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Table of Content

    28 September 2020, Volume 35 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Forum of "Issues of Agriculture, Farmer and Rural Area in the New Era"
    Conceptual cognition and research framework on sustainable intensification of cultivated land use in China from the perspective of the "New Agriculture, Countryside and Peasants"
    LYU Xiao, NIU Shan-dong, GU Guo-zheng, PENG Wen-long
    2020, 35 (9):  2029-2043.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200901
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2221KB) ( )   Save
    Promoting sustainable intensification of cultivated land use (SICL) has provided a new idea for ensuring food security and green development of agriculture and sustainable use of resources. It is of important practical significance to deepen the dominant position of farmers, strengthen the modernization orientation of agricultural development, and solve the problem "New Agriculture, Countryside and Peasants", which is a complex collection of problems. This paper reviews the research on the ideologial origin of sustainable intensification abroad, identifies the connotation differences of SICL, and clarifies the logic origin of SICL of China under the background of "New agriculture, Countryside and Peasants". Based on the trajectory of "factor fusion-structural reorganization-functional excellence", following the logical approach of "process-pattern-mechanism-effect" in the system of cultivated land use, this paper clarifies the problem domain of cultivated land use system from the aspects of theoretical analysis, level measurement, evolution mechanism and optimal regulation, so as to construct a research framework of SICL. Finally, it proposes the scientific issues of "agricultural ecological space-human-land relationship-SICL", and discusses the significance and key issues of "factor & mechanism, function & system, process & pattern, scale & interface".
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    The dynamic evolution and its driving mechanism of coordination of rural rejuvenation and new urbanization
    XU Wei-xiang, LI Lu, ZHOU Jian-ping, LIU Cheng-jun
    2020, 35 (9):  2044-2062.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200902
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3887KB) ( )   Save
    The research reconstructed the index system for rural revitalization and new urbanization, and used the coupling coordination model, spatial Markov chain, and geographic weighted regression model to analyze the coupling between rural revitalization and new urbanization in 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) of China from 2005 to 2017 in the aspects of coordination level, spatio-temporal differentiation pattern, dynamic evolution of space, and driving mechanisms. The results show that: (1) The degree of coupling and coordination between rural revitalization and new urbanization presents a distribution pattern of "high in the east and low in the southwest"; intermediate coordination areas are gradually spreading to the middle, and the number of high-level coordination areas is increasing. Most of the provinces with advanced coordination type are characterised by "lagging in rural development", and most of them with primary coordination and near-imbalance types are featured by "new urbanization and development lagging". (2) The dynamic evolution of the degree of coupling coordination showed the characteristics of maintaining the stability of the original state, and it was difficult to achieve leapfrog transfer. There is a phenomenon of "club convergence" in the provinces in the advanced coordination stage. The provinces that are shifting upward are mainly concentrated in the central region, and most northern provinces are undergoing downward adjustments. Areas with a low degree of coupling and coordination have a negative spillover effect on the surroundings, while areas with a high degree have a positive effect on neighboring provinces, indicating that the spillover effect is asymmetric. (3) The driving force that affects the change in the degree of coupling and coordination of rural revitalization and new urbanization has a significant spatial difference, showing a development trend of hierarchical band distribution. Government-driven, investment-driven and population-driven forces present a north-south-level band-shaped distribution. Consumption-driven, income-driven, and industry-driven forces present a zonal distribution of east and west levels.
