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    28 July 2021, Volume 36 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Feature on "Innovation and Development of Red Tourism Resources of China"
    Construction path and intergenerational differences of Yan'an urban residents' red memory
    BAI Kai, KANG Xiao-yuan, WANG Bo-lin
    2021, 36 (7):  1631-1646.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210701
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    As a typical cultural phenomenon throughout the progress and development of modern and contemporary Chinese society, the writing, construction, inheritance and other topics of red memory at the macro level have been widely concerned and discussed. However, the research on red memory on the individual level is relatively deficient and requires to be promoted. Therefore, this paper takes Yan'an urban core area, which is rich in red resources, as a case study. With the help of generation research method, through in-depth interviews with 36 local residents, this paper interprets the red memory differences among three generations of Yan'an urban residents, and explores the "macro-micro" construction path and results of red memory. The results show that the macro level of memory elements mining, narrative expression and resource activation construct the coding, selection and consolidation process of residents' red memory, promote the local residents to generate red memory content with characteristics of the times, and finally construct the authoritative, functional and reflective red memory system of the old, middle and young generations. The results reflect the significance of the social forces of memory construction and the changing times in shaping the content of individual memory, and provide a theoretical reference for standardizing the practice of red memory and promoting the inheritance of red memory.

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    Research on the value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development from the perspective of tourists
    LA Li-qing, XU Fei-fei, HE Yun-meng, HAN Lei
    2021, 36 (7):  1647-1657.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210702
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    Taking Jinggang Mountain Scenic Area as a case, this study collected and analyzed the travel notes of this scenic area from Mafengwo.com. We adopt big data analysis and qualitative text analysis methods and introduce the theory of value co-creation to explore the value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development from three dimensions (resources, practices and values). The results show that the value co-creation resources of red tourism scenic spots include historical and cultural heritages, natural landscape resources and iconic landscape symbols. Through practical activities including red culture experience, learning and training activities, and interpretation service experience, tourists gain knowledge of red history and culture, build an emotional connection with red culture and form the values of patriotism and identification with the country. This verifies the realization of the educational function of red tourism. On the other hand, the existing value co-creation practice of red tourist attractions is still limited. The value co-creation mechanism of red tourism development constructed in this study integrates the demand of tourists, the support service of scenic spots, and the possible value co-creation practice, which has practical significance for improving the participation of tourists and realizing the value co-creation of red tourist attractions.

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    Research on the influencing factors of national identity of red tourism resource destination from the perspective of configuration and multiple paths: Based on the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis
    ZHANG Yuan-gang, LIU Lu
    2021, 36 (7):  1658-1672.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210703
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    The development of red tourism resources has both individual and group significance. It is an important way to realize national identity. This study adopts the method of multi-variable interaction fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, takes the national identity of tourists as the result variable, constructs social memory (character memory, environmental memory, time memory, spatial memory), scenic image (attraction image, facility environment image, cultural and creative publicity image), tourism experience and perceived value as the antecedent variables, and explores the combination of antecedents conditions and multiple paths that affect national identity. The results show that: (1) For single factor, although the consistency of character memory is relatively high, all single factors can not constitute the necessary and sufficient conditions of national identity. (2) There are 512 condition combinations generated by 9 variables; there are 11 path combinations that meet the conditions, with an overall coverage rate of 0.8916; 4 pathways have formed, namely, space environmental model, image value model, history experience model and time synthesis model, which can well explain the combination of influencing factors of national identity in red tourism destination. (3) Character memory appears in all path combinations, and all the combinations contain at least one other secondary dimension of social memory, such as environment, time, or spatial memory. When all the four secondary dimensions of social memory appear, the path with the highest original coverage rate is produced. (4) In the six paths with the original coverage rate of more than 20%, the secondary elements of social memory and the image of scenic spots are included at the same time; in the five paths with the original coverage rate of lower than 20%, the image of facilities and environment is "definitely not included". The research offers reference for the high-quality development of red tourism destinations in the New Era.

