Table of Content

    20 August 2018, Volume 33 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Utilization and Management
    Spatio-temporal Features and Driving Forces of Construction Land Change in Typical Poverty-stricken Border Counties—A Case Study of Longzhou County in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    LI Yi, LIU Zheng-jia, LI Yu-rui
    2018, 33 (8):  1291-1303.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180276
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3008KB) ( )   Save
    Sustainable land use, urban/town development and targeted poverty alleviation are key issues for poverty-stricken border counties. This paper explored the spatial and temporal characteristics and driving forces of construction land change in Longzhou, a typical poverty-stricken border county in Southwest China based on high-resolution images of 2011 and 2016 from Google Earth. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were employed. The results showed that: Firstly, the construction land increased by 10.08% during 2011-2016, and the areal proportion of construction land in Longzhou County increased from 2.20% to 2.42% during 2011-2016. The increments of urban construction land, rural residential land, independent industrial and mining land, construction land for traffic and construction land for tourist facilities accounted for 37.74%, 25.48%, 20.96%, 15.49% and 0.33% of the total increment of construction land, respectively. Secondly, construction land increased more significantly in the county town of Longzhou, Shanglong Town, which is near the county town, and Shuikou Town which is the most important trade port of Longzhou, than in the other towns. Thirdly, speeded-up urban development, rural housing construction, construction of industrial parks and transportation facilities are the most important direct factors driving the expansion of construction land. Fourthly, the construction land expansion is infilling expansion in the county town while it is edge-expansion in the other towns. Meanwhile, the implementation of targeted poverty alleviation strategy and the booming of border trade activities are important policy drivers. This paper suggests that local government should fully use the preferential policies of construction land for poverty-stricken counties issued by the central government.
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    Evaluation and Classification of Poverty Alleviation Potential of Relatively Poor Villages in Mountainous Areas of Northern Guangdong Province: A Case Study of Lianzhou City
    ZHU Shu, FENG Yan-fen, WANG Fang, ZENG Xiao-jie
    2018, 33 (8):  1304-1316.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180114
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    Poverty alleviation is a key to build a well-off society in an all-round way. At present, the researches on rural poverty mainly concentrate on western underdeveloped areas and poverty-stricken areas of China, while less attention has been paid to poverty in economically developed areas. The poverty alleviation ability of poor villages in economically developed areas has a direct impact on the effectiveness of poverty alleviation. The research on the potential of poverty alleviation in relatively poor villages of developed provinces is helpful in ensuring the smooth completion of the task of poverty alleviation. This paper takes Lianzhou City, a less developed city in the northern Guangdong Province as an example. Based on the analysis of the basic characteristics of 66 relatively poor villages at the village scale, an evaluation system of poverty reduction potential was built, and AHP and EVM were used to determine the weight of evaluation factors. Then, the weighted summation method was used to evaluate the poverty alleviation potential of 66 relatively poor villages in Lianzhou, and the restriction factor score of poverty alleviation was used to divide the poverty alleviation potential into different types. The results showed that: 1) The relatively poor villages in Lianzhou are clustered in space, and they generally have poor natural conditions, weak economic foundation and scarce arable land and are more influenced by policy constraints. 2) The evaluation system of poverty alleviation potential consists of 22 factors in five dimensions including natural location, resource condition, economic factor, social security and infrastructure condition, among which the six factors in economic factor and infrastructure condition take the greatest weights and they are the proportion of rural tourism, the proportion of the poverty-stricken households in the specialty cooperative, poverty head count ratio, whether there are passenger trains pass the administrative village, the proportion of broadband households and the disposable income of poor households. 3) The poverty reduction potential were divided into five grades. The result shows 65.15% of the relatively poor villages have medium above potential to get rid of poverty, which means that the relatively poor villages in Lianzhou have great potential to get rid of poverty. 4) In the classification of poverty alleviation potential, villages in the priority type account for 16.67%, in the steady type account for 28.79%, and in the key assistance type account for 54.54%. The result of the research will provide a scientific and effective guidance for the local government to work out an accurate poverty reduction strategy.