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    Characteristics and regional model of rural restructuring in main agricultural production regions in Central China: A case study of Jianghan Plain
    YU Bin, LI Ying-ying, ZHU Yuan-yuan, ZHUO Rong-rong, ZENG Ju-xin
    2020, 35 (9):  2063-2078.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200903
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    Rural restructuring is a complex economic-social-spatial phenomenon. Based on the human-land relationship theory, this study analyzed the rural restructuring characteristics by the internal factor changes of rural regional system, interpreted the mechanism by the changes of external environment, elucidated the model coupling with external driving factors and endogenous factors, and tried to improve the geographic analysis framework of rural restructuring. Three highlight results were unveiled. First, the rural restructuring in the Jianghan Plain has the characteristics of temporal continuity and spatial non-equilibrium. The comprehensive index of rural restructuring kept growing during the study period, indicating a spatial distribution pattern of high value along the main traffic trunk from "U" shape to ring shape and low value expressed as "point (plain hinterland) and line (along the Yangtze River)". Second, the rural restructuring mechanism in the Jianghan Plain mainly reflects the coupling effect of external driving factors such as industrialization, urbanization and marketization with endogenous factors such as economy, society and space. The expansion of non-agricultural industries triggers the rural population migration and employment transfer, then promotes the restructuring of rural "stock" elements such as population, land and industry. Third, economic-social restructuring is the main model of rural restructuring in Jianghan Plain. The changes in industrial structure and production mode have exacerbated the deterioration of rural ecological environment and human settlement, with the results that rural revitalization and its sustainable development face the dual challenges of water pollution and flood disasters. The research framework reveals the geographical characteristics of rural areas in the Jianghan Plain, and the special views of rural restructuring in main agricultural production regions in Central China. The research results will provide theoretical inspiration for the geographical reconstruc-tion of rural restructuring and decision support for the rural revitalization in the case area.
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    Research on development of new business forms for traditional villages in Northern Hainan volcano area based on the Grounded Theory: Taking Meixiao village in Haikou as a case
    LI Ting-yun, LUO Qiu-ge, ZHANG Jin-ping, CHENG Ye-qing
    2020, 35 (9):  2079-2091.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200904
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    The development of new business forms in rural villages can invigorate their economic growth and has proven to be one of the most important strategies for rural revitalization. The traditional villages of volcano area in northern Hainan province boast a long history, abundant natural resources, wide geophysical distributions and cultural diversity. However, the development of traditional villages has historically been handicapped, consistent with their simple-industry economy, lack of diversification of business forms and difficulty in income growth for the villagers. In the context of Hainan's rural revitalization, international tourism island construct and pilot of free trade zone, the traditional villages of volcano area are faced with new opportunities of in-depth agricultural and industrial development and integration. This research uses Meixiao village in Haikou as a case study, where a qualitative research approach of the Grounded Theory and a semi-structured interview were adopted for collecting data on public will and opinions on the development of new business forms. Subsequently, it establishes a framework for the model of new business forms development in Meixiao village, and proposes tailored business types that consider the aspirations of the villages. This research aims to help provide a reference and guide for the socio-economic transformation and new forms of Meixiao village, and for the development of new business forms for the traditional villages in Northern Hainan in general.
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    Agricultural production efficiency and spatial pattern under carbon emission constraint: Based on 65 villages of Henan province
    WANG Shuai, ZHAO Rong-qin, YANG Qing-lin, XIAO Lian-gang, YANG Wen-juan, YU Jiao, ZHU Rui-ming, CHUAI Xiao-wei, JIAO Shi-xing
    2020, 35 (9):  2092-2104.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200905
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    Exploring agricultural production efficiency under the constraint of carbon emissions based on village scale not only helps to reveal the relationship between carbon emission at the micro unit level and agricultural production efficiency, but also has certain practical significance for the choice of differentiated low-carbon agricultural production mode. Based on the survey data obtained from 65 villages in Henan province, this paper calculated the agricultural carbon emission at different sample villages, and analyzed differences in agricultural production efficiency under the constraint of carbon emission using Super-SBM model. The results show that: (1) The spatial distribution pattern of agricultural carbon emission intensity in the study area is "high in the north and south, but low in the middle", which is mainly affected by planting structure, agricultural production conditions, and human inputs. (2) Intensive use and large-scale operation of land will reduce the energy and material input per unit area, thereby reducing agricultural carbon emission intensity. (3) There are great spatial differences in agricultural production efficiency under the constraint of carbon emissions. The average agricultural production efficiency of the sample villages is 0.76, and the most areas are between 0.6 and 0.8. (4) According to the relationship between agricultural production efficiency and carbon emission intensity, the sample villages can be divided into four types: low carbon and high efficiency villages, high carbon and low efficiency villages, high carbon and high efficiency villages and low carbon and low efficiency villages. Among them, the two types of high carbon and low carbon inefficient villages account for a large proportion, which indicates that there is a widespread problem of low agricultural production efficiency in Henan. In the future, we should strengthen large-scale agricultural operations, reduce energy and material input, improve agricultural infrastructure, and advance new technologies for water saving and energy conservation, so as to promote the low-carbon development of agriculture while improving the efficiency of agricultural production.