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    The impact of red tourism on national identity of tourists
    LIU Run-jia, HUANG Zhen-fang, YU Run-zhe, BAO Jia-qi, MO Yu-ting
    2021, 36 (7):  1673-1683.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210704
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    Red tourism is an effective carrier in inheriting red gene, strengthening patriotism education and enhancing national identity, however, there have been few studies on its political function. Based on the theory of cognitive evaluation emotion evaluation and positive emotion expansion construction theory, this paper constructs the impact model of red tourism national identity and puts forward the corresponding hypotheses. The PLS SEM is used to test the structure equation. The results show that the model has good explanatory and predictive power, and the model is featured by cross validity. The GOF value of the overall model is higher than the standard value of good fitness; red tourism has positive effect on national identity of tourists. As the intermediary variable in the process of red tourism, red tourism emotion is connected with tourist experience and identity. The influence of historical identity on national identity is not obvious, so it is necessary to further arouse historical memory and enhance the function of historical education in red tourism. The research results can provide theoretical basis for strengthening the research on the national identity of red tourism, expanding the theoretical connotation and educational function of red tourism and promoting the high-quality development of red tourism.

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    Red scarf children's cognition of red tourism resources and patriotism: Evidence from Yuhuatai Revolutionary Martyrs Memorial Area in Nanjing
    ZHONG Shi-en, LU Wen-bin, PENG Hong-song, DAI Shu-qi
    2021, 36 (7):  1684-1699.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210705
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    This study illustrates how China uses red tourism to strengthen patriotic education among its children. Taking the Yuhuatai Revolutionary Martyrs Memorial Area in Nanjing (hereinafter referred to as Yuhuatai) as the research case, this study integrates multiple methods, including structured Motherese interview to allow children to speak for themselves, unstructured in-depth interviews, field survey, and second-hand data collection, etc., to interpret whether there is likely another reality in the children's understandings of red tourism resources and patriotism. This study aims to demonstrate why and how patriotic education should start from childhood. The results illustrate that: (1) In children's eyes, compared with other types of tourism activities, red tourism is equivalent to patriotic tourism, with special significances given to visiting solemn places and to commemorating revolutionary martyrs. The particularity of red tourism is also reflected in the on-site activities and ceremonies. In children's eyes, Yuhuatai is not a play place for fun and freedom, but a beautiful landscape space, a real and sacred historical space, and a learning space of spirits. "Sacred, solemn, and beautiful" are the three recurring concepts that the children most used to describe Yuhuatai. They thought Yuhuatai has great significance for their learning and growth. Yuhuatai is a sacred space to clarify the meaning of the red scarf and the mission of CYP (China Young Pioneers) members. Obviously, red tourism has become an affectionate tie to China and the Chinese people, as well as among Chinese children. (2) In general, they treat patriotism as a lofty ideal, and the pureness of their patriotism reflects that patriotism can be evoked and learned deeply through tourism practices, especially at the beginning stage of life. In children's eyes, patriotism is a compound of bearing in mind of the martyrs' spirit, shaping national identity, and inheriting the martyrs' spirit. Patriotism can be started with small and simple daily things. They can practice patriotism and do their best through the following means, such as, studying harder, loving life, protecting the environment, and respecting the elderly. In recent years, Yuhuatai has launched a variety of means to promote patriotic education among children, including childlike narration around several martyrs' learning and growth stories for children visitors, recruitment of children narrators to exercise their comprehensive abilities and to incorporate them to participate in the publicity of "red heritage faith", colorful summer camp activities to promote patriotic education in the name of edutainment, co-construction of ideological and political curriculum with primary and secondary schools in Nanjing, and ceremonial education around specific occasions. The practice of Yuhuatai has important enlightenment for how to innovate the ways of promoting patriotic education among children for red tourist areas, especially for museums and memorial halls.

