Resource-based cities are the cities that take the exploitation and processing of natural resources (minerals, forests, etc.) in the region as the leading industries (including prefecture-level cities, regions and other prefecture-level administrative regions, and county-level cities, counties and other county-level administrative units). They are important guarantees for the protection and utilization of energy resources in China and promote the sustainable development of the national economy. However, in the process of development, resource-based cities are facing problems such as resource depletion, environmental degradation, and lack of endogenous power of transformation. Therefore, promoting resource-based cities transformation and development is a key measure to accelerate the construction of ecological civilization and build a new development pattern in the new era. This study takes 19 resource-declining cities (prefecture-level cities) as the research object, and constructs an influencing factor index system of tourism transformation and development of resource-based cities, including four dimensions of ecological environment, resource environment, economic environment and cultural environment. On this basis, using the method of qualitative comparative analysis of fuzzy sets, this paper makes necessity analysis of single variable and multivariate path configuration analysis to explore the influencing factors and driving types of tourism transformation and development of resource-based cities. It is found that: (1) Environmental regulation is a single necessary condition for the transformation and development of tourism in resource-declining cities. Under the guidance of the government, effective environmental regulation can reduce the damage to the ecological environment caused by the economic growth of resource-declining cities, and then provide a good ecological environment for tourism development. (2) There are four driving types in the transformation and development of tourism in resource-declining cities: economic development driven, environment-culture driven, environment-energy-culture driven and environment-economy-culture driven models. On this basis, by comparing the core conditions of various types, we can further find that the environment and culture play a more important role in the process of tourism transformation. (3) There are four driving types leading to the transformation and development of non-tourism: environment-economy inhibition, environment-economy-culture inhibition, cultural endowment inhibition and economy-culture inhibition. It can be seen that economic development, cultural endowment and environment are the key to restricting the tourism development of resource-declining cities. From the perspective of configuration, this study combs the influencing factors and action mechanism in the process of tourism transformation in resource-declining cities, and further analyzes the driving types of "tourism transformation development" and "non-tourism transformation development". The research results not only enrich the relevant academic achievements of the transformation and development of resource-based cities, but also provide academic support and theoretical reference for their practical development.