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    Suitability Assessment of Reducing Industrial Land in Shanghai Metropolitan Region
    GU Xiao-kun, LIU Jing, DAI Bing, CHAI Duo
    2018, 33 (8):  1317-1325.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170719
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    Due to the extensive expansion of urbanization since 1990s in Shanghai, there are serious problem in industrial land use, such as low efficient, high pollution risk and decentralized spatial layout. As the first city in China committing to limit the total amount of land allocated for construction, Shanghai plays a critical role in informing reducing industrial land. Reducing industrial land emphasized that the land use should be returned from industrial land to ecological land or agricultural land. Taking Datuan Town in Pudong of Shanghai as an example, this study provides a suitability evaluation method for reducing industrial land in metropolitan suburbs. Geographical Information System tools are used to analyze the 218 industrial land parcels in the whole town. Results indicate that: 1) Among the five factors influencing the reduction suitability of the 218 industrial land parcels, the values of pollution and energy consumption showed the biggest difference, while the value of rationality of layout had the smallest difference, and willingness of land right owners had the biggest difference in spatial distribution. 2) When the suitability grade of reduction of industrial land increases, the industrial land parcels become more sporadic. The average area of parcels varieties from 9 507 m2 in suitability grade 1 to 3 300 m2 in suitability grade 5. 3) According to the evaluation index value and its spatial distribution, five suitable grades are classified. The total area of parcels in the first grade is 24.06%, in the second grade is 21.51%, in the third grade is 29.45%, in the fourth grade is 12.63% and in the fifth grade is 12.35%. The distribution of the area in different grades is close to the normal distribution. 4) The industrial lands which are suitable for reducing before 2020 are mainly located in Zhaoqiao Village, Shaocun Village, Tuanxin Village, Jinyuan Village and Jinshi Village. The industrial lands which are not suitable for reducing before 2020 are mainly distributed in Tuanxi Village, Guoyuan Village, Longshu Village, Zhennan Village and Chezhan village. The method proposed in this paper not only can be used to evaluate the suitability of reducing industrial land in one city, but also can be used to compare the suitability reducing industrial land among similar cities so as to improve the coordination of the industrial reduction on a larger scale.
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    Resource Economics
    Influence of Agricultural Production Efficiency on Agricultural Water Consumption
    JIN Wei, LIU Shuang-shuang, ZHANG Ke, KONG Wei
    2018, 33 (8):  1326-1339.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170690
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    China’s agricultural water consumption accounted for more than 60% of the total water consumption in 2016. Water has become an important guarantee for national agricultural safety. Improving agricultural production efficiency is conducive to reducing agricultural water consumption. Firstly, this paper uses the Super-SBM model of non-expected output to measure the agricultural production efficiency of 30 provinces in China during the period of 1998-2015. Then, the paper applies non-parametric kernel density estimation to present the agricultural production efficiency and agricultural water consumption in some important years and months. Finally, the threshold model by Hansen is used to examine the threshold effect of agricultural production efficiency on agricultural water consumption. The result shows the inverted “U”-shaped trend of China’s agricultural production efficiency, and inter-provincial differences were narrowing. Agricultural water consumption decreased first and then rose with the expanded gaps among provinces. Improving agricultural production efficiency is an effective way to reduce agricultural water consumption. Agricultural production efficiency exerts threshold effect in controlling agricultural water consumption which shows “N”-shaped trend. The increase of the proportion of grain crops, rural labor force and income of rural residents can effectively inhibit the increase of agricultural water consumption. Water resources endowment, water investment and irrigated area are positively correlated with agricultural water consumption. What’s more, the effect of peasants’ education level is not significant.
