the intrinsic requirements and fundamental guarantees. Thus, revealing the path of the river basin scale urban agglomeration development and industrial transformation and upgrading is of great significance to guide the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, this paper brings together scholars from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Institute for Eco-civilization, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Capital University of Economics and Business, Peking University and Henan University, to discuss key issues on urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of ecological protection, resource allocation, dynamic evolution, spatial structure, and integration and regulation. This paper aims to serve the major national stragety of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. The core views are as follows, regulating the relationship among water resources, urban agglomeration and industrial development is the key to promoting the coordination of industrial transformation and urban transformation, and the synchronized advances of economic transformation and social transformation;the analysis of the complex coupling and dynamic evolution mechanism of river basin ecological protection and high-quality development is of great significance for achieving high-quality development of the basin; it is an effective way to promote the high-quality development of the basin to reveal the evolution mechanism of typical urban agglomeration and industrial space and to construct the spatial integration target and mode of urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development; under the background of increasing uncertainty of trade caused by globalization and energy revolution, complex relationship between social economy and ecological environment, and the construction of a new development pattern of "dual circulation", the basin urgently needs a more comprehensive integrated regulation mechanism.

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    Land development and utilization for carbon neutralization
    HUANG Xian-jin, ZHANG Xiu-ying, LU Xue-he, WANG Pei-yu, QIN Jia-yao, JIANG Yun-chen, LIU Ze-miao, WANG Zhen, ZHU A-xing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 2995-3006.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211201
    Abstract651)   HTML0)    PDF (3793KB)(0)      

    This study explores the possibility of carbon neutralization in China before 2060, based on the predicated carbon emissions from human activities and the carbon sinks produced by the territory ecosystem. The results show that the total anthropogenic carbon emissions in China is 0.86 Pg C yr -1 in 2060, and the ecosystem would neutralize 33% and 38% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions in 2060 under the scenarios of IPCC RCP 2.6 and RCP 6.0. In 2060, woodland, grassland and cultivated land will be the main contributors of carbon sink, accounting for 93% of the total carbon sink. Compared with the year 2030, the contribution of carbon sink from woodland and grassland will decrease by 10% and 8%, respectively under RCP 2.6 scenario, while the contribution from cultivated land will increase by 18%; the contribution of carbon sink from woodland and grassland will decrease by 7% and 2%, respectively under RCP 6.0 scenario, while the contribution from cultivated land will increase by 4%. However, based on the highest carbon sink (2055) during 2051-2060, 65% and 82% of anthropogenic carbon emissions would be neutralized respectively. Therefore, to achieve carbon neutrality in 2060, the varieties of the bearing capacities of carbon budgets from different land use types should be fully considered in the territory planning.

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    Research on individual food waste behavior from the perspective of North-South differences: Take the dining situation of students in university canteens as an example
    QIAN Long, LI Feng, QIAN Zhuang, WANG Ling-en
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 552-566.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210302
    Abstract632)   HTML22)    PDF (695KB)(110)      

    Eating habits has always been considered as an important factor in food waste. This paper takes 29 universities, all in different provincial-level regions, as study cases to explore the factors that affect students' wasting behavior. Based on a questionnaire survey of 9192 college students, this paper focuses on the impact of North-South differences on individual food waste behavior, and attempts to answer: Southerners and Northerners, who are more likely to waste food, who waste more food? The results show that compared with the northern native college students, the probability of food waste in the students of the southern region is higher, and the food waste and food waste rate of the students of the southern origins in the college cafeteria are higher than those of the northern students. In order to verify whether the difference in diet patterns between the "rice" model in the south and the "wheat" model in the north is the main reason for the above phenomenon, this paper confirms that the difference between the north and the south diet patterns is the key reason for the fact that the southerners waste more food than the northerners through the mediation effect model. This paper further matches the individual's North-South origin and the North-South position of the colleges and universities. Based on the mode of "Southern students studying in the South", we found that the "Southern tudents going to school in the North" mode has a lower probability of food waste, waste amount and food waste rate. However, under the "Northern students going to school in the South" mode, individuals did not have a low probability of food waste, the weight of waste and food waste rate. Therefore, this paper confirms that the southerners are more wasteful of food than the northerners. And it is proved that the mainstream diet pattern in the north and the south is the leading driving force to the difference in waste.

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    New patterns of globalization and food security
    CHEN Yang-fen, WANG Jie-yong, ZHANG Feng-rong, LIU Yan-sui, CHENG Sheng-kui, ZHU Jing, SI Wei, FAN Sheng-gen, GU Shan-song, HU Bing-chuan, LI Xian-de, YU Xiao-hua
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1362-1380.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210602
    Abstract565)   HTML13)    PDF (1155KB)(127)      

    The world is undergoing tremendous changes, and food security is encountering major challenges in China and even the world. In order to systematically study globalization and explore its new patterns, new issues and new paths for food security, we interviewed ten distinguished professors from different fields and discussed hot topics, including the potential for increasing farmland production, agricultural water and soil resources and food production, food waste, international agricultural product trade, stable supply of key agricultural product, global agricultural food system, dual circulation pattern and corporate actions, global food production and consumption, international food security governance, and cutting-edge research on food safety. The result shows that the global agricultural food system has entered an era of complexity and high risk. International food security governance is facing challenges in terms of resources, binding force and action power. We are facing an increasing pressure of import dependent agricultural products to ensure stable supply. It is necessary to deepen supply-side reform and strengthen demand-side management so as to guarantee national food security. New changes have taken place in globalization. This will test China's ability to deepen agricultural opening-up, participate in global food security governance, and achieve national food security. In the face of complex international and domestic situations, for better national food security governance, it is necessary to adhere to system thinking and coordinate domestic and international markets. It is also very important to target the entire industry chain, emphasize risk control, and handle the relationship between the government and the market. Furthermore, researchers need to explore the internal relationships and specific mechanisms between food security and other important issues, such as food systems, ecosystems, high-quality development goals, agricultural opening-up, and new dual-circulation development patterns. This could provide a scientific reference for establishing and improving the national food security strategy of "featuring self-sufficiency based on domestic grain production, guaranteed food production capacity, moderate imports, and technological support" in the New Era.