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    The process and enlightenment of community disempowerment in lake-type tourism destination:Taking Anhui Taiping Lake as an example
    YIN Shou-bing, WANG Xin
    2020, 35 (9):  2105-2119.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200906
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    Empowerment is an important field of community participation in tourism research. Disempowerment is the corresponding concept of empowerment, and the study of disempowerment can provide a solid theoretical basis and path for the exploration of empowerment. In the case of the Taiping Lake, using the methods of literature analysis, in-depth interview and field investigation, based on the community empowerment analytic framework, this study explored the process of community disempowerment in lake-type tourist destinations and found that the right of fishermen was weakened on political, economic, social, and psychological aspects. Unfair distribution of economic benefits is the most direct factor of the loss of community residents' sense of power. To change the power relationship between interest subjects, the request of political rights and interests generally becomes the auxiliary means of economic appeal, and the disempowerments of economy, politics and society can lead to the emergence of community psychology "sense of power". The empowerment of Taiping Lake community participation presents a spiral decline process. The perceptions of "sense of power" are significantly different due to the relative location, the degree of participation in tourism, personal ability and other factors, and the community is divided. Finally, this paper explores the roots of disempowerment of Taiping Lake community in terms of the institution, government and community.
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    Resources and Strategy
    Research progress of sustainable cities and its implications for national territory spatial plan
    ZHU Xiao-dan, YE Chao, LI Si-meng
    2020, 35 (9):  2120-2133.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200907
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    Sustainable cities are the focus of attention in many areas. The advent of the intelligent era and the evolution of the network society have promoted the study of the relationship between technology and sustainable development. Sustainable cities need innovative research methods and contents. The domestic academic circles have not paid enough attention to the forefront of sustainable cities. The national territory spatial plan also needs to draw on and integrate the relevant theories of sustainable cities. With the help of CiteSpace software, this article systematically reviews the current research situations and development trend of sustainable cities. The paper analyzes its evolution and research hotspots, and finds that the research on sustainable cities has mainly experienced four stages: germination, rise, growth and diffusion. International sustainable cities research mainly focuses on three aspects: climate change, urban governance and smart cities. The research changes from "sustainable" to "smart sustainable". Big data-assisted urban planning has become a trend, and the co-governance of diverse community stakeholders has gradually increased. However, the research and practice of smart sustainable cities in China are insufficient, the evaluation index system of sustainable cities is not perfect, the international experience is lacking, and the research on joint urban-rural governance is insufficient. The combination of the new sustainable cities research framework and the territorial development plan will be the key to future research. The practice of sustainable cities in China is not just for cities, but for urban-rural co-governance, which is also a concentrated manifestation of sustainability in terms of time, space and society. In the evaluation index system of sustainable cities, rural development indicators should be considered. And the issues of rural intelligence, environmental compatibility and technology compatibility in the national territory spatial plan are also important aspects of sustainable cities. Sustainable cities should focus on the coordinated development of nature, society and technology, not only to protect the environment and natural resources, but also to reform the urban and rural governance model and system. The national territory spatial plan is an important foundation for China to achieve sustainable cities. Starting from the proposition of "urban-rural China", urban-rural co-governance is the focus of China's sustainable urban development and research, and is also the main content of the national territorial development planning. Only through the reform of the combination of multi-dimensional systems can the concept of sustainable cities be implemented, and the integration of urban and rural areas can be achieved with the help of intelligent technology. In the future, China's sustainable cities research and practice will become a focus.
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    Reflections and prospect on food education in China:Eat good or eat right?