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    Effect of Soil Testing and Formula Fertilization on Rape Production—Economic Analysis of 1 722 Field Test Materials
    LIU Cheng, LIU Ming-di, FENG Zhong-chao, ZHANG Zhi, CONG Ri-huan
    2018, 33 (8):  1340-1350.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170697
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    In this paper, effect of soil testing and formula fertilization on rape production were analyzed based on 1 722 field experiment materials. The inputs of nitrogen fertilizer (N), phosphate fertilizer (P), potash fertilizer (K) and the output of rapeseed were converted into specific input value and output value. Firstly, the marginal output of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer were calculated using transcendental logarithm production function model. The study found that there are certain differences in the effects of inputs of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer on the rapeseed output value. The output elasticity value of nitrogen is 0.288 3, the output elasticity value of phosphate is 0.180 3, and the output elasticity of potash is 0.087 7. Secondly, the relationships of the roles of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer in rapeseed production were explored. The results show that the elasticity of substitution coefficient of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus fertilizer and the potassium fertilizer is -0.058 8, 0.120 9 and 0.281 0, respectively. Finally, it was estimated that the best inputs of nitrogen fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer and potash fertilizer for maximum output value of rape are 951.20, 3 766.08, and 621.32 yuan/hm2, respectively.
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    Resource Ecology
    Spatial Variation of Soil Moisture and Species Diversity Patterns along a Precipitation Gradient in the Grasslands of the Loess Plateau
    ZHANG Qin-di, WEI Wei, CHEN Li-ding, YANG Lei
    2018, 33 (8):  1351-1362.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170726
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    The spatial variations of soil moisture and biodiversity have become central issues in ecohydrology which contribute to the understanding of the response of terrestrial ecosystem to precipitation change in water-limited areas. Based a precipitation gradient (250-550 mm) in the Loess Plateau, vertical soil moisture (0-3 m) and species diversity at 47 grassland sites across a southeast-northwest transect were surveyed. The spatial variations of soil moisture and species diversity were evaluated, and the tradeoff between them along the precipitation gradient was quantified. Results showed great variation of soil moisture in the vertical profiles along the precipitation gradient. Significant linear correlation existed between the average soil moisture of the profile and the mean annual precipitation, and the soil moisture in the shallow layer (0-1 m) was affected more greatly by mean annual precipitation. The Patrick index and Shannon-Wiener diversity index also showed positive linear correlation with precipitation, however, Pielou evenness index did not (P>0.05). The linear piece-wise quantile regression was applied to determine the inflection points of the response of tradeoff between species diversity and soil moisture to the precipitation gradient. It revealed obvious trend of the tradeoff along the precipitation gradient. The inflection point of the tradeoff was detected at the mean annual precipitation of 370 mm. Under the 370 mm annual mean precipitation, soil moisture constrains species diversity in the relatively arid regions, while the synergy between soil moisture and species diversity exists in the relatively humid regions in this study. This suggests species maintaining in the relatively arid regions is at the cost of soil water. The results demonstrate that the precipitation gradient determined the tradeoff between soil moisture and species diversity in the grasslands of the Loess Plateau. Consequently, this tradeoff could be an ecological indicator and tool for restoration management in the Loess Plateau.
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    The Effects of Rural Road Network on Forest Landscape Change at Community Level in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    CAO Fei, SHAO Jing-an, MA Xue-ying, LI Chun-mei, DU Jian-ping, JIANG Jia-jia, QIANG Dan-yang
    2018, 33 (8):  1363-1375.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170730
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    Human disturbance is considered as the main driving force of forest landscape evolution and forest use conversion in term, and roads are the basis of human disturbance. This paper selected Xituo Town of Shizhu County in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area as an example and analyzed the effects of rural road network change on degradation-restoration of forest landscape in ArcGIS based on 3-phase remote sensing images and investigated data. The results showed: 1) Primary forest, secondary forest, degraded forest and cultivate land degraded significantly in areas affected by road network during 1992-2014. The overall forest landscape in road buffer areas degraded in 1992-2002. The forest landscape evolution had three main types: from secondary forest to degraded forest, from secondary forest to cultivate land, and from degraded forest to cultivate land. The forest landscape degraded by road network mainly distributed in the central and western regions, and the total area reached 1 705.91 hm2. The forest landscape in road buffer area showed a trend of recovery during 2002-2014 except in small part of areas. In this period, the forest landscape evolution had four main types: from cultivate land to degraded forest, from cultivate land to secondary forest, from degraded forest to secondary forest, and from primary forest to degraded primary forest. The recovery mainly happened in the central and western regions, and the degradation mainly distributed in the south of Fangdou Mountain and urban expansion area, the total area of evolution being 1 674.52 hm2. 2) Comparison between the evolution during 1992-2002 and 2002-2014 shows the increase of road mileages and the improvement of the quality of the new roads aggravated the degradation of forest landscape in the former period and the disappearance of low-level roads recovered the forest landscape in the later period. 3) The study would help people understand the effects of rural road network change on degradation-restoration of forest landscape at the community level and provide a scientific basis for the rational planning of rural road network and eco-economic coordinated development in the forest landscape restoration.
