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Table of Content

    10 April 2018, Volume 33 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Discussion
    Study on the Preparation of Natural Resources Balance Sheet: A Case Study of Forest Resources
    SHI Wei, XU Ai-ting, LI Jin-chang, WANG Jin-song
    2018, 33 (4):  541-551.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170178
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (631KB) ( )   Save
    Natural resources balance sheet is an effective tool to promote the sustainable development of resources and economy. Nevertheless, academics have not reached a consensus on the basic theoretical issues involved in its preparation process, such as definitions of natural resources balance sheet elements, measurements of natural resources liabilities, basic forms of natural resources balance sheet. This study tries to discuss the preparation of natural resources balance sheet beginning with these basic theoretical problems. This study draws the following conclusions: 1) There are two basic purposes of natural resources balance sheet. One is to reflect the status and changes of natural resources assets, the other is to reflect the resources and environment costs of economic development and set up lifelong accountability system for ecological and environmental damages. Corresponding to the two purposes of natural resources balance sheet, there are two sorts of natural resources assets, that one is objective natural resources assets and the other is implicit natural resources assets that have come into economic system and participated in economic process. Only the latter type has corresponding natural resources liabilities. 2) Natural resources liability is a kind of current obligation which is caused by excessive depletion of natural resources. The excessive depletion of natural resources can be identified by setting a threshold of liability that the natural resources depletion exceeding the threshold can be considered as excessive depletion. 3) The thresholds of different natural resources are set by different methods. For instance, the set of the liability threshold of forest resources should consider the sustainable development and non-economic benefits such as ecological and social values. A natural resources liability of forests is thus defined as the consumption amount that exceeds the threshold of liability. 4) Accordingly, there are two kinds of natural resources balance sheet. One is natural resources assets account in natural, and the other is natural resources balance sheet in the usual sense. There is multi-relationship between the two kinds of forms.
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    Resource Economics
    Importation, Exportation, and Productivity of Resources in China: Evolution, Challenges, and Solutions
    ZENG Xian-lai, YAN Xiao-yu, ZHANG Yu-ping, MIAO You-ping, LI Jin-hui
    2018, 33 (4):  552-562.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170244
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    Sustainable utilization of resources is playing the vital role in realizing the sustainable development and ecological civilization in China. However, rapidly increasing economy in recent three decades has caused severe resource shortage and serious environmental pollution. To uncover the relationship between resource utilization and economic development since 1949, in particular since reform and open, we examined the evolution of importation, exportation and productivity of resources in China and revealed the confronted challenges and possible solutions. Main findings include: 1) Natural minerals and urban mines consisting of metal minerals, petroleum and part solid waste dominated the importation from 11 countries and regions in recent years. 2) Major exported resources were industrial products and aquatic & seawater products. The share and structure of product trade remains almost no change, but the total importation was growing dramatically since 2000. 3) China’s resource productivity reached 1.6 yuan/kg in 2010, far less than those of many industrial nations. During 2010-2015, resource productivity was boosted at the growth rate of 15%. Several emerging challenges are also outlined here: 1) Exportation of manufacturing has declined and lost traditional advantages for its low adding value, weak technical level, increasing labor cost and high dependence on core technology and market. 2) China’s potential challenges in global value chain are mainly from underdeveloped fundamental facilities, weak warehouse facility and increasing labor cost. Confronting challenges, China should enhance the role in global value chain by transferring from resource importation to product importation, and meanwhile carry out circular economy strategy to improve resource efficiency and decline environmental pollution.
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    Coordination between Environmental Regulation Intensity and Urbanization Quality: Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration
    CUI Xue-gang, FANG Chuang-lin, ZHANG Qiang
    2018, 33 (4):  563-575.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170208
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    There is a complex nonlinear coupling relation between urbanization and ecological environment. As an active human behavior to regulate the environment, environmental regulation can have a positive impact on the coordination between urbanization and the ecological environment. Therefore, calculating the coordination of environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality can provide a scientific basis for the coordinated development between them. Based on the theory of cost-benefit and theory of efficiency-level, this paper constructs the evaluation system of environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality, taking 13 cities of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration as an example. The result shows that environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration are highly consistent in the spatio-temporal pattern that has double peak of Beijing and Tianjin and decrease to the north and south. Then, we use quadrant method to classify the relationship between environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality, so as to judge the coordination and space-time pattern of them. Finally, we get the following conclusions: 1) To a certain extent, environmental regulation has promoted the improvement of urbanization quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, and the correlation coefficient between them is 0.82. However, environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality are uncoordinated that the basically coordinated samples only account for 11% of the total samples, so it is currently in the primary phase of coordination. 2) The overall level of environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality is low in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration that only Beijing and Tianjin reach a high level. However, the overall level of environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality is increasing. Some cities have evolved from low level to medium level, such as Shijiazhuang, Tangshan, Qinhuangdao and Cangzhou. 3) The coordination of environmental regulation intensity and urbanization quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration shows a circle pattern, which is divided into the core, the middle circle and the outer circle. We can find that the coordination in the core is better than that in the middle circle and that in the middle circle is better than that in the outer circle.