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    The spatial optimization of red tourism resources utilization based on the resilience of "ruralism-ecology" system: A case study of Dabie Mountains Old Revolutionary Base Area
    ZHU Yuan-yuan, WANG Zi-wei, GU Jiang, YU Rui-lin
    2021, 36 (7):  1700-1717.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210706
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    The red tourism resources utilization and development of tourist destination have a strong disturbance to human-earth areal system. Based on the resilience evaluation of "ruralism-ecology" system, this study presents a spatial utilization pattern of red tourism resources, which is conducive to promoting the development of red tourism resources and regional sustainable development mutual win-win situation. Taking the Dabie Mountains Old Revolutionary Base Area as an example, we constructed a resilience level evaluation system of the "ruralism-ecology" system of red tourism from four aspects of economy, society, culture and ecology, and identified the spatial characteristics and types of red tourism resources. The results showed that: (1) The resilience of "ruralism-ecology" system in each county was mainly at the middle and low levels, characterised by "high in the middle and low in the surroundings". (2) The resilience of subsystems in the region was barely coordinated, and the coordination of county-level administrative units presented an "olive-shaped" hierarchical structure with more counties at medium level and less counties at high and low levels. (3) The cold spot and hot spot areas of red tourism resources located on the north and south sides of the Dabie Mountains and the central part of the study area, showed a pattern of "large agglomeration, and small dispersion", which were divided into 5 clusters based on their scale and influence. (4) In areas with high concentrations of red tourism resources, the resilience of the "ruralism-ecology" system can be developed to a higher level through the reconstruction of internal elements. In the low- and medium-density areas of red tourism, the resilience of the "ruralism-ecology" system was weak in absorbing and adapting to external disturbances, which inhibited the development of red tourism resources. According to the evaluation results, the spatial pattern of red tourism resources utilization of "three regions, two belts and three cores" can be constructed preliminarily, and differentiated suggestions were put forward from the perspective of "ruralism-ecology" system resilience in different regions. The research results aim to mitigate the interference of the development of red tourism resources to the "ruralism-ecology" system.

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    Symbiosis potential energy of red tourism resources in Hunan
    XU Chun-xiao, TANG Hui, MENG Yuan-yuan, NING Chuan-chuan
    2021, 36 (7):  1718-1733.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210707
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    The symbiotic development of red tourism resources and other types of tourism resources is an inevitable phenomenon of market allocation of resources, so the research is of great significance. Taking the tourism resources of Hunan province as objects and the scenic spots as symbiosis units, we identified scenic spots into five types of red-dominated, green-dominated, blue-dominated, patina-dominated, and entertainment-education-dominated through the type structure of tourist resources. Calculating the symbiosis potential energy based on the scenic spots' quality index and the convenience index between them, and using Ucinet and ArcGIS software analysis based on social network theory, we found that there are five levels of symbiosis potential energy in tourism resources of Hunan, which express properties of the primary contact center of pure altruism, the secondary contact center of altruism, the important contact point of symmetrical mutual benefit, the general contact point of asymmetric mutual benefit, and the loose contact point of pure egoistic, while red tourism resources showed an absolute advantage in symbiosis potential energy. Red tourism resources play a significant organizational role in the tourism resource symbiosis system, which is composed of five symbiosis communities. Among them, one community, with the advantage of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan (CZT) red tourism resources, has the closest internal connection and the best symbiosis potential energy, while the internal connection in the other four symbiosis communities decreases in the order of the first one co-constructed by tourism resources of patina, red and blue in southern Hunan, the second one co-constructed by tourism resources of green and patina in western Hunan, the third one with green-advantaged tourism resources in southwestern Hunan and the last one with patina-advantaged tourism resources in the area around Dongting Lake. The symbiosis community with the advantage of red tourism resources in CZT has connections with all the other four symbiosis communities, and it has a closer contact with the one which is co-constructed by tourism resources of patina, red and blue in southern Hunan. There is a closer relationship between the symbiosis community co-constructed by patina, red and blue tourism resources in southern Hunan and the symbiosis community with green-advantaged tourism resources in southwestern Hunan. Red tourism resources are the main body of the core area of the tourism resources symbiosis system in Hunan. Among 53 scenic spots in the core area, 18 are red-dominated scenic spots, accounting for 33.96%; 27 belong to the symbiosis community with the advantage of red tourism resources in CZT, accounting for 50.9%. The research results show that red tourism resources perform strong support and synergy for the development of Hunan's tourism industry, and reflect the unique value of promoting regional high-quality development.