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    The evolution of "Production-Living-Ecological" space, eco-environmental effects and its influencing factors in China
    KONG Dong-yan, CHEN Hui-guang, WU Kong-sen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1116-1135.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210503
    Abstract543)   HTML10)    PDF (6502KB)(147)      

    Based on the remote sensing monitoring data of land use change/cover in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018, using land use transfer matrix, eco-environmental quality index, and ecological contribution ratio of land use transition, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal features of "Production-Living-Ecological" space structural transformation and eco-environmental effects of land use/cover change in China from 1990 to 2018. On this basis, we identify the main influencing factors of eco-environmental effects and the spatial heterogeneity by using geographically weighted regression model. The results showed that: (1) The production and living space increased, the ecological space decreased, and the overall situation was insufficient from 1990 to 2018 in the whole country. (2) The high-value areas of eco-environmental quality were concentrated to the east of the Hu Huanyong Line during 1990-2018, and mainly in the south and northeast of China. The low-value areas were mainly distributed to the northwest of Hu Huanyong Line. The squeeze of other ecological space and agricultural production space on grassland and woodland ecological space is an important reason for the deterioration of the eco-environment during the study period. (3) Slope, annual precipitation, land use intensity, elevation, topographic relief, population density, and average annual temperature were the main factors influencing eco-environmental quality pattern in China, and the spatial difference of the effect of each factor was obvious. Chinese policies on economic development should take into account the eco-environmental effect of "Production-Living-Ecological" space transformation and influencing factors in the future, and promote the rational distribution of "Production-Living-Ecological" space and the construction of ecological civilization in China.

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    Ecological civilization construction at Qinling Mountains in the New Era
    LI Jun-yi, FU Bo-jie, SUN Jiu-lin, HONG Zeng-lin, ZHANG Bai-ping, WANG Xiao-feng, BAI Hong-ying, WANG Fei, ZHAO Zhen-bin, CAO Xiao-shu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (10): 2449-2463.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211001
    Abstract536)   HTML4)    PDF (1005KB)(67)      

    The construction of ecological civilization is an important national strategy in China, and the Qinling Mountains play a strategic position in the construction of ecological civilization in China. To clearly understand the existing problems and paths of ecological civilization construction in the Qinling-Daba Mountains, nine well-known researchers from different fields were invited in an interview on cutting-edge research topics in the Qinling Mountains. The interview covered such topics as ecological patterns and geographic processes, scientific investigations, rural revitalization, and water resources protection. The results of the interview show that: to gain a better understanding of the important value of the study area and to carry out the ecological protection and sustainable development in the New Era, it is necessary to understand the ecological and environmental effects of the North-South Transitional Zone of China, reveal the ecosystem service functions, emphasize the pivotal role in maintaining national ecological security, and conduct research on ecological protection and restoration of the Qinling Mountains. It is significant to continuously monitor the ecological functions, build an intelligent monitoring system integrating "Space-Air-Ground", continue to carry out comprehensive scientific investigations, pay attention to major scientific propositions, discover the unique geographical phenomena and laws of the Qinling Mountains, and form a scientific data sharing mechanism and platform to support regional scientific research and decision support. Under the new mobility paradigm, we should look at the resettlement project from a dynamic perspective, focus on the livelihoods of different groups and types of immigrants, and solve immigration problems through a diversified security system. In the context of climate change, it is necessary to attach importance to the response of the Qinling Mountains to climate change and human activities, strengthen the construction of regional transportation infrastructure, find out the law of evolution and changing trend of Qinling Mountains' water resources, and to carry out systematic management to ensure long-term and safe supply of water resources, and promote sustainable social and economic development.

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    Research progress and prospect for the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands
    SHEN Jia-shu, LI Shuang-cheng, LIANG Ze, WANG Yue-yao, SUN Fu-yue
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (8): 1909-1922.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210801
    Abstract525)   HTML17)    PDF (2361KB)(116)      

    Understanding the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands is of vital importance for sustainably utilizing natural capital and coordinating ecosystem services supplies and demands. According to the previous research on ecosystem services at home and abroad, the research framework of the relationships among ecosystem services supplies and demands was put forward in this study. Within this framework, the formation mechanisms and representations of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands were explained, the basic characteristics of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands were summarized, and the potential research focuses were proposed, which could provide a guidance for the studies on the ecosystem services and the governance of ecosystem services. In general, there were two non-exclusive mechanisms that formed the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands. On the basis of these formation mechanisms, the representations of the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands included bundles, trade-offs, synergies and no-effect relationships. In terms of the characteristics, the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands could be spatially heterogeneous, temporally variable and scale dependent. The construction and evaluation of indexes, statistical analysis of indicators, development and simulation of scenarios, and spatial mappings and analysis were the four main methods to study the relationships between ecosystem services supplies and demands.

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    Reconstruction of farmland dataset of Taiwan province in recent 300 years
    YANG Xu-hong, XUE Qiao-feng, ZHOU Yin-kang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (8): 2163-2178.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210819
    Abstract494)   HTML4)    PDF (1681KB)(80)      