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    Heterogeneous Impacts of Investments in Environmental Governance on Economic Growth: A Perspective from Urbanization
    XING You-wei, JIANG Xu-zhao, LI Xiao-feng
    2018, 33 (4):  576-587.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170381
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    In recent years, environmental problems have attracted more and more attention in China, and there are more and more people calling for increasing investments in environmental governance with the deterioration of the environment. But whether or not the increasing environmental governance investments to control environmental pollution will be a burden to economic growth in China is one of the concerned issues for economists. Meanwhile, the environmental problems are accompanied by constantly increasing the level of urbanization. So, it’s of great practical significance to explore whether investments in environmental governance promote or hinder economic growth and what is the role that urbanization plays in this process. Based on data of 31 provinces in the mainland of China from 2003 to 2015, this paper uses panel threshold model to study the relationship between investments in environmental governance and economic growth and then uses methods of data envelopment analysis and system-generalized method of moments to explore the mechanism of this relationship. The results show that: 1) There are parameter heterogeneity and significant threshold effect between investments in environmental governance and economic growth, which indicates that the relationship between them is non-linear. 2) Due to the difference of the stock of investments in environmental governance in each province, the impact of investments in environmental governance on economics growth among the provinces in the mainland of China is divided into two stages: in the first stage the impact was not significant, but in the second stage investments in environmental governance promoted the economics growth, and elasticity coefficients in the two stages were -0.014 and 0.046, respectively. 3) Moderate urbanization can economically improve the efficiencies of investments in environmental governance and thus promote economic growth, which eliminates the concerns that an increase of investments in environmental governance on environmental pollution control will be a burden to economic growth in China. Based on these results, this paper suggests that we should continue to increase the investments in environmental governance and improve the level of urbanization at the same time. Achieving environmental and economic benefits with urbanization is a win-win situation.
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    Resource Ecology
    Grain Size Effect of Landscape Pattern and Its Response to Land Use Change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area
    CHEN Ya-ru, XIAO Wen-fa, TENG Ming-jun, FENG Yuan
    2018, 33 (4):  588-599.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170065
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    Affected by the Three Gorges Reservoir Project, land use/cover in this area dramatically changed during 1992-2012. Based on the land use map in 1992, 2002, 2006 and 2012 (representing important stages of the Project’s construction), we selected a suite of metrics to characterize the grain size effect of landscape pattern within 30-1 000 m grain size range and its dynamic response to land use change. The results reveal: 1) Among the selected 27 metrics, there are 14 metrics showing high sensitivity, 3 metrics showing medium sensitivity, 7 metrics showing low sensitivity and 3 metrics showing insensitivity to the change of grain size. The metrics of different landscape types (except bare land) showed similar trends. 2) The behaviors of the metrics in response to change of grain size can be grouped into five types: monotonous decrease, monotonous increase, staircase increase, no obvious change, and slow increase followed by rapidly decrease. Grain size effect of shape metric showed obvious response to land use change, while the responses of aggregation metric, area-edge metric and diversity index were not affected by the grain size. The optimal grain size for landscape pattern analysis is 30-60 m. 3) Landscape pattern of the Three Gorges Reservoir area became more fragmentary and heterogeneous during 1992-2012. There was a sharp decline and more fragment of cropland while a gradual rise and more connectivity of forest.