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    The integration and development of red tourism resources in the Central Soviet Area from the perspective of cultural ecology
    LING Ming-shui, YAN Yi, ZENG Chun-shui, ZHU He, WANG Fu-yuan
    2021, 36 (7):  1734-1748.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210708
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    Red tourism resources are the main carrier of Chinese revolutionary spirit. Its protection and tourism utilization are faced with the problems of fraction, fragmentation and static, which requires the research of integrated development. By using GIS spatial analysis methods and modified gravity models, this paper takes the core area of the Central Soviet Area as an example to study the spatial pattern and cultural ecological changes of red tourism resources, based on the theory of cultural ecology. Then, strategies for integrated development of red tourism resources are discussed in the study. Conclusions are as follows: (1) The red tourism resources distribution is featured by local clustering in space. The Soviet Area in Southern Jiangxi forms a pattern of "Golden Triangle" consisting of Zhanggong district, Ruijin city and Yudu county, while the Soviet Area in Western Fujian presents a pattern of "Silver Rhombus" composed of Xinluo district, Yongding district, Shanghang county and Liancheng county. (2) Most of major documented events of the red tourism resources occurred within a range of 8.9-106.6 km in the Soviet Areas of Western Fujian and Southern Jiangxi, which laid the cultural ecological foundation for tourism in the belt/planar-shaped pattern, showing a consistent development trend towards a service-led industry. (3) The local network connection development direction of red tourism resources is spatially dislocated with development direction of cultural ecology based service-led industry. This is the fundamental reason for the strong internal connection of the red tourism resources in Southern Jiangxi and Western Fujian, and the weak connection for the cross-regional network. Following the development principles of cultural ecological spaces integration, comprehensive network connection and dynamics of main types for the red tourism resources, this research proposed three strategies for integrated development in order to promote the high-quality development of red tourism in the Central Soviet Area, namely, priority integrated development for spatial sources cluster areas, priority integrated development for cross-regional red tourism resources with high development index and priority integrated development for the key nodes of different types of the red tourism resources.

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    Multi-dimensional production mode of the red tourism destination resource cyberspace: Digital field research based on Shajiabang
    SUN Jiao-jiao, GUO Ying-zhi
    2021, 36 (7):  1749-1759.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210709
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    Taking Shajiabang red tourism scenic spot in Suzhou as a case study and based on digital field survey, this paper analyzes the process of the transformation of tourism "man-land" relationship into "man-network-land" relationship in the cyberspace production of red tourism resource, and puts forward the multi-dimensional production and spiritual reconstruction model of the cyberspace of red tourism destination resource. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The red tourism cyberspace breaks the traditional time-space boundary and provides a freer public sphere for public emotions such as patriotism. The one-way value transmission is transformed into the co-creation of subjective and objective values, which is the process of empowering tourists and democratic production of red spirit. (2) The open cyberspace deconstructs the traditional red tourism space. In the face of the diversity of education, entertainment and aesthetic value, there is a new host-guest network geopolitical competition, that is, the right of network discourse. (3) The official of red tourism destination, as the manager of cyberspace, shoulders the responsibility of control in ideological communication. Due to the transformation of traditional tourists into consumers, participants and producers of cyberspace, the decentralization of cyberspace production is obvious, which requires the official subject of destination to master a higher level of cyberspace governance ability. (4) In the contemporary context, the official subject of red tourism cyberspace tries to integrate into the network practice by using popular elements, characterized by a trend of pan entertainment.