    ZHU Qiang, LI Feng, LIU Xiao-jie
    2020, 35 (9):  2134-2148.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200908
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    Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the urban and rural structure has changed significantly, and the living of residents has changed greatly. The current food life of Chinese residents is facing the problems of nutritional structure imbalance, food safety, food and food diversity and externalization tendency. At the same time, the food culture is affected, the food waste is serious and so on. Based on the above present situation and problem, the food education is becoming more and more important in China. The food education action can help promote the improvement of the diet structure of residents, get a better understanding of food supply chains and food safety, and enrich traditional food culture. Through literature analysis and field research, the paper conducts studies on the food education action at home and abroad, and examines the important role of food education in China. On this basis, we should strengthen the cross-sector cooperation between governments at all levels, integrate multi-body resources, convey the idea of food education, arrange the curriculum of deep farming in the compus, and encourage the advice of life-long food education.
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    Regular Articles
    Spatio-temporal evolution and spatial interaction of regional eco-efficiency in China
    SHEN Wei-teng, HU Qiu-guang, LI Jia-lin, CHEN Qi
    2020, 35 (9):  2149-2162.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200909
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    Eco-efficiency is an important indicator for measuring sustainable development. Clarifying the spatial distribution of eco-efficiency and its evolution is of vital importance to achieving coordinated regional development of China's economy and environment. However, previous research has failed to consider the spatial interaction distribution of eco-efficiency. The SBM model considering undesired output was used to measure the eco-efficiency of 30 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in China from 2005 to 2015, and the spatial econometric model was used to investigate the spatial interaction pattern of eco-efficiency in China. The results show that: (1) From the perspective of the whole country or by region, China's eco-efficiency has generally shown a downward trend. (2) From the perspective of the evolution of the spatial distribution of eco-efficiency, the characteristics of high eco-efficiency distributed in developed provinces have been continuously strengthened, and low eco-efficiency areas are mainly distributed in developing provinces. Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Qinghai have always been in the first echelon of eco-efficiency, while Xinjiang, Guangxi and Hunan have always been in the fourth echelon. From 2005 to 2015, the members of each echelon changed, but the distribution characteristics based on the level of economic development remained basically unchanged. (3) At the national level, the estimation results based on the economic weight matrix show that there is a positive spatial interaction effect of eco-efficiency among regions. The improvement of eco-efficiency in a certain region will have a positive spillover effect on its economic neighbors. Extensive learning sharing and competition among different regions may explain the positive eco-efficiency interactions among regions. (4) The sub-sample test shows that the eco-efficiency of developed and developing regions shows a positive spatial interaction effect, and the spatial interaction effect is greater than the spatial interaction effect between the two types of regions, indicating that the distribution in China's eco-efficiency is based on the level of economic development, thus showing the "sorting" based on the level of economic development. This conclusion is still robust even with the geographic distance and adjacent weight matrix.
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    Evaluating the cumulative impacts of the hydropower development on the river ecosystem services in terms of spatial and temporal aspects: A case study in the mainstream of the Wujiang River
    JIA Jian-hui, CHEN Jian-yao, LONG Xiao-jun, CHEN Ji-chen
    2020, 35 (9):  2163-2176.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200910
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    The impact of hydropower development on river ecosystems cannot be ignored, and scientific evaluation of its impact will contribute to the establishment of a more sustainable hydropower development patterns. In this paper, we analyzed the benefits and losses of the cascade hydropower development in the mainstream of the Wujiang River on the riparian terrestrial ecosystems and river ecosystems by using both equivalent factor and functional value evaluation methods. Based on the benefits and losses, we made a comprehensive evaluation of the cascade hydropower development on the river ecosystem services. The results show that the hydropower development in the mainstream of the Wujiang River increased the values of the riparian terrestrial ecosystem and river ecosystem services, particularly in the hydrological regulating and water supply functions. In addition, positive effects of the development were found on the power generation, hydrological and air regulating functions, while negative effects were observed on biodiversity maintaining and soil conservation. And the positive effects on river ecosystem service are greater than the negative effects. It was difficult to compare directly the ecological losses of unit electrical energy with other basins as different hydropower stations had their own emphasis regarding the positive and negative effects. Based on the long-term survey data of fish resources in the Wujiang River, the trend of fish biological loss index was analyzed to understand temporal cumulative ecological effects of hydropower development. The differences in the spatial pattern of hydropower generation were discussed by using InVEST model. The impact of ecosystem services such as biodiversity was hard to evaluate directly in terms of currency, and the service value per unit area of the water body was considerably higher than that of any other land-use types, which resulted in a conservative, e.g. a low value of negative effects of the hydropower development in the mainstream of the Wujiang River, and a high ratio of positive to negative values.