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    Estimation of Compensation Standard for Enclosed Protection Area of Desertified Land in Sandy Area—Application of Minimal Data Method in Minqin County of Gansu Province
    WEI Hui-lan, ZHOU Xia-wei
    2018, 33 (4):  600-608.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170298
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    The desertification of land leads to a decrease in the amount of usable land and brings about serious economic and social problems, making it one of the most catastrophic environmental problems confronting human society today. In order to curb desertification effectively, in 2013, the State Forestry Bureau started to implement the subsidy system for the protection and closure of desertified lands in areas where land desertification was serious. During the construction of desertification protection reserves, the ecological compensations is vital, which encourages farmers to voluntarily exchange their semi-desertified or desertified farmlands with lands that produce low yields and need huge irrigation requirements. Based on the practice of enclosed protection area of desertified land in Minqin County of Gansu Province, the paper estimated the ecological compensation standard that can encourage the farmers to voluntarily transform desertified farmland into protected zone with Minimal Data Method. The paper used water resource service to represent the ecosystem services output after the change of land management and deduced the water resources service supply curve based on the opportunity cost of the farmers obtained from survey. The quantitative relationships between the compensation standard, land conversion ratio and water resource supply were calculated. The results show that: 1) The implementation of the compensation can encourage farmers to change the way cultivating land use, reduce irrigation water and increase ecological water supply in Minqin County and Shiyang River Basin. 2) According to the plan of Minqin County, the total area of the forbidden reserve will be 15 500 hm2 and the expected water resources output will be 102 million m3, which could be achieved by a compensation standard of 19 770 yuan/hm2. 3) Based on a compensation standard (3 600 yuan/hm2) for new-round Grain for Green Project, only 3.51% of the desertified land could be transformed into protected zone. Therefore, the compensation standard should be improved.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Study on the Change of Rice Yield in Hanzhong Basin under Climate Change
    HU Hui-zhi, LIU Xiao-qiong, WANG Jian-li
    2018, 33 (4):  609-620.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170435
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    Deep analysis of change of rice production under climate change in Hanzhong Basin could explore the main meteorological factors affecting rice production, meanwhile provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of meteorological disasters during the local rice growing season. In order to investigate the main meteorological factors affecting rice growth in the study area, this paper extracted rice yield during 1951-2014 years in Hanzhong Basin based on the data of daily temperature, precipitation, accumulated temperature, diurnal temperature range and meteorological yield of rice per unit area. The methods of linear trend, trend coefficient, HP filter and Morlet wavelet analysis were used synthetically to analyze the trend of meteorological yield of rice and meteorological factors during growing season in Hanzhong Basin and calculate the significant cycle of rice meteorological yield and main meteorological elements sequence. The results were as following: 1) In Hanzhong Basin, the trend of the mean temperature and active accumulated temperature above 10 ℃ in rice growing season (April-September) tended to rise during the last 64 years, and the daily temperature range tended to decrease, while the trend of precipitation was not obvious. 2) The significant cycle analysis of the meteorological elements and the rice meteorological yield per unit area in Hanzhoung Basin showed that the first main cycle of rice meteorological yield per unit area corresponds to the second main cycle of each meteorological element, having a principal period of about 13-14 years. 3) The impacts of various meteorological factors on the yield of rice are different, and the dominant meteorological factors affecting the meteorological yield of rice are different in different climatic background. The research results could provide a reference for the development of rice planting and local economic and social development in Hanzhong Basin.
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    Spatiotemporal Distribution Characteristics of Climate Change in the Loess Plateau from 1901 to 2014
    REN Jing-yu, PENG Shou-zhang, CAO Yang, HUO Xiao-ying, CHEN Yun-ming
    2018, 33 (4):  621-633.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170186
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    Climate change has a significant influence on the environment and economy in the Loess Plateau (LP) region. Studying the spatio-temporal trends of climate change at the fine scale would be conductive to develop flexible adaptation and mitigation strategies against the climate change issues in this region. This study downscaled CRU climate data from 1901 to 2014 to spatial resolution of 1 km using the Delta downscaling method and evaluated the monthly climate change in this region. The spatio-temporal characteristics of the climate in this region were analyzed with the anomalies method, Mann-Kendall trend test, and Sen’s slope estimation method. The results are as following: 1) The Delta downscaling method performs well in generating monthly precipitation and temperature data with 1 km spatial resolution. Among the four interpolation methods, the bilinear interpolation is the best method for the downscaling process. 2) During 1901-2014, the annual precipitation had no significant trend, while the annual average temperature presented a significant increasing trend with 0.1 ℃/10 a. Compared with the average level of the climate during 1961-1990, the climate in 1960s was cold and wet, while it was dry and warm after 1980. The annual precipitation in the west of the LP region (accounting for 3.05% of the area) showed a significant increasing trend during 1901-2014, ranging from 0.24 mm/10 a to 3.52 mm/10 a. The annual average temperature in region other than the west of the LP region (accounting for 91.30% of the area) showed a significantly increasing trend ranging from 0.02 ℃/10 a to 0.17 ℃/10 a during 1901-2014, and the magnitudes of the trend increased from southwest to northeast. 3) During 1981-2010, the climate in the west of the LP region (accounting for 92.02% of the area) was drier and warmer than it was during 1961-1990, while in the rest region (accounting for 7.98% of the area) it became wetter and warmer. The annual precipitation in Minhe and region south to Minhe (accounting for 0.05% area) presented a significantly increasing trend during 1981-2010, ranging from17.25 mm/10 a to 27.93 mm/10 a. The annual average temperature in region other than the west of the LP region (accounting for 87.61% of the area) had a significantly increasing trend during 1981-2010, ranging from 0.23 ℃/10 a to 0.71 ℃/10 a. These results could provide a scientific basis for developing strategies addressing global climate change issues in the LP region.