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    Response of Ecosystem Service Value to Ecosystem Structure Change in Fuping Basin of the Daqinghe River
    CHEN Ming-ye, LIU Su-hong, YU Lian-hai, FENG Jin-zhou, YU Pei-xin, GAO Bao-jia
    2018, 33 (8):  1376-1389.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170715
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    Ecosystem provides necessary ecological service function through material cycle, energy flow and information transmission, and the change of the ecosystem structure can change the ecosystem process and service function. It is of great significance to study the response process of ecosystem service function to the change of ecosystem structure for the efficient allocation of environmental resources and the rational formulation of environmental policy. In this paper, the change of ecosystem structure and service function in Fuping Basin of the Daqinghe River in recent 30 years was studied by using remote sensing images. The results showed that: 1) The ecosystem structure in the study area changed obviously during 1985-2015. Construction land, forest land, cultivated land and water area increased 139.57%, 90.66%, 68.79% and 6.55% respectively. Unused land and grassland decreased -83.48% and -54.92%, respectively. The increase in forest land was mainly at the cost of grassland and unused land that 622.67 km2 of grassland and 431.45 km2 of unused land were turned into forest land, the transfer rates being 28.8% and 18.22%, respectively. The expansion of cultivated land was mainly at the cost of unused land and grassland that 1 063.50 km2 of unused land and 831.41 km2 of grassland were turned into cultivated land. Construction land was mostly transferred from cultivated land and unused land that 441.91 km2 of cultivated land and 259.51 km2 of unused land were turned into construction land. Over the 30 years, unused land mainly turned into cultivated land and forest land. 2) The value of ecosystem services in the study area in 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 was 44.29×108, 44.62×108, 44.65×108, 58.08×108, 51.71×108, 53.22×108, 52.72×108 yuan respectively. The highest value was in 2000. Forest land contributed the largest amount of the ecosystem value in the study area, followed by cultivated land and grassland. As for the value of single ecosystem service, soil formation and protection had the largest contribution rate, followed by biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation and climate regulation. 3) The increase of service value in the study area was due to the conversion of the grassland to woodland and the unused land to woodland. The loss of the service value was due to the conversion of the cultivated land to the construction land and the loss of forest land into cultivated land.