    Taiwan is a representative region of the land reclamation and the intensive human-environment interaction. The study on the reconstruction of the spatial and temporal change of historical farmland in this province can deepen the understanding of the characteristics, differences and rules of the historical land change process on both Taiwan and the mainland. Based on historical literature and statistical yearbooks, this study uses population data to analyze the characteristics of farmland and population records. Then it comprehensively adopts methods such as citation substitution, linear interpolation, occult coefficient correction method and per capita farmland coefficient method to estimate and correct the spatial and temporal changes of historical farmland in Taiwan province in the past 300 years after verifying the surplus food quantity. The results are shown as follows: (1) The total amount of farmland in Taiwan increased from 0.91×104 hm2 in the Dutch occupation period to the current 79.30×104 hm2, up nearly 86.60 times. The stage characteristics generally increased first and then continued to decrease. In the middle and early periods of the Qing Dynasty, it showed steady and low-speed growth. During the Japanese occupation period, it showed rapid fluctuations. Then it experienced a slow fluctuation in the middle and early periods of the Republic of China, and gradually declined in the middle and late periods of the Republic of China. (2) On a 100-year scale, there are significant differences in the rules of change between paddy fields and dry fields in Taiwan; the amount of paddy fields increased first and then gradually decreased after volatility. However, the dry farmland increased first and then decreased and then gradually increased. Before 1931, the proportion of dry farmland was higher than that of paddy fields, and its peak period witnessed 3% to 5% higher; then the proportion of paddy fields exceeded that of dry farmland and was in an advantageous position. The average proportion of paddy fields from 1936 to 1965 was 22.23% higher than that of dry fields. (3) The land reclamation process in Taiwan has represented the imbalance between spatial expansion and regional expansion. Land reclamation experienced the development process from one region to the whole area of Taiwan Island, that is, from the south to the north, and from the west to the east. Tainan was the first region to be reclaimed, followed by Taichung and Taipei districts, and the Taitung region was the last one to be reclaimed. The reclamation intensity in Tainan was higher than that in the rest, with a maximum of 36.71%. (4) The HYDE dataset and the results of this study are gradually increasing, but the difference between the farmland area and the change process is significant. The international dataset does not reflect the objective historical facts of the change of farmland in Taiwan in the past 300 years.

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    The research process and trend of development in the New Era of rural tourism in China
    HUANG Zhen-fang, ZHANG Yuan-gang, JIA Wen-tong, HONG Xue-ting, YU Run-zhe
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (10): 2615-2633.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211012
    Abstract455)   HTML2)    PDF (4962KB)(29)      

    This paper summarizes the research process of rural tourism in China through systematic literature review, which contains three stages: primary application research (1992-2005), diversified expansion research (2006-2015), and integration deepening research (2016-), as well as analyzes the background and research value orientation of each stage. Based on the analysis of knowledge map by CiteSpace, it reveals the changing process and characteristics of research topics. Combining the rural revitalization strategy and tourism development needs in the New Era, the research expounds the basic characteristics of rural tourism, constructs the research framework of rural tourism in the New Era, puts forward the main scientific issues, and proposes the research trends and academic innovations of rural tourism research. Moreover, the research emphasizes that rurality and recreation constitute the fundamental characteristics of rural tourism. Future research should focus on the national strategy and high-quality development requirements of the New Era, as well as keeping up with the international academic frontiers. Meanwhile, based on the local practice of rural tourism research in China, relevant research should concentrate on the "five-sphere integrated plan" basic framework for rural tourism, taking industry, ecology, culture, governance, and livelihood as the core elements. Under this research framework, it is essential to focus on the rural area system with its complexity and key tourism scientific issues, to strengthen research platforms and professional talents, to integrate multidisciplinary theories and technology methods, as well as to reinforce the ideas of data-driven and science-technology energization. It is also necessary to reveal the process, patten, mechanism, and rule of rural revitalization pushed by rural tourism in a deep-going way, to explore the development model and path of rural tourism revitalization with distinct Chinese characteristics, to continuously promote the deepening of theoretical research, practical application innovation and the development of rural tourism discipline, besides, to improve the academic research, innovation ability, service value, and internalization level of rural tourism.

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    Evolution characteristics and possible impact factors for the changing pattern and function of "Production-Living-Ecological" space in Wuyuan county
    JIAO Geng-ying, YANG Xiao-zhong, HUANG Zhi-qiang, ZHANG Xiao, LU Lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1252-1267.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210513
    Abstract451)   HTML4)    PDF (6390KB)(63)      

    Based on "Production-Living-Ecological" space theory, the productive, living and ecological spaces in Wuyuan county were classified based on the 30 m spatial resolution Landsat time-series images. The spatial and temporal characteristics of the three types of spaces were further analyzed. The kernel density estimation method was applied to explore the spatial features for the conversions among three types of spaces. In addition, to further identify the causes of these changes, Redundancy Analysis (RDA) method was applied to attribute the spatiotemporal changes to different socioeconomic factors. Results showed that the two indices, namely, mean area of patches and aggregation index, decreased in both living space and ecological space, while they increased in production space during 2002-2018. We revealed that the fragmentation and dispersion of production space and ecological space was enhanced due to increasing urban area and living spaces, which facilitated the splitting of the continuity of production space and ecological space. From the perspective of changing function, 56% and 44% of the increased living space area was from production space (mainly cropland) and ecological space (mainly forest or grassland), respectively. The living space area showed a significant (P<0.05) increasing trend, the ecological space area showed a non-significant increasing trend; while the production space area showed a significant decreasing trend. All this revealed that the urbanization rate was accelerated by the rapid growth of tourism economy, and the ecological environment improved in Wuyuan county during 2002-2018.

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    Systematically promoting the construction of natural ecological protection and governance capacity: Experts comments on Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035)
    GUAN Feng-jun, LIU Lian-he, LIU Jian-wei, FU Ying, WANG Ling-yun, WANG Feng, LI Yong, YU Xing-di, CHE Na, XIAO Ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 290-299.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210202
    Abstract447)   HTML10)    PDF (1013KB)(169)      

    Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035) (hereinafter referred to as The Plan) is the first comprehensive plan involving ecosystem protection and restoration after the 19th National Congress of the CPC (2017), which plays a significant strategic and guiding role in undertaking related tasks. The promulgation of The Plan, accomplished by the Chinese government departments concerned, is a successful beginning for jointly arranging major projects in natural resources across departments, disciplines and regions. Recently, some critical contents relating to The Plan, such as the opportunities and challenges of implementation, were discussed by seven experts from Consulting and Research Center of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The key opinions are as follows. In order to work efficiently guided by The Plan, its four main characteristics need to be especially concerned, including systematic and continued deployment; strategic and coordinating policies; objectives-problems dual oriented tasks; and scientific and specific methods. Meanwhile, it is necessary to deal with three kinds of crucial relationships about aims and assignments properly, which are ecosystem protection and utilization, ecosystem restoration and ecological compensation, ecosystem protection and controls on territory use. Besides, seven valued aspects are still worthy to be deeply pondered and some suggestions are proposed, including: establishing diversified financing mechanism, clarifying responsibility of different entities carrying on ecological protection and restoration, formulating related systematic technical standards, strengthening databases and information platforms, optimizing territory use control regulation to adapt to the major projects of The Plan, coordinating ecological protection and natural resources especially energy resources exploitation, reinforcing early basic and comprehensive investigation and later strict surveillance as well. In addition, it is requisite to monitor and evaluate the executive conditions of The Plan and other supporting policies, so as to adjust and improve The Plan in time, which is beneficial to fulfill tasks and achieve goals.

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    Red scarf children's cognition of red tourism resources and patriotism: Evidence from Yuhuatai Revolutionary Martyrs Memorial Area in Nanjing
    ZHONG Shi-en, LU Wen-bin, PENG Hong-song, DAI Shu-qi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (7): 1684-1699.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210705
    Abstract446)   HTML1)    PDF (1173KB)(35)      

    This study illustrates how China uses red tourism to strengthen patriotic education among its children. Taking the Yuhuatai Revolutionary Martyrs Memorial Area in Nanjing (hereinafter referred to as Yuhuatai) as the research case, this study integrates multiple methods, including structured Motherese interview to allow children to speak for themselves, unstructured in-depth interviews, field survey, and second-hand data collection, etc., to interpret whether there is likely another reality in the children's understandings of red tourism resources and patriotism. This study aims to demonstrate why and how patriotic education should start from childhood. The results illustrate that: (1) In children's eyes, compared with other types of tourism activities, red tourism is equivalent to patriotic tourism, with special significances given to visiting solemn places and to commemorating revolutionary martyrs. The particularity of red tourism is also reflected in the on-site activities and ceremonies. In children's eyes, Yuhuatai is not a play place for fun and freedom, but a beautiful landscape space, a real and sacred historical space, and a learning space of spirits. "Sacred, solemn, and beautiful" are the three recurring concepts that the children most used to describe Yuhuatai. They thought Yuhuatai has great significance for their learning and growth. Yuhuatai is a sacred space to clarify the meaning of the red scarf and the mission of CYP (China Young Pioneers) members. Obviously, red tourism has become an affectionate tie to China and the Chinese people, as well as among Chinese children. (2) In general, they treat patriotism as a lofty ideal, and the pureness of their patriotism reflects that patriotism can be evoked and learned deeply through tourism practices, especially at the beginning stage of life. In children's eyes, patriotism is a compound of bearing in mind of the martyrs' spirit, shaping national identity, and inheriting the martyrs' spirit. Patriotism can be started with small and simple daily things. They can practice patriotism and do their best through the following means, such as, studying harder, loving life, protecting the environment, and respecting the elderly. In recent years, Yuhuatai has launched a variety of means to promote patriotic education among children, including childlike narration around several martyrs' learning and growth stories for children visitors, recruitment of children narrators to exercise their comprehensive abilities and to incorporate them to participate in the publicity of "red heritage faith", colorful summer camp activities to promote patriotic education in the name of edutainment, co-construction of ideological and political curriculum with primary and secondary schools in Nanjing, and ceremonial education around specific occasions. The practice of Yuhuatai has important enlightenment for how to innovate the ways of promoting patriotic education among children for red tourist areas, especially for museums and memorial halls.

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    Provincial distribution of China's carbon emission rights and assessment of its emission reduction potential under the Paris Agreement
    TIAN Yun, LIN Zi-juan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (4): 921-933.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210409
    Abstract444)   HTML15)    PDF (1577KB)(163)      

    In this paper, the provincial distribution is completed by constructing a regional distribution model of carbon emission rights. On this basis, the initial space balance is clarified by comparing with the actual carbon emissions in various places. Then, the potential of carbon emission reduction in regions lacking carbon emission rights is comprehensively evaluated. The results show that: (1) The distribution of carbon emission rights in 30 provinces of China is quite different, among which Yunnan has the highest quota, accounting for 10.53%, while Ningxia has the least quota, accounting for only 0.28%. (2) The initial space balance of carbon emission rights in 14 provinces of China shows a surplus state, which can be divided into three types according to the difference of causes, namely "low emission, high quota", "low emission, low quota" and "high emission, high quota". All the other 16 provinces show some degree of deficiency. Combined with the numerical differences, they can be identified into three types: 4 provinces with slight deficiency represented by Jiangsu, 7 with moderate deficiency represented by Tianjin, and 5 with severe deficiency represented by Liaoning. (3) Currently, Zhejiang, Tianjin and Shandong have significantly higher carbon emission reduction potential than other regions, while the carbon emission reduction potential level of each region shows certain convergence but is not completely consistent with a lack of carbon emission rights.