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    The driving mechanism of awe and pride to tourists' civilized behavioral intention in the development of red tourism resources
    LIU Jia, TENG Jin-ling
    2021, 36 (7):  1760-1776.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210710
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    Under the circumstance that civilized tourism demonstration areas are being built in China, developing the civilized behavior of tourists in red tourism scenic spots is of great significance to promote red tradition, inherit red gene and enable sustainable development of red tourism resources in the new era. Based on norm activation model, prototypical model of awe and social identity theory, considering the carrying forward of the red spirit and the inheriting of the red culture, this paper constructs a theoretical analysis framework of tourists' civilized behavioral intention, including emotional factors of awe and pride, and selects representative red tourism scenic spots, such as Taierzhuang ancient city, Yuelu Mountain and The Former Site of Army Lecture Hall as the case study sites. Then, by using structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression method, it empirically tests the key factors, mechanism and driving paths of promoting tourists' civilized behavior in the development of red tourism resources. The study finds that: (1) In the context of red tourism resources development, the hypothetical relationship between awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, moral norm and tourists' civilized behavioral intention is verified. (2) Awe, through employing moral norm, has a significant and positive effect on tourists' civilized behavioral intention. The more the feeling of awe the tourists experience, the more moral responsibility they feel to carry out civilized behavior, and the more possibilities that they will carry out such behavior. Pride has no significant and positive effect on moral norm and tourists' civilized behavioral intention, because the pride experienced by tourists in red tourism scenic spots cannot play a role in promoting tourists' civilized moral responsibility and civilized behavior. (3) The popularity of scenic spots moderates the positive relationship between moral norm and tourists' civilized behavioral intention in a negative way. When scenic spots are popular, the positive effect of moral norm on tourists' civilized behavioral intention is small. Therefore, we should enhance tourists' sense of the negative consequences caused by uncivilized behavior, improve tourists' sense of responsibility and moral responsibility, create a solemn atmosphere of red tourism, to stimulate tourists' feeling of awe, and great importance should be attached to the civilized demonstration in well-known red tourism scenic spots, so as to provide decision-making reference for the sustainable development of red tourism resources in China.

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    Spatio-temporal distribution and network structure of red tourism flow in Jinggangshan
    WANG Jin-wei, WANG Guo-quan, LIU Yi, LEI Ting, SUN Jie, WANG Xin
    2021, 36 (7):  1777-1791.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210711
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    Tourism flow is an important indicator of industrial operation of red tourism destination, which plays a significant guiding role for the planning and management of tourism destinations. Based on 1286 online travel notes of typical travel websites (2000-2020), this paper uses ArcGIS spatial analysis method and social network analysis method to examine the spatio-temporal distribution and network structure characteristics of Jinggangshan red tourism flow. Results show that: (1) Tourism flow in Jinggangshan has formed a double-core and multi-point spatial pattern with "Ciping-Huangyangjie" as the center, while the temporal distribution presents a periodic seasonal difference, which is closely related to climatic and phenological changes, holiday system and other factors. (2) Tourism flow network in Jinggangshan presents a "core-periphery" hierarchical structure, and forms a "Longshi-Dujuanshan" dense flow area in the northwest-southeast direction, in which the tourist flow between Huangyangjie, Longtan and Ciping is most frequent, occupying the core position of tourism distribution hub. Erling, Tongmuling, Xiangzhou and Xiankou occupy the peripheral position of tourism flow network. The reasons for this hierarchical structure are mainly related to tourism transportation, supporting facilities, tourism attractiveness, geographical location and other factors. (3) The 11 nodes (scenic spots) in Jinggangshan tourism flow network can be divided into three categories: diffusion type, balanced type and agglomeration type. Among them, Ciping is the only diffusion-type scenic spot, Longshi is the only agglomeration-type scenic spot, while Huangyangjie, Longtan, Zhufeng, Dujuanshan and Maoping belong to balanced-type scenic spots. Among all the flow paths between 11 nodes, "Ciping→Huangyangjie" and "Huangyangjie→Longtan" are the core routes in the tourism flow network. In order to further promote the development of Jinggangshan red tourism in the new period, this research puts forward the following suggestions: (1) Strengthening the exploration of the revolutionary history and the connotation of red culture in scenic spots, develop diversified theme tourism products in different seasons and the characteristics of holiday system, so as to attract the deep participation of different groups, and obtain the understanding of the red revolutionary spirit. (2) Improving infrastructure and tourism route planning, enhance the integration degree of peripheral scenic spots (nodes) in the tourism flow network, and create a more systematic and balanced tourism network. (3) Allocating red tourism resources and other economic and social elements rationally within Jinggangshan region, and strengthen the driving role of the agglomeration-type scenic spots and core routes in the tourism flow network, so as to realize the integration and coordinated development for Jinggangshan red tourism.