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    Models for Estimating Biomass and Its Distribution in Organs of Three Main Tree Species
    WANG Dong-zhi, ZHANG Dong-yan, JIANG Feng-ling, XU Zhong-qi, ZHANG Zhi-dong, HUANG Xuan-rui
    2018, 33 (8):  1390-1402.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170684
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    At present, there are different methods to construct compatible models of biomass. However, there are few reports on the compatibility of models for different tree species and the allocation model of component-specific biomass based on the nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression method. In this paper, the research objects were Larix principis-rupprechtii, Pinus tabuliformis and Betula platyphylla forests in Saihanba National Forest Farm, Hebei Province, China. Based on the nonlinear seemingly unrelated method and the generalized multinomial Logit model, the nonlinear additive models of biomass with dummy variables and allocation models of biomass in organs were established. The results showed that the discriminant coefficients (R2) of stem biomass models for different tree species were all higher than 0.90, and the root mean square errors (RMSE) and absolute errors were in the range of 16.68-17.19 and 0.84-1.07; in the biomass models of branch, leaf and root, the discriminant coefficients (R2) were in the range of 0.77-0.93, and the root mean square errors (RMSE) and absolute errors were in the range of 2.58-12.18 and 0.83-1.39. After inspection, the biomass models of different tree species can meet the precision requirement. The generalized multinomial Logit allocation models of different species all reached a significant level (P< 0.001) after Likelihood ratio test, Score test and Wald test. The parameters of each organ were significant (P < 0.05). The proportions of biomass in trunks, branches, leaves and roots of different tree species were in the range of 0.76-0.87, 0.07-0.11, 0.02-0.07 and 0.04-0.07, respectively. The models of nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression with dummy variables and the generalized multinomial Logit model of biomass allocation in organs can be used universally among different tree species and provide scientific basis for the study of forest biomass allocation pattern.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Quantification of Fractional Contributions of Seasonal Changes in Climate and Cropland to Streamflow Changes Across the Yellow River Basin
    LI Hua-zhen, ZHANG Qiang, GU Xi-hui, SHI Pei-jun
    2018, 33 (8):  1402-1415.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170854
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    The Yellow River is important water source in Northwest and North China. It is of great significance to understand the characteristics and causes of its streamflow changes. In this paper, impacts of climate changes and human activities such as cropland changes and water reservoirs on streamflow variations at seasonal scale were thoroughly quantified using daily streamflow data, daily precipitation data, cropland data, and information of water reservoirs in the Yellow River Basin. Firstly, multi-year trends of streamflow and change points at seasonal scale during 1960-2005 were evaluated, and then the streamflow changes during the growth period of wheat and growth period of maize and soybean were estimated by Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) model. Besides, two different precipitation scenarios were proposed to elucidate the impacts of changes in precipitation and cropland at seasonal scale on different streamflow components defined by different percentiles. The results indicated that: 1) The change points of streamflow during the growth period of wheat and growth period of maize and soybean at the five hydrological stations in the Yellow River Basin occurred during the mid- and late-1980s and early 1990s. Except at Huayuankou Station, the streamflow in the Yellow River Basin was generally in decreasing tendency and the decreasing tendency at most hydrological stations was significant at 95% confidence level. 2) Based on two precipitation scenarios set in this study, the streamflow during years with high precipitation was always higher than that during years with low precipitation, implying that precipitation still plays the critical role in streamflow changes. The impacts of cropland changes on streamflow were related with both changes in precipitation and the percentiles of streamflow components. At Tangnaihai Station, the increasing cropland increased the lower quantile of streamflow and decreased the upper quantile of streamflow during the growth period of wheat of high precipitation years while did the opposite during the growth period of wheat of low precipitation years. Results of this study can provide theoretical and practical grounds for water resources management and allocation across the Yellow River Basin.
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    Impacts of Water Transfer from the Yellow River on Water Environment in the Receiving Area of the Fenhe River
    YUAN Rui-qiang, ZHANG Wen-xin, WANG Peng, WANG Shi-qin
    2018, 33 (8):  1416-1426.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170691
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    The project of water transfer from the Yellow River to the Fenhe River launched in 2003 relieved water shortage in Taiyuan. However, the impacts of the polluted Yellow River on the water environment of upper reach area of the Fenhe River were seldom reported. Based on long term observations and samplings, physicochemical properties, major ions, the typical pollutant DBP and Escherichia coli in the receiving river were measured. Results show water transfer imposed great impacts on hydrologic processes and water environment of river and groundwater in the receiving area. The hydrological process of high stage in rainy seasons and low stage in dry seasons was inversed by the Yellow River water transfer project. High water stage in dry seasons was due to huge amount of water transfer, and low stage in rainy seasons was owing to the temporary stop of the water transfer. At the same time, the accelerated velocity of the receiving river increased the river bottom erosion, which could enhance the exchange between the river and the shallow groundwater in the riparian zone. The river water recharged groundwater in saturated condition during the whole hydrologic year, and the water table depth of shallow groundwater was significantly decreased. The risk of flooding might greatly increase. Water environmental degradation was also triggered by the water transfer. The dissolved salts and organic contaminant contents in the receiving river and the shallow groundwater increased. EC value of the Fenhe River was doubled with the geochemical face of the river water changed from Ca-HCO3 to Na-Cl·SO4 by the water transfer. Also, DOC and UV254 of the river water were increased by 26% and 24%, respectively. When water transfer stopped periodically, the hydro-chemical features of the receiving river recovered. However, the obvious impacts of water transfer on the shallow groundwater in the riparian zone remained. In the long term, excessive Na+ and Cl- imported by the water transfer would make the environment of the receiving area worse, and the elevated evaporation rate of soil moisture and the shallow water table depth would lead to the occurrence of soil salting and vegetation degradation.