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    Change in grain production in China and its impacts on spatial supply and demand distributions in recent two decades
    LIU Zheng-jia, ZHONG Hui-min, LI Yu-rui, WEN Qi, LIU Xue-qi, JIAN Yu-qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1413-1425.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210605
    Abstract439)   HTML15)    PDF (3920KB)(115)      

    China is feeding roughly 20% of the world's population with less than 9% of the world's cultivated land. The food security at national and regional scales has been a major concern. In this study, we took the province-level area as the research unit and utilized GIS spatial analysis and statistical tools to examine the overall characteristics of grain production changes, the evolution characteristics of regional patterns and the impact of these changes on regional grain supply and demand pattern in China during 1999-2018. The results showed that the total national grain output significantly increased with an annual rate of 1.1 million tons. The total grain output of Northern China showed a significant growth trend, while that of Southern China remained stable. The increment of maize yield played a leading role in these changes. The spatio-temporal yield variations of five major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, beans and tubers) were quite different in the past 20 years at provincial-level scale. The change of grain yield had great influence on regional grain supply and demand pattern. Particularly, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces located in the southeast coastal region had changed from supply-oriented provinces of major grains with rice and wheat into demand-oriented provinces. However, the per capita share of grain was 368.0 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 period(the five-year average during 1999-2003) and 461.5 kg/person in Y 2014-2018 period (the five-year average during 2014-2018) at national-level scale, respectively; and the per capita share of the two major grains was 220.3 kg/person and 247.6 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 and Y 2014-2018 periods, respectively. The change of sown area was the direct reason for the change of grain crop yield at national and regional scales. Nevertheless, the fundamental reason was more attributed to the change of attribution, function and quality, which is driven by land use value. Our study classified the reasons for the decrement of cultivated land into "non-agriculture" "non-grain" "wastage" and "ecology" types. Considering the formation causes of each type, the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable use of regional cultivated land were put forward in order to provide reference for the adjustment of regional grain planting pattern and the transformation of demand-oriented provinces of two major types of grain to self-sufficient provinces.

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    Evaluation of water and land resources system bearing capacity and path optimization for rural revitalization
    QU Lu-lu, WANG Yong-sheng, LIU Yan-sui, MA Qing
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 300-314.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210203
    Abstract394)   HTML17)    PDF (4205KB)(174)      

    The balance of water and land resources system in pastoral ecotone is the guarantee for the development of regional farming and animal husbandry. Taking Yanchi county of Ningxia as an example, this paper evaluates the carrying capacity of water and land resources based on matter element model and studies the driving factors affecting the change of carrying capacity of water and land resources, analyses the factors affecting the carrying capacity of water and land resources and their regional differences, and explores the optimization path of dual guidance of economy and society as well as resources and ecology. The results show that: (1) The carrying capacity of water and land resources of Yanchi county presented a symmetrical X-shaped pattern at a medium level and had great potential for development. Huamachi and Huianpu had higher carrying capacity, while Mahuangshan, Wanglejing and Dashuikeng had the lower. (2) There were obvious regional differences in the coupling and coordination of water and land resources in rural areas of Yanchi county in 2018, and the whole study area was in the antagonistic coupling stage. The coupling and coordination degree of towns was relatively high, while that of rural areas was relatively low. (3) There is a lack of synchronization between water resources and land resources utilization. Water resources lagging areas should take water resources adaptive management and control measures and "ecological conservation + water conservation" to protect mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands and lakes in a coordinated way. Land resources utilization lagging areas should actively explore the main function-oriented zoning, dominant type classification and principal purpose classification optimal distribution strategy of land resources in farming and animal husbandry space in combination with land engineering control measures and industrial restructuring. The strategy of synchronous optimization of resources use, ecological protection and socio-economic development based on the balance of water and land resources in rural areas of Yanchi county provides research reference for the development of agricultural transformation and the implementation of rural revitalization program in the pastoral ecotone.

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    Spatio-temporal variation characteristics of air pollution and influencing factors in Hebei province
    HE Zhen-fang, GUO Qing-chun, LIU Jia-zhen, ZHANG Ying-ying, LIU Jie, DING Hang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 411-419.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210211
    Abstract394)   HTML9)    PDF (3025KB)(156)      

    Hebei is the most polluted province in China. It is significant to study the spatio-temporal variation of air pollution and its influencing factors. Based on the daily air quality index (AQI), meteorological data and socio-economic data, the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of air quality index and its relationship with influencing factors in Hebei province were examined by statistical analysis and spatial interpolation. The results show that air pollution mainly occurs in the central and southern parts of the province, especially in Handan, Xingtai and Shijiazhuang, but rarely in the north. The air quality index of the province shows a decreasing trend year by year, with a linear trend of -8.845/year, and it has a good negative correlation with wind speed, temperature, precipitation, gross domestic product (GDP), population, electricity consumption and secondary industry, while it has a positive correlation with sulfur dioxide emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions. Adverse climatic conditions are the inducement of atmospheric pollution, and high emission intensity is the main cause of heavy atmospheric pollution. With the rapid economic development and the increase of money invested in full control of air pollution in Hebei, its economy and pollution are on the right side of the EKC curve of environmental Kuznets. The relationship between air quality and economic development in Hebei has passed the "inflection point" of the environmental Kuznets curve. These results can provide theoretical basis for air pollution control in this province.

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    Remote sensing monitoring and analysis of influencing factors of drought in Inner Mongolia growing season since 2000
    QIN Yi, ZHANG Ting-bin, YI Gui-hua, WEI Peng-tao, YANG Da
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 459-475.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210215
    Abstract394)   HTML14)    PDF (5117KB)(119)      

    This article takes Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as the research area. The Ts-NDVI space is created by using MODIS 16d synthetic vegetation index product data MOD13A2 and 8d synthetic surface temperature product data MOD11A2. Additionally, based on the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) in Inner Mongolia during 2000-2017 growing season, the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought in the study area are analyzed, and the influencing factors of drought are discussed by using air temperature and precipitation data. The results show that: (1) The average TVDI of Inner Mongolia was 0.6 in the growing season from 2000 to 2017, and the area of heavy and moderate drought was the largest, during which 2007 and 2010 are the years with the most severe drought. The spatial differentiation of drought was obvious. The moderate and slight drought mainly occurred in the central and southwest parts, respectively, and severe drought was observed in the Hulun Buir grassland to the west of Da Higgan Mountains. (2) In the past 18 years, the drought degree in Inner Mongolia showed a slight increase trend, and the interannual variation θslope ranged from -0.07 to 0.7. (3) In the growing season of 2017, drought was most serious in June and September, and drought occurred frequently and severely in the Hulun Buir grassland and western Ordos Plateau. (4) TVDI is positively correlated with the average temperature, negatively correlated with the cumulative precipitation and slightly negatively correlated with the slope, positively correlated with the elevation of less than 1300 m, and negatively correlated with the elevation of greater than 1300 m. The analysis of partial correlation between TVDI and climatic factors in Inner Mongolia growing season shows that the drought in northern Sonid Left Banner of Xilin Gol League, Oroqen Autonomous Banner and Hulun Buir grassland has a significant positive correlation with temperature (P<0.01), and that in northeastern Xilin Gol League has a significant negative correlation with precipitation (P<0.01); among the climatic factors, the average temperature has a stronger impact on drought than cumulative precipitation does.