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    Supply-demand matching of county ecosystem services in Northwest China: A case study of Gulang county
    LIU Chun-fang, WANG Wei-ting, LIU Li-cheng, LI Peng-jie
    2020, 35 (9):  2177-2190.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200911
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    As the source of human welfare, the spatial distribution characteristics and matching status of ecosystem service supply and demand can reflect the spatial allocation of regional environmental resources. Analyzing the matching relationship between supply and demand is an important prerequisite for evaluating and optimizing the management of ecosystem services and promoting the balance between supply and demand of ecosystem services. Taking Gulang county located in the Hexi Corridor as an example, this paper uses multi-source data such as meteorological observation, land use, and statistical yearbooks to evaluate the supply and demand of four ecosystem services including water supply, carbon sequestration, food supply and soil conservation, based on InVEST model and ArcGIS method. Result shows that: (1) The total supply and demand of ecosystem services in this county indicate that supply exceeds demand, and there are obvious differences among different types of ecosystem services. Besides, the total difference between supply and demand water for supply, carbon sequestration, food supply, and soil conservation is 12.45×108 m3, 21.55×107 t, 3.8×107 t, and 1.28×107 t, respectively. (2) Based on the township unit, the supply and demand matching of various ecosystem services in the study area are presented as four types (high supply and high demand, low supply and high demand, low supply and low demand, and high supply and low demand), and the matching patterns between regions and ecosystem services have obvious spatial heterogeneity. (3) The four matching types generally show the hierarchical division of the south, the middle and the north, and present the centralized and continuous patterns, which indicates that the towns with the same matching types are characterized by "adjacent similarity". Based on the analysis of the supply, demand and matching status of ecosystem services, this paper puts forward the optimization countermeasures of eco-economic development, urbanization construction, sustainable ecological management and land spatial planning under different matching types.
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    Price fluctuation of aquatic product resources trade between China and ASEAN: Take export of frozen mackerel as an example
    ZHANG Ying, DU Wen-ting
    2020, 35 (9):  2191-2204.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200912
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    ASEAN is the third largest aquatic product export partner in China. It is very important to grasp the price fluctuations of aquatic product export to ASEAN, so as to predict the fluctuation trend of aquatic product export price, provide basis and support for expanding the potential of aquatic product trade, effectively allocate fishery resources, and promote the establishment of aquatic product information system. Mackerel, as one of the main aquatic products exported in China, plays an important role in the aquatic products trade with ASEAN. Because mackerel is not easy to preserve and has higher requirements for processing technology, it is basically exported by refrigeration. Based on the important position of frozen mackerel in China's aquatic products export, in this paper, we take frozen mackerel as an example to study the four factors of clustering, asymmetry and price fluctuation of its export prices by using ARCH model and H-P filtering method for the monthly price data of China's export of frozen mackerel to ASEAN from 2012 to 2017. The results show that: (1) The export price of frozen mackerel has clustering property and can be predicted. The cluster size has a positive correlation with the export scale, among which, the price prediction is better with Indonesia. However, the price of frozen mackerel exported by China to ASEAN and its major countries is not asymmetric. The reason is that mackerel production mainly depends on fishing methods and is not easy to preserve. The impact of market shock caused by rising and falling price is basically the same. (2) The price shows obvious seasonal fluctuations and price fluctuation has a certain periodicity, which can be divided into 3 or 4 cycles. In addition, the price fluctuation range before 2014-2015 is greater than that in the later period. (3) Price fluctuation is composed of four factors: long-term trend, periodic fluctuation, seasonal fluctuation and irregular fluctuation. The contribution rate of frozen mackerel export price fluctuation is as follows: long-term trend > periodic fluctuation > irregular fluctuation > seasonal fluctuation. It should be noted that due to the limitation of data acquisition, the trade of other aquatic products and the trade between China and other economies outside ASEAN have not been studied at present.