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    Spatio-temporal evolution and influencing factors of Chinese red tourism classic scenic spots network attention
    TANG Hong, XU Chun-xiao
    2021, 36 (7):  1792-1810.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210712
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    The network attention of red tourism classic scenic spots in 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China from 2011 to 2019 was obtained by means of "Baidu Index". The spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and the preference degree of the network attention of the red tourism classic scenic spots were analyzed through coefficients of scenic spot preference. The influence mechanism of the changes in the network attention of the red tourism classic scenic spots was revealed by using panel data regression model and geographic detector model. The research found that: (1) In terms of time series, the network attention of red tourism classic scenic spots continuously increased from 2011 to 2019, with obvious seasonal differences, showing an "M"-shaped variation form. (2) From the regional perspective, network attention of red tourism classic scenic spots in the eastern-central-western regions showed obvious gradient-descending characteristics. The regional differences show a decreasing trend from east, west to center, with a relatively balanced spatial structure. The majority of eastern provinces are located in hot spots, central provinces are mostly at an average level, and western provinces are in cold spots. The eastern and western regions have relatively stable order series, the central region mostly showed an upward trend, and there are certain seasonal differences between provinces, but the time series do not change greatly. (3) From the perspective of scenic spots, the inter-monthly variations of scenic spots are divided into three types, namely, unimodal type, bimodal type and multimodal type. The seasonal difference of unimodal type is significant, but the seasonal difference between bimodal type and multimodal type is small. The preference of scenic spots with a "pyramid" structure is characterized by "multi-center" distribution with a relatively stable pattern on the whole. (4) Regarding influencing factors, the contribution is listed in the order of the development level of the tourist source network>population size>education level>economic development level. But the influence of the tourism Engel coefficient is not significant. The number of star-rated hotels in the destination and tourist level and the transportation accessibility outside the city are important influencing factors. The informatization level, air quality, travel agency and public management ability are the primary influencing factors.

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    Analysis of the Internet attention and tourism flow network structure of red tourism resources in Long March National Cultural Park
    LI Lei, TAO Zhuo-min, LAI Zhi-cheng, LI Tao, JU Sheng-li
    2021, 36 (7):  1811-1824.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210713
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    Constructing the Long March National Cultural Park in China is in real needs and great difficulty, therefore it is imperative to carry out corresponding systematic research. This paper takes 154 key red tourism resources in the Long March National Cultural Park as the research object. Based on the perspective of combining virtual and reality, we used GIS, Gephi, and other methods to analyze the Internet attention and tourism flow network structure of the key red tourism resources. The results show that: (1) The Internet attention degree of key red tourism resources is generally low, and there exist obvious differences in spatial distribution. 5A-level scenic spots and important figures are the resource types that aroused concern from Internet users. (2) The tourism flow network is loosely structured and has a significant "small world" effect. There are three typical models, namely, the "△" model in Hunan province, the "network" model in Guizhou province, and the "dual-nuclei" model in Shaanxi province. (3) The Internet attention degree and the tourism flow network have relevance and differences. The Central Hunan, Guizhou-Sichuan, and Northern Shaanxi are the red tourism core areas, and Sichuan-Shaanxi, and Fujian-Jiangxi has a great development potential of red tourism in the Long March National Cultural Park. Based on the above analysis, this study finds that the red tourism resources have great importance in the Long March National Cultural Park, and the Chinese government should take different development methods for the red tourism resources in different types and regions. Simultaneously, they need to make the corresponding development strategies for the four different types of tourism resources, and use the "nodes" + "patches" + "corridors" develop model in different regions.