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    The degree and influencing factors of household food waste in China from the perspective of food conversion: An empirical analysis based on CHNS database
    LI Feng, DING Yuan-yuan, CAI Rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (4): 811-826.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210401
    Abstract393)   HTML19)    PDF (1148KB)(255)      

    The food supply in China has been adequate and stable for a long time and China has made remarkable achievements in food security which is proved to be true. However, this situation has been challenged by population growth and environmental degradation in recent years. On the one hand, the large population in China is still growing, which makes enormous demands on food supplies. On the other hand, grain production is constrained by resources and the environment, and importing foreign food excessively will squeeze domestic agricultural production. Therefore, the best way to ensure food security in China is to reduce food waste. As an important part of the consumption, households account for a large proportion of food waste production sector, which deserves our attention. What is the current situation of household food waste in China and what factors will affect household food waste in China are worth considering. From the perspective of food conversion, the food waste rate in this paper is defined as the proportion of family food consumption that is not normally converted to body mass index of family members. This paper uses data from China nutrition and health survey (CHNS) and applies stochastic frontier model to estimate household food waste rate from the perspective of food conversion and discusses the impact of heterogeneous family characteristics (such as household size, household structure, household income, storage condition, regional factors, the characteristics of the head of the household and the characteristics of the main female member) on food waste. The result shows that: the average household food waste rate is about 11.28%; such a family is likely to waste more, which has a small size, more children or the elderly, a higher per capita annual income, less-educated head of household, female with higher-education or have jobs, a bad grasp of dietary knowledge, and the family lives in Southern China. Therefore, it is of great importance to encourage the production of small packaging food and small cooking utensils, instruct household members to purchase food according to the actual needs, strengthen the efforts of the government, and raise the awareness of school children and their parents about food security so as to reduce food waste.

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    The degree of cultivated land abandonment and its influence on grain yield in main grain producing areas of China
    LI Yu-ling, MA Wen-qiu, JIANG Guang-hui, LI Guang-yong, ZHOU Ding-yang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1439-1454.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210607
    Abstract393)   HTML7)    PDF (1870KB)(100)      

    Cultivated land abandonment has a profound impact on China's food security. Taking the main grain producing areas in China as an example and based on the identification of the distribution of abandoned land, this paper measured the spatial distribution pattern of abandoned land, established the mediating effect model of cultivated land abandonment, and explored the influence mechanism of cultivated land abandonment on regional grain yield. The results showed that: (1) The area of abandoned cultivated land in the main grain producing areas of China was 4.0553 million hectares, with a rate of 5.85%; the distribution of abandoned land presented a T-shaped pattern, mainly concentrated in the Northeastern Heilongjiang, Northwestern Jilin and Southern Inner Mongolia. (2) Cultivated land abandonment had a significant negative impact on the grain yield of the main grain producing areas. In 2017, these areas lost a farmland production potential of 13.3915 million tons, and the loss of grain output was as high as 22.656 million tons, accounting for 4.69%; Inner Mongolia was the most affected region. (3) Grain sown area, farmland production potential, and agricultural technology input all played an intermediary role, and their regression coefficients were -0.194, -0.025 and 0.006, respectively. (4) We should follow the trend of urban-rural integration and agricultural-rural development, strengthen the input of modern agricultural production factors and policy support in major grain producing areas, and construct the flexible mechanism of spatial transformation between grain production and cultivated land fallow to ensure food security in China.

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    Spatio-temporal changes in remote sensing-based ecological index in China since 2000
    HE Ying-li, YOU Nan-shan, CUI Yao-ping, XIAO Tong, HAO Yuan-yuan, DONG Jin-wei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1176-1185.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210507
    Abstract392)   HTML14)    PDF (1700KB)(106)      

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, China has responded to a national land-system sustainability emergency via an integrated portfolio of large-scale programmes. A series of ecological restoration projects and land regulating and planning policies have been implemented for sustainable development, which substantially improved the security status of the country's ecology. However, comprehensive assessments of the ecological status based on objective data and framework are still limited. Remote sensing-based ecological index (RSEI) has been proposed as an objective and effective approach for assessing ecological security on a regional scale. However, a national scale application has not been conducted yet. Here we generated the annual RSEI products from 2000 to 2019 by using four indicators (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Soil Index (NDSI), Wetness Index (Wet), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data as well as the Google Earth Engine (GEE)-a cloud computing platform. The results showed that the multi-year average RSEI showed higher values in the southeast coastal regions compared with the northwestern regions, the regions with superior hydrothermal conditions have high RSEI values, while the arid and semi-arid inland areas with higher elevations and cold-dry climates have low RSEI values and fragile ecological conditions. In general, the whole country experienced a significant improvement of RSEI, and all the provincial-level regions in China, except Shanghai, Tibet, and Macao, have shown an increasing RSEI. The three provinces with the fastest growing rates were Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Hebei, with increases of 0.29, 0.25, and 0.19, respectively. The RSEI increased significantly in the Northeast China Plain, Loess Plateau, south and north of the North China Plain, the north of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Plain, and the south of the Junggar Basin in the northwest desert region, while the RSEI decreased in the Tianshan Mountain range, the southwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the central part of the North China Plain and the Yangtze River Delta. This study quantitatively evaluated the macro patterns of RSEI changes based on GEE since 2000, and expecte to support decision making on land use management and ecological protection.