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    Why there is a low-carbon efficiency illusion in agricultural production: Evidence from Chinese provincial panel data in 1997-2016
    HE Pei-pei, ZHANG Jun-biao, HE Ke, CHEN Zhu-kang
    2020, 35 (9):  2205-2217.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200913
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    Based on the panel data from China's 31 provincial-level regions in 1997-2016, this article measures the low-carbon efficiency with shadow price of agricultural pollutants. Due to the shortcomings of low-carbon efficiency evaluation of agricultural economic growth quality, its illusion can explain why the environmental quality has not improved, while the current low-carbon efficiency with expected and undesired output has been sorted. So, this article further discusses the existence of the agricultural low-carbon illusion in each provincial-level region, and analyzes factors of degree of the agricultural low-carbon efficiency illusion. The results show that, from 1997 to 2016, the average of agricultural low-carbon efficiency showed an overall trend of decreasing and then rising, it was higher in the eastern region than in the central and western regions. And the trend of "East-Middle-West" gradient decreasing was obvious, and the regional gap showed an expanding trend with obvious inter-provincial differences. In general, the number of provinces with agricultural low-carbon efficiency illusion increased first and then decreased with time. In the sub-region, the number of provinces with agricultural low-carbon illusion in the eastern and central regions gradually decreased, while that of the western region kept increasing, which meant the quality of agro-ecological environment in most eastern and central provinces really improved. The level of agricultural economic development and the agricultural production energy conservation technology, degree emphasis on agricultural development, structure of agricultural industry, scale of agricultural scale, agricultural disaster rate and human capital affect the degree of agricultural low-carbon efficiency illusion. The effects of the first four factors were found to be negative, while those of the others were positive. Based on the above conclusions, optimizing the allocation of agricultural resources, upgrading the level of agricultural production energy-saving technology and improving agricultural economic benefits are effective ways to promote the agricultural low-carbon efficiency and break the illusion of low-carbon efficiency in agriculture. Obviously, it is necessary to adopt advanced and applicable agricultural production techniques and management technologies continuously, provide timely agricultural meteorological and production information services, and improve the resource utilization efficiency and production and management skills of agricultural producers, so as to promote agricultural economic quality and reduce agricultural carbon emissions.
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    Evaluation of Kazakhstan's sustainability based on emergy theory
    LI Hai-tao, LI Ming-yang
    2020, 35 (9):  2218-2228.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200914
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    Kazakhstan, an important country along the Belt and Road, is rich in non-renewable resources such as petroleum and minerals. Its economic development ranks first among the five Central Asian countries (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) and has friendly trade relations with China. Therefore, understanding the economic development status and sustainable development of Kazakhstan is of great significance to bilateral friendly cooperation. We applied emergy theory to analyze the resource utilization structure, foreign trade status and sustainable development of this country in 2014-2018. The results showed that about 89.94% of Kazakhstan's total emergy used depended on the consumption of local non-renewable resources, and there was a large amount of raw materials (such as petroleum, minerals, metals, etc.) for export, which undoubtedly has a greater impact on the ecological environment and increasing environmental burden of Kazakhstan. And the export of low value-added products placed Kazakhstan in a disadvantaged position in the foreign trade market. The emergy money ratio showed that Kazakhstan's unit currency has low purchasing power (9.50×1011-1.22×1012 sej/$), and the amount of emergy purchased per unit currency is small, the country's economic development is still at a lower level than that of developed countries. The emergy yield ratio fluctuated within a range of 16.87-26.11. From the perspective of emergy-based sustainability index, the emergy yield ratio was 0.90 in 2014, the system development of Kazakhstan lacked sustainability. From 2015 to 2018, the index was higher than 1, and the system development was sustainable. In addition, Kazakhstan has a high environmental loading ratio, which is mainly due to the exploitation of local non-renewable resources, and the utilization efficiency is low. In view of the above, this paper puts forward suggestions such as strengthening the development of renewable resources, improving resource utilization efficiency, and improving the structure of foreign trade to enhance the competitiveness in the world market, in order to promote the orderly and healthy development of Kazakhstan.