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    Methods of Sampling Soil Organic Carbon in Farmlands with Different Landform Types on the Loess Plateau
    ZHANG Sheng-min, XU Ming-xiang, ZHANG Zhi-Xia, LI Bin-bin
    2018, 33 (4):  634-643.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170477
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    Sampling design is a critical issue in soil organic carbon research. In this paper, the purpose was to find out the most appropriate sampling method among various sampling designs in farmlands with different landform types. We used the sample representative evaluation in classical statistics to compare the efficiency of most commonly used sampling methods, including random distribution, grid sampling design and joint unit method. The representative samples of soil organic carbon in farmlands with different landform types on the Loess Plateau were evaluated. The results demonstrated that: 1) A reasonable sampling method for Ning County in the upland area of Loess Plateau was grid sampling design with a suggested grid interval of 4 km. The efficiency of grid sampling design was 64.3% and 31.8% higher than the efficiency of random distribution method and joint unit method, respectively. 2) A reasonable sampling method for Wugong County in the plain area of the Loess Plateau was also grid sampling design with a suggested sampling interval of 2 km. The efficiency of grid sampling method was 64.8% and 128.8% higher than the efficiency of random distribution method and joint unit method, respectively. 3) The reasonable sampling method was joint unit layout method in the hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau, such as in Zhuanglang County. The suggested density of the joint unit layout method in this area was 1 unit/1 314 hm2, and the efficiency of joint unit distribution was 205.8% and 294.2% higher than the efficiency of random distribution and grid distribution, respectively.
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    Copper Concentration in Soil of Xijiang River Basin of Guangxi and Risk Assessment
    LI Li, SONG Bo, CHEN Tong-bin, ZHANG Yun-xia, YU Yuan-yuan, TIAN Mei-ling, LIU Chang, FU Feng-yan
    2018, 33 (4):  644-656.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170391
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    In order to understand copper concentration and distribution in soil of Xijiang River Basin of Guangxi and evaluate the ecological risk, this paper collected 1 381 dryland soil samples, 729 paddy soil samples, 129 mining soil samples and 293 background soil samples during 2012-2015, and measured the content of copper in soils. According to statistical analysis, the influence of copper accumulation in different types of soil was explored, the spatial distribution of copper content was interpolated through geostatistical analysis and the risk was assessed. The results showed that the geometric mean of copper concentrations was 27.60 mg/kg. The copper concentrations in dryland, paddy, mining and background soil ranged from 0.3 to 317.91, 3 to 495.81, 7.5 to 2 287.66 and 0.68 to 284.27 mg/kg, and the geometric means were 27.75, 25.19, 79.38 and 21.21 mg/kg, respectively. The copper concentration in mining soil was significantly higher than in other soils. Compared to baseline value, the corresponding exceeding rate of mining, dryland and paddy soil were 33.25%, 3.76% and 0.68%, respectively. The spatial pattern of copper content in Xijiang River Basin showed medium autocorrelation with strong structural variability. Clean soil occupied 61% in Xijiang River Basin, while 36% of soil belongs to light pollution soil which mainly distributed in Nandan, Du’an, Wuxuan and Guiping counties where lead-zinc ores are concentrated. Generally speaking, copper content in soil of Xijiang River Basin had some accumulation but the pollution was not serious and it was assessed to be safe. Besides, the risk should be prevented in the areas of Nandan, Du’an, Wuxuan and Guiping counties.
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    Regional Differences and Its Influencing Factors of Cultivated Land Use Efficiency under Carbon Emission Constraint
    LU Xin-hai, KUANG Bing, LI Jing
    2018, 33 (4):  657-668.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170454
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    This paper put the carbon emission into the measurement framework of cultivated land use efficiency, and analyzed the regional differences and influencing factors of cultivated land use efficiency of 31 provinces in the mainland of China from 2003 to 2015 employing SBM-Undesirable model, Gini coefficient decomposition model and Tobit model. The results showed that: 1) In general, when considering the carbon emissions, the cultivated land use efficiency of most provinces reduced in different rates. 2) From the result of SBM-Undesirable model, we can see that the cultivated land use efficiency showed a fluctuated upward trend in different scale and had significant regional differences that the average annual cultivated land use efficiency was the highest in the northeastern region and lowest in the central region. 3) The Gini coefficient of cultivated land use efficiency reduced in different ranges in the whole country and in the four major regions, which means the regional gap was narrowed and the reductions of inner-regional difference caused the narrowing of regional gap of cultivated land use efficiency in China. 4) Cultivated land endowment, economic development level, scientific and technological development and government attention are important factors influencing cultivated land use efficiency, but there are differences in the direction and intensity of different factors when dividing sample groups in different ways. 5) To achieve low-carbon, high efficiency of cultivated land use and green development of social economic, we not only need to explore the reduction path and reasonable scale of cultivated land use emission with techniques, but also need to regulate and guide carbon emission by systems and policies.