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    Spatial mismatch evolution of global population and food and its influencing factors
    LUO Xiu-li, YANG Ren, XU Qian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (6): 1381-1397.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210603
    Abstract391)   HTML8)    PDF (3599KB)(84)      

    In this paper, the spatial center of gravity model and spatial mismatch index method was applied to systematically analyze the spatio-temporal pattern, spatial mismatch characteristics, and influencing factors of global population and food in 1990-2017. The results showed that: (1) In the past 30 years, the global population and food has showed a growth trend, but their change characteristics are obviously different in temporal distribution. The per capita food production has obvious spatial differences in the world, and the contradiction between population and food in most countries is serious. (2) On the global scale, there is an obvious spatial mismatch between the center of gravity of population and food, which shows a trend of reverse mismatch in spatial distribution. (3) On the national scale, the regional difference of spatial mismatch between population and food is obvious, showing a spatial pattern of "positive mismatch area - negative mismatch area - positive mismatch area" from south to north. Negative high mismatch regions are stable in countries such as India and Japan, and positive high mismatch regions are stable in countries such as the United States and Canada. (4) The spatial mismatch pattern of population and food on all continents is basically stable, and the countries whose spatial mismatch index changes direction are distributed in Asia, Europe, South America and Africa. (5) The combined effect of natural environment, international environment, agricultural development and social factors has obvious regional differences in the spatial distribution of population and food, thus forming a spatial mismatch pattern between global population and food. It is necessary to accelerate the structural reform of agricultural supply side, enhance agricultural competitiveness and food self-sufficiency rate, reasonably allocate and deal with both domestic and international markets and resources, construct countermeasures to avoid fluctuations and uncertainties in world grain trade, and build a guarantee system for China's agricultural ecological security and food security.

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    The impact of red tourism on national identity of tourists
    LIU Run-jia, HUANG Zhen-fang, YU Run-zhe, BAO Jia-qi, MO Yu-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (7): 1673-1683.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210704
    Abstract372)   HTML4)    PDF (794KB)(52)      

    Red tourism is an effective carrier in inheriting red gene, strengthening patriotism education and enhancing national identity, however, there have been few studies on its political function. Based on the theory of cognitive evaluation emotion evaluation and positive emotion expansion construction theory, this paper constructs the impact model of red tourism national identity and puts forward the corresponding hypotheses. The PLS SEM is used to test the structure equation. The results show that the model has good explanatory and predictive power, and the model is featured by cross validity. The GOF value of the overall model is higher than the standard value of good fitness; red tourism has positive effect on national identity of tourists. As the intermediary variable in the process of red tourism, red tourism emotion is connected with tourist experience and identity. The influence of historical identity on national identity is not obvious, so it is necessary to further arouse historical memory and enhance the function of historical education in red tourism. The research results can provide theoretical basis for strengthening the research on the national identity of red tourism, expanding the theoretical connotation and educational function of red tourism and promoting the high-quality development of red tourism.

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    The connotation of territory and the suggestions of drawing up spatial planning in the New Era
    HAO Qing, PENG Jian, WEI Ye, WANG Feng-long, YAO Hua-song, LI Yi, WANG Wei, ZHANG Shu-hai, DENG Ling, ZHAO Yun-tai, MA Xue-guang, GE Da-zhuan, DAI Jun-cheng, ZHU He, ZHANG Mao-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (9): 2219-2247.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210905
    Abstract353)   HTML2)    PDF (1405KB)(67)      

    A better understanding of the connotation of "territory" is a prerequisite for developing the theoretical system and advancing the practical work of spatial planning. It is necessary to constantly update the understanding of "territory" in accordance with the development of disciplines and the changes in the real needs of spatial governance. Therefore, this journal invited 15 young scholars to discuss the connotation of "territory". The main points of view are as follows: (1) Territory is a complex coupled human and natural systems, with the characteristics of pluralism on elements and nesting on spatial and temporal scales. It is necessary to use the thinking of "landscape, forest, field, lake and grass" as a life community to carry out the comprehensive development and utilization and systematic restoration and protection of territory, so that it can become a natural governance platform. (2) Territory is a network space constructed by "flow" and a relational space composed of different stakeholders. It is necessary to integrate the territory through the "space of flows" to promote the sharing of resources and elements between regions to achieve coordinated development; it is also necessary to pay attention to the reconstruction of human and natural relationships and interpersonal relationships, coordinate the interests of multiple subjects, and achieve harmonious development. (3) Territory is a human space. It is necessary to fully perceive the risks, suitability, constraints, and accessibility of the territory. We need compile people-oriented spatial planning to enhance the ecological value, aesthetic value and humanistic care of territory. (4) Territory is the object of spatial planning and governance. It is a specific spatial carrier with marine space, rural space and cultural space, etc. It has attributes such as rights and assets. It is necessary to realize the unified management of resources and assets in the spatial planning, and highlight its economic value, social value and ecological value to achieve the diversified needs of high-quality development and high-quality life for territory.

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    An analysis on moisture source of extreme precipitation in Southwest China in summer
    ZHANG Chi, WU Shao-hong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (5): 1186-1194.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210508
    Abstract352)   HTML4)    PDF (3958KB)(68)      

    The terrain in Southwest China (SWC) is very complicated, and it is prone to floods and relative geological disasters due to heavy rain. In summer 1998, the SWC precipitation reached a maximum of 709.3 mm, which is around 23.9% above the climate mean. By using a Eulerian model of moisture recycling WAM2layers and big data such as ERA-Interim reanalysis, the precipitation moisture in summer SWC was backtracked. It is found that there are four major source regions for SWC, which are the southwest monsoon region, the westerlies region, the local region, and the southeast monsoon region. They contributed around 330.1 mm, 110.0 mm, 104.8 mm, and 65.6 mm in water depth of SWC in summer 1998, which accounted for 52.2%, 17.4%, 16.6%, and 10.4% of the tracked precipitation moisture, respectively. The southwest monsoon region, from the west Indochina Peninsula to the Indian subcontinent to the Indian Ocean, as the largest moisture source, contributed more than half the precipitation moisture. The extra moisture of the extreme precipitation during summer 1998 came mainly from the southwest monsoon region, the westerlies region, and the local region, contributing about 80.1 mm, 29.3 mm, and 27.1 mm, respectively, above the average moisture contribution, which together accounted for 99.9% of the extra precipitation. The southwest monsoon region dominated the extra moisture contribution once again. Further analyses revealed that the Western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) stretched to the southwest, forming two anomalous highs in the Northern Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. This change made moisture transport by the southwest monsoon to SWC extremely strong, which resulted in extreme precipitation in SWC.