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    Measuring Rice Loss during Harvest in China: Based on Experiment and Survey in Five Provinces
    HUANG Dong, YAO Ling, WU La-ping, ZHU Xin-di
    2018, 33 (8):  1427-1438.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170810
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    Reducing food loss during harvest is a potential way to improve resource efficiency and increase food supply. However, the magnitude and determinants of food loss during harvest have not been seriously studied. This paper uses field experiment data of 25 plots from six experiments conducted in five provinces in China to estimate the magnitude of rice loss during harvest. We found that the rice loss rate during harvest ranges from 1.18% to 6.55% among plots. Moreover, plots harvested by combine harvesters have significantly higher loss than those harvested segmentally. The loss rate of technically advanced combine harvesters is lower than that of common ones, and field humidity and lodging are positively correlated with loss rate. The skills of operators and rice variety are also contributing factors but not statistically significant. Based on the experimental data and the farming condition in rice production areas in China, we estimated that the national average loss rate during harvest of rice is 3.02%. We then simulated rice loss during harvest in alternative scenarios. Under the standards from Guidance on Rice Mechanized Production Technology of the Ministry of Agriculture, the harvest loss rate of rice in China will drop to 2.76%, and then 540 thousand tons of rice can be saved which is enough for one-year consumption of 4.39 million people and is equivalent to saving 78.41 thousand hectares of arable land and 26.1 thousand tons of standardized fertilizer. If all rice fields are high standard farmland, the harvest loss rate of rice in China will drop to 2.08%, and 1.96 million tons of rice can be saved which is one-year consumption of 15.91 million people and equivalent to saving 283.91 thousand hectares of arable land and 94.6 thousand tons of standardized fertilizer. On this basis, we highlight the need to improve agricultural machinery services and farmers’ resistance to abnormal weather.
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    Does Information Intervention Affect Food Waste? —Randomized Controlled Trials in Catering Industry
    ZHANG Pan-pan, BAI Jun-fei, CHENG Sheng-kui, LIU Xiao-jie
    2018, 33 (8):  1439-1450.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20171273
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    Food waste not only causes serious pressure on resources and environment, but also raises food security concerns and even leads to welfare losses of global residents. Food waste is the result of consumers’ behavior choices, and consumers’ behaviors are largely influenced by descriptive norms. There are needs to do further research on the effects of information intervention (descriptive norms) on food waste of consumers. Therefore, this paper used a randomized controlled trial to explore the impacts of different interventions on consumers’ food waste behavior when dining out. The results suggested that there was certain degree that the information can be received by consumers in the process of information intervention. When we tried to interfere with consumers, more than 41.38% of consumers did not notice the intervention information. The results also suggested that information intervention was effective on consumers’ food waste behavior that food waste was effectively reduced when there was relevant information in restaurants. The food waste behavior of consumers varied depending on the content of the intervention information.