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    Special Feature on "GlobalWater Crisis andWater Politics"
    Spatio-temporal evolution and generative mechanism of global transboundary water resources cooperation
    YAN Zi-ming, DU De-bin, LIU Cheng-liang, QIU Xiao-juan, HUANG Xiao-dong
    2021, 36 (7):  1825-1843.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210714
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    Transboundary water resources cooperation is of great significance to the sustainable development of human society and the protection of national water rights and interests. Based on historical transboundary water cooperation data from 1948-2008, this paper extracted and analyzed the cooperation relationships between 166 countries. By using social network analysis and level of analysis methods, the paper discussed the spatio-temporal evolution of transboundary water resources cooperation events and networks, as well as the generative mechanism and type of cooperation. We found that: Firstly, the number of events and the frequency of cooperation increased in fluctuation, and there were obvious phase changes. Secondly, the structure of the water cooperation network is characterized by multi-centrality, with a trend of decentralization, multi-polarization, and regionalization. The Eastern Bloc and the Western Bloc dominated global water cooperation in the Cold War era. Africa, Eastern Europe, and the surrounding areas of the Asian Water Tower have shown a high demand for water cooperation in the Post-Cold War Era. Thirdly, water cooperation is sensitive to geographical distances, and countries within the same basin interact frequently. Extraterritorial powers are involved in hotspot water cooperation affairs at different phases. Fourthly, state actors, regional cooperation relationships, and international cooperation system, represent three levels that comprehensively affect the generation of water cooperation relationships. And there are complex multi-factor interactions at each level. Coercive, utilitarian, normative, and ideological water cooperations are the four main types of transboundary water cooperation.

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    The spatio-temporal structure of international transboundary water cooperation: Based on the changes of issue area and scale differentiation
    ZHAI Chen-yang, DU De-bin, HOU Chun-guang, GUI Qin-chang, DUAN De-zhong
    2021, 36 (7):  1844-1860.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210715
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    Since the international water crisis intensified, transboundary water cooperation has become the key to resolving the water crisis and achieving peaceful and sustainable development among countries. This study built international transboundary water cooperation networks based on transboundary water agreements, and used social network analysis and other methods to examine the spatial and temporal structure of transboundary water cooperation from the global, intercontinental and national scales. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The number of international transboundary water cooperation projects increased from 1820 to 2017, and the scope of cooperation expanded significantly. The cooperation issue area changed from border issues and water quantity to joint management and water quality. The purpose of the agreements changed from regulatory to generative, procedural and regulatory. Multilateral cooperation and transboundary groundwater cooperation are the current development trends in international transboundary water cooperation. (2) During the same period, there were differences in the development process and focus areas of transboundary water cooperation among the five continents. Europe and North America were dominated by water quality, Africa and South America were dominated by joint management, and Asia had similar cooperation proportions in three areas: water quality, water quantity and joint management. Although the global transboundary water cooperation network covers more and more basins and countries, its coverage rate is still low. (3) The international transboundary water cooperation networks from 1820 to 2017 experienced three stages, namely, network formation, network expansion, and network differentiation. North American countries have a high degree of transboundary water cooperation, but due to geographical constraints, their cooperation targets are relatively single. After World War II, African countries have gradually dominated in the network. Since 1992, Asian countries have been increasingly active in the transboundary water cooperation network. The demand for transboundary water cooperation in Asian countries is growing. China, as a large responsible developing country, should strengthen transboundary water cooperation with neighboring countries, and actively promote transboundary water cooperation in Asia.