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    Review of urban-rural integration evaluation: Connotation identification, theoretical analysis, and system reconstruction
    ZHOU De, QI Jia-ling, ZHONG Wen-yu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (10): 2634-2651.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211013
    Abstract329)   HTML2)    PDF (2597KB)(19)      

    The scientific evaluation of urban-rural integration is the core content of urban-rural integration, and it is the foundation for establishing and improving the institutional mechanism of urban-rural integration. Based on the logical line of "connotation identification-theoretical analysis-system reconstruction", this paper carries out the review of urban-rural integration evaluation including concept connotation, theoretical basis, evaluation index, evaluation method, evaluation scale, spatio-temporal differentiation, and mechanism analysis. At present, the academic understanding of the connotation of urban-rural integration is basically the same. The evaluation index selection of urban-rural integration shows multidimensional and multi-attribute characteristics, but the index system construction has not broken through the static characteristics. Quantitative evaluation method is relatively simple. Generally, current research still remains at the macro scale, but lacks quantitative research from a micro perspective and comparative studies of different fusion modes. The spatial and temporal differentiation pattern and its mechanism of urban-rural integration need to be further deepened. Finally, this paper puts forward five prospects: (1) strengthening the construction of basic theory system and perfecting system research framework; (2) optimizing the multidimensional evaluation index system and identifying the development model of urban-rural integration; (3) deepening the flow mechanism of urban and rural elements and promoting the balanced development of urban and rural space; (4) strengthening the exploration of micro-scale details and improving the promoting mechanism of urban-rural integration; (5) strengthening the empowering role of the digital economy and innovating the development mechanism of high-quality urban-rural integration.

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    Research progress and key issues of territory consolidation under the target of rural revitalization
    HAN Bo, JIN Xiao-bin, GU Zheng-ming, YIN Yan-xing, LIU Jing-ping, ZHOU Yin-kang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (12): 3007-3030.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20211202
    Abstract328)   HTML0)    PDF (4437KB)(0)      

    After nearly 40 years of development, China's territory consolidation has played an important role in promoting rural farmland protection, solving the problem of inefficient use of land resources, and helping poverty alleviation. This article reviews the development process of China's territory consolidation, summarizes relevant research progress based on bibliometric analysis and literature reviews, and puts forward key issues for future territory consolidation research. The following conclusions are drawn: China's territory consolidation undertakings and research have gone through three stages including territory consolidation planning, special territory consolidation projects, and comprehensive territory consolidation. The promotion of rural revitalization is the most important historical task of current territory consolidation. At present, territory consolidation research has formed a distinctive research system with the goal of solving the problem of land space and resource utilization and guided by policy management needs. Land use research is the theoretical support of territory consolidation, with agricultural land consolidation, rural settlement consolidation, comprehensive land consolidation and land-space ecological restoration as the main objects. Territory consolidation research formed a decentralized group consisting of management departments and characteristic scientific research institutes as the core research bodies. The territory consolidation research under the rural revitalization goal focuses on land consolidation planning, project site selection, consolidation zoning decision-making, land consolidation project full-process monitoring and supervision and performance evaluation, rural settlement consolidation potential evaluation, land consolidation policy effectiveness evaluation and other management needs. Besides, much research has been carried out on scientific issues such as the mechanism of land consolidation driving ecosystem change, the optimal allocation method of land resources, and the coordination mechanism of land use conflicts, giving full play to the characteristics of geography for theory serving practice. To accelerate comprehensive land consolidation in the future, we should focus on solving key issues around "theoretical framework-problem identification-planning and decision-technical system", and use theoretical research to promote the development of China's territory consolidation, and contribute to the realization of rural revitalization.

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    Possible trends of rice yield in China under global warming by 1.5 ℃ and 2.0 ℃
    LI Ming-yu, GAO Xi-ning, PAN Jie, XIONG Wei, GUO Li-ping, LIN Er-da, LI Kuo
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 567-581.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210303
    Abstract328)   HTML12)    PDF (3327KB)(107)      

    Five climate models of ISI-MIP were used to simulate and output future climate data under four RCP scenarios, and the scenario data of global warming by 1.5 ℃ and 2.0 ℃ in the future was screened. Based on CERES-Rice model, the trends of rice yield in various regions of China were simulated under the two scenarios, and the relationship between characteristics of future climate change and rice yield were comprehensively analyzed. The results showed that: under the global warming of 1.5 ℃ and 2.0 ℃, the average temperature in China increased by 1.19 ℃ and 1.87 ℃, respectively, and the average precipitation in China increased by 3.07% and 6.17%, respectively, relative to baseline period. Under the global warming of 1.5 ℃, the yield of rice per unit area decreased by 7.49% on average, the area of yield reduction and serious yield reduction accounted for 68.8% and 10.3% of the total rice planting area, respectively. Results showed that the biggest reduction rate was found in double cropping rice planting area of South China, and the biggest increase rate was observed in single cropping rice planting area of Northeast China. Under the global warming of 2.0 ℃, the yield of rice per unit area decreased by 12.02% on average, and the area of yield reduction and serious yield reduction accounted for 70.6% and 18.7% of the total rice planting area. And also, the biggest reduction rate was found in double cropping rice planting area of South China, and the biggest increase rate was observed in single cropping rice planting area of Northwest China.

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