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    Comprehensive Assessment of Surface Water Resource Security in Basin with Shale Gas Extraction in Chongqing, China
    ZHANG Hong, ZHANG Dai-jun, LU Pei-li, SONG Fu-zhong, KOU Shuang-wu
    2018, 33 (8):  1451-1462.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170708
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    High water consumption and high saline backflow-production water containing complex organics caused by shale gas extraction will bring potential risks to water resource. In this study, the key factors which describe the availability of water for shale gas extraction in a mountainous area and the impact of backflow-production water on the surface water environment are identified. Furthermore, a method is developed to assess the security of surface water resource in a basin. The spatio-temporal analysis of water resource security in Chongqing is carried out, and the water resource security before and after shale gas extraction during 2010-2020 at different extraction intensity is assessed. The results show that the water consumption of shale gas extraction has a little impact on the regional water resource in total during 2010-2020, but it has more significant impact in the temporary water-deficient areas in western Chongqing. The discharge of backflow-production water of the shale gas extraction poses a potential risk of pollution in the urban areas of Midwest Chongqing and nearby areas with high pollutant loadings, and areas with high sensitive surface water environment such as Chengkou and Wuxi. The levels of water resource security in Chongqing are basically medium security and good security, whose areas account for the two thirds of the total area of Chongqing. The pattern of water resource security in Chongqing is as the following: the southeast is safer than the northeast, and the northeast is safer than the west. With the development of economy and society and the expansion of shale gas extraction, the level of water resource security in some sub-areas is at a risk of declining. The results provide the support to the decision-making in water resource allocation and water environmental protection for the shale gas extraction in Chongqing.
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    Resource Research Method
    Simulation of Basin Hydrological Processes Considering Air Resistance Effect
    LIU Huan, GAN Yong-de, JIA Yang-wen, XU Fei, NIU Cun-wen
    2018, 33 (8):  1463-1474.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170671
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    In the process of rainfall infiltration, part of the air will be trapped in the soil, which affects soil moisture infiltration. However, when simulating the basin hydrological processes, the current distributed hydrological models fail to consider the effect of air resistance on rainfall infiltration. This effect is mainly reflected in two aspects: 1) The air trapped in the soil results in that the actual moisture content and hydraulic conductivity of the soil profile are less than the saturated water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity, respectively. 2) Air trapped in the soil creates air pressure, which reduces soil infiltration rate. Consequently, the applicability and simulation accuracy of existing models are hindered. Based on the Green-Ampt model, the saturation coefficient related to soil moisture content and saturation coefficient related to soil water conductivity were introduced in this paper to correct the saturated water content and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the distributed hydrological model. Simultaneously, this paper introduced the air bubbling pressure and water bubbling pressure to quantify the effect of air pressure on soil water suction at wetting front. Using these four parameters, the rainfall infiltration module in the distributed hydrological model (WEP-L model) was modified. Finally, the traditional WEP-L model and the modified model were used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process in the Qingshui River Basin and the Liujiang River Basin, and the simulation results were compared and analyzed using the rainfall runoff data at Qingbaikou Station and Liuzhou Station, respectively. The results show that when using the modified WEP-L model in the Qingshui River Basin, a small watershed, the simulation accuracy was significantly improved, especially in rainstorm periods. For the simulation of monthly runoff in Qingbaikou Station, when using the modified WEP-L model the relative error between simulated and measured values decreased from 53.71% to 23.50% compared when using the traditional model, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient increased from 0.63 to 0.90 during the calibration period. Moreover, during the validation period, the relative error decreased from 50.39% to 20.87%, and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient increased from 0.78 to 0.84. For the simulation of daily runoff in rainstorm periods, the absolute relative error of flood peaks decreased from 23.64% to 14.63%. While using the modified model in the Liujiang River Basin, a large watershed, the improvement of simulation accuracy was not obvious. The reason may be that: 1) Compared with the small watershed, the impact factors of rainfall-runoff in the large watershed are more complicated and diverse, and the adaptability of the catchment to the changes in rainfall intensity and underlying surface conditions is stronger, which make the effect of air resistance more difficult to be significantly reflected. 2) The climatic zones and runoff mechanisms of the two basins are different. Qingshui River Basin is located in the semi-humid and semi-humid area where the runoff yield is dominated by excessive infiltration, so the effect of air resistance is relatively greater.
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