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    The changes of the spatial distribution of China's national and provincial development zones from 2006 to 2018
    LIU He-lin, NIE Jing-xin
    2020, 35 (9):  2229-2240.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200915
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    In the new context of the territorial spatial planning in China, this paper applies Kernel Density Estimation, Standard Deviational Ellipse and categorical statistics to examine the changes of the spatial distribution of China's national and provincial development zones from 2006 to 2018. In terms of density distribution, it reveals that the East-West gap eased, but the spatial distribution pattern still differed during this period. The spatial distribution of China's national and provincial development zones has gradually shifted from an area-agglomeration pattern to a corridor-agglomeration pattern in the central and eastern regions of China; and in the western and northern regions a centered agglomeration pattern is emerging. In a general sense, the overall barycenter of the spatial distribution of development zones has been moving towards the northwest, and the development axis has shifted from the previous north-south direction to the southeast-northwest axis. This shift is driven by macro-level policy and spatial regulation based on major function-oriented zones, and will in turn affect the formulation of new land use control policies. From the perspective of major function-oriented zones, the spatial distribution of China's development zones undergoes a dynamic adjustment of diffusing to the periphery and shrinking in some local areas. The areal growth of the development zones is mainly concentrated in the key development areas with a spatial clustering pattern, such as Hebei, Henan, Anhui, Jiangsu and Zhejiang. In contrast, the areal decrease of the development zones mainly occurs in the ecological function areas, and the spatial distribution is scatter-featured. These places mainly include Shandong, Fujian, Jilin, Heilongjiang and some others. These new changes in the spatial distribution of development zones can be an important reference for China's territorial land use control practice and land use optimization and management, which are the key themes in the transformation period of China's territorial spatial planning.
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    The spatio-temporal characteristics and consolidation potential of rural housing land in farming area of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain: The cases of five villages in Yucheng city
    LI Ting-ting, LONG Hua-lou, WANG Yan-fei, TU Shuang-shuang
    2020, 35 (9):  2241-2253.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200916
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    Based on the remote sensing interpretation, parcel investigation and questionnaire survey methods, this article analyzes the spatio-temporal characteristics of rural housing land of five villages in Yucheng city in the farming area of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain and compares the consolidation potential and effect between different exit criteria. The results showed that: (1) Since the reform and opening up, the rural housing land has expanded dramatically. In the surveyed villages, the area of rural housing land has expanded by 3.7 times. In 2015, average household occupied 1.6 plots of rural housing land, which formed the phenomenon of "one household with multiple houses". In the end, the degree of idleness of rural housing land was as high as 28.5%. (2) Before 2000, the expansion of the rural housing land of the surveyed villages was dominated by the enclave mode, which was replaced by the filled and spread modes after 2000. In terms of villages, the spatial expansion of rural housing land was affected by factors such as the layout of major traffic routes, the endowment of land resources, and the initial layout of villages. (3) The theoretical consolidation potential of rural housing land is huge, saving 56% of the residential land. Two sets of the exit criteria of rural housing land can save 26% and 36% of the residential land, respectively. However, there was a large gap between the realistic potential and the theoretical potential. (4) In the future, it is necessary to explore the macro-institutional mechanisms such as the urbanization of the agricultural transfer population, the compensation system for the exited rural housing land, and the transition of the exited rural housing land to the profitable collective constructive land. At the micro level, the pilot reform should be carried out according to the employment structure of the farmer and local land resource endowment.