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    A review on the characteristics of typical modes of transboundary water resources allocation and China's proposition
    WU Feng-ping, JI Ying-wen, LI Fang, XU Xia
    2021, 36 (7):  1861-1872.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210716
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    The core of transboundary river governance is the allocation of transboundary water resources. Based on the case study, four typical transboundary water resources allocation modes are summarized from the perspective of the interests relation among the riparian countries, including power mode, inheritance mode, gentleman mode and sharing mode. Then, the characteristics of the above modes are reviewed from the aspects of applicable conditions, negotiation and performance, operational efficiency and potential problems. The following suggestions are proposed for the allocation of water resources in transboundary rivers in China. First, we should reject the power mode and rely on the Belt and Road Initiative to get out of the hydro-hegemony discourse dilemma. Second, we should advocate the sharing mode and build the community of common destiny for transboundary water resources. Third, for transboundary river basins with relatively abundant water resources, it is advocated to innovate the regulation mechanism of transboundary water resources under special water conditions. Fourthly, it is of great significance to promote sharing by implementing virtual water trade strategy for transboundary river basins where water resources are relatively scarce. Finally, it is proposed to establish an independent and authoritative transboundary water resources coordination organization by eliminating external interference.

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    Study on the dominant climatic driver affecting the changes of LAI of ecological fragile zones in China
    SUN Kang-hui, ZENG Xiao-dong, LI Fang
    2021, 36 (7):  1873-1892.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210717
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    Studying the dominant climatic driver affecting the changes of leaf area index (LAI) in China's ecological fragile zones under the background of climate change is of great significance in revealing the changes of land ecosystem and its dynamic response to climate change, as well as ecological restoration. Based on CN0 5.1 climatic data and Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) product of LAI, we study the changes of LAI and its dominant climatic driver in China's ecological fragile zones from 1982 to 2017, using Principal Component Analysis. Results show that temperature is on the rise in ecological fragile zones, while the regional difference of precipitation changes is significant. LAI showed an increasing trend from 1982 to 2017 in most of the ecological fragile zones, including arid and semi-arid region, Loess Plateau, Tibetan Plateau, and karst areas in Southwestern China, as well as the west and southeast of the farming, pasture, forest and grassland ecological fragile zone of Northern China and the north and southeast of the farming and pasture ecological fragile zone of Southern China. Temperature, especially daily average temperature, is the dominant climatic driver for LAI growth in most of the ecological fragile zones in China, while daily minimum and maximum temperature dominate the west of arid and semi-arid region and the south agriculture and pasture ecological fragile zone, respectively. This study emphasizes the positive impact of warming on vegetation growth in the present, however, it also depends on humidity condition.

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    Evolution of mineral resources trade network in China
    WANG Wen-yu, HE Can-fei, REN Zhuo-ran
    2021, 36 (7):  1893-1908.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210718
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    The fourth Industrial Revolution has stimulated the global industrial competition, and the trade of mineral resources all over the world has become one of the focus of competition among major countries. Nowadays, China has been the largest mineral importer and important mineral exporter in the world, therefore it is crucial to understand the sources of mineral resources imports and market patterns of exports. This study analyzes the characteristics of China's mineral resource trade network and its evolution using UN Comtrade world mineral resource trade data from 2001 to 2016. It is found that the position of China in the world mineral resources trade network has increased significantly during 2001-2016 and China has significantly diversified its mineral export markets as well as its products of mineral imports. It is reported that friendly interstate relations and the frequency of interactions between countries mitigate the trade uncertainty caused by institutional differences, and friendly relations further reduce the transaction costs of mineral trade, which can promote the evolution of mineral trade networks of China. The results have important policy implications. It is recommended that China should further expand its export market and diversify products and sources of mineral imports. Moreover, China should increase outward investments in mineral resources and maintain good relations between countries.

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