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    Research on comprehensive investigation work system of natural resources
    GE Liang-sheng, XIA Rui
    2020, 35 (9):  2254-2269.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200917
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    According to the Chinese president XI Jin-ping's idea of ecological civilization construction in the New Era and the concept of "mountain, river, forest, farmland, lake and grassland are a life community", and in the context of the concept, connotation and attribute analysis of the natural resources, the hierarchical classification scheme of the natural resources serving the comprehensive investigation work, eight basic categories of underground space, minerals, shallow geological layer, land, water, forest, grassland and wetland, and its space-time and attribute structures were established. Based on these works, the comprehensive investigation system frame of natural resources that follows the basic flow of unified basic investigation, special thematic investigation, dynamic monitoring and data update, data processing and comprehensive integration, results expression and application services, has been primarily built. Besides, the work content and the requirement of each stage have been briefly discussed, which provides a reference for reconstruction of natural resources comprehensive investigation system.
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    The ideas and framework of state-owned natural resources balance sheet
    SHI Ji-jin, WANG Peng-fei, LI Na, LI Yan-hua
    2020, 35 (9):  2270-2282.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200918
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    The preparation of the state-owned natural resources balance sheet is of great importance to the enrichment and improvement of the establishment theory and method system for exploration and compilation of the natural resources balance sheet in China, and it is also an important measure to promote the construction of ecological civilization in the New Era. On the basis of clarifying the differences and connections between the state-owned natural resources balance sheet and the natural resources balance sheet, this paper defines the objective of serving the unified exercise of the responsi-bilities of the state-owned natural resources assets, and proposes the natural resources asset recognition method as well as natural resource protection and utilization liability recognition method, which meet the requirements of territorial space use control and properties rights design. In addition, this paper preliminarily constructs a report system consisting of 'main tables, sub-tables, and basic tables', the three main tables of which are the summary statement of state-owned natural resources assets and liabilities, the current actual total supply statement of state-owned natural resources assets, and the current actual supply flow statement of state-owned natural resources assets. According to the preparation of state-owned natural resources balance sheet, the report table is able to reflect the situation of state-owned natural resources assets and the realization of their various ownership rights such as possession, use, income, and disposition. In the long run, the state-owned natural resources balance sheet is expected to be used for providing basic information for safeguarding national ownership rights, promoting the protection and rational use of natural resources, and supporting the development of the national economy.
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    Evolution of rural landscape pattern under the background of land use transformation: Based on the transect analysis of Caotangxi watershed
    LI Ming-zhen, LI Yang-bing, RAN Cai-hong
    2020, 35 (9):  2283-2298.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200919
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    Under the background of land use transformation in mountainous areas, the study on the evolution and transformation of rural landscape pattern has certain guiding significance for the sustainable development of modern agriculture and the optimization of landscape pattern in the same areas. This paper takes the Caotangxi watershed in the Three Gorges Reservoir area as the research object, using transect gradient analysis combined with landscape pattern analysis method, with the aid of ArcGIS 10.2 and Fragstats 4.2 software. Based on the topography and economic factors, five strips are set in the valley area and the mountainous/hilly areas to analyze and compare the gradient evolution and driving mechanism of the landscape pattern in different directions of the study area from 2000 to 2018. Results showed that: (1) The overall change of landscape types can be identified into relatively stable, decreasing year by year, and increasing fluctuations. The emphasis of landscape transformation is mainly reflected in the contraction of farmland, expansion of orchards, and restorative growth of forest land. (2) From 2000 to 2018, the landscape types in the valley of the study area were gradually diversified. Land use agglomeration showed a pattern of spatial intensification, while the landscape types in the mountainous and hilly areas gradually became simplistic and the forest land was restored. On the whole, the landscape pattern of production was transformed into a landscape pattern dominated by ecological economy and ecological regulation. (3) Social and economic development and agricultural policies have led to the land use transformation in the study area. Meanwhile, the rural landscape pattern has undergone a corresponding transformation in the context of land use transformation. The research results provide reference value for the rational use of mountainous land resources, ecological management and rural revitalization.
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