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    Simulation of Soil Erosion Intensity in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area Using BP Neural Network
    LIU Ting, SHAO Jing-an
    2018, 33 (4):  669-683.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161178
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    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors affecting the fragility of the ecological environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The change of rainfall erosivity is a complex process and its variation has certain stochastic fluctuation. Understanding the evolution of soil erosion intensity and its future trends are the key scientific issues, which need to be resolved in the process of ecological civilization construction in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Moreover, it is of great significance to build an appropriate ecological production paradigm, and to formulate measures to prevent and control soil erosion. Based on the characteristics of rainfall erosion in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in 1990, this paper simulated and verified the rainfall erosivity at 75 stations in 2010 using BP neural network. On this basis, the rainfall erosivity at 75 stations in 2030 was predicted. The forecast results of rainfall erosivity at 27 stations located around the Three Gorges Reservoir area were selected and interpolated with Kriging method. Combined with the simulated land use in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in the natural growth and ecological protection scenarios in 2030, the soil erosion intensity in 2030 was calculated using the revised soil loss equation (RUSLE). The results were as follows: In 2010, the relative error of rainfall erosivity simulation was 15%, the relative error of tested samples was 14.67%, the relative error of prediction was 19.65%, and the NE coefficient was 0.85, which indicated that BP neural network had a good result of rainfall erosivity simulation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. In 2010, the Kappa index of soil erosion intensity in the Three Gorges Reservoir area was 0.75, and the overall calculation results could meet the needs of simulation and prediction. When land use does not change in the Three Gorges Reservoir area till 2030, the areas of slight and moderate erosion will both increase, the areas of micro erosion and above intensity erosion will decrease. About 58% of the change in erosion intensity happen between adjacent erosion intensity types, and less change happen across erosion grade types. Under the condition of constant rainfall erosivity, the soil erosion caused by future land use change in both natural growth scenario and ecological protection scenario has decreasing tendency, while the tendency in the latter scenario is more obvious. If both rainfall erosivity and land use change, soil erosion in both scenarios show downward trends. However, there will be a certain degree of deterioration in areas with less erosion. Therefore, the policies of “controlling severe erosion, preventing slight erosion” should be taken. It was worth noting that simulated results only show the possibility of rainfall erosivity change which are not completely deterministic.
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    Resource Research Method
    Risk Assessment and Division Model for Regional Drought Disaster Based on Cloud Model and Bootstrap Method
    WU Cheng-guo, BAI Lu, BAI Xia, JIN Ju-liang, JIANG Shang-ming
    2018, 33 (4):  684-695.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170392
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    Regional drought disaster risk assessment and division is a basic work for scientifically revealing the element mutual interaction and evolution mechanism of drought disaster risk system and can provide reasonable decision-making basis for developing drought disaster risk prevention and control measures and realizing drought disaster risk management. In order to effectively describe the uncertainties, including randomness, fuzziness and unascertained characteristics of regional drought disaster risk system, firstly, the Bootstrap sample set of regional drought disaster risk system was established using the random sampling method. Then, after fuzzily processing the traditional drought disaster grade standard using the Cloud Theory, the forward and normal cloud algorithm was proposed for interval estimation analysis of the Bootstrap sample set. Besides, the natural breaks classification method in ArcGIS was used to analyze the regional drought disaster risk distribution. Finally, the risk assessment and division model for regional drought disaster based on Cloud Model and Bootstrap Method (CMBM) was proposed in this paper. The results of applying the model in Anhui Province indicate that: 1) The Cloud Model theory can describe the uncertainties of drought disaster system better, and the interval assessing results of drought disaster risk can further reveal the nature of risk. 2) The overall risk probability of drought disaster in Huaibei Plain (Fuyan, Suzhou, Bozhou and Chuzhou), Jianghuai Hilly Region (Lu’an) and southeast area of Anhui Province (Huangshan, Chizhou) is relatively high in the future, so more attention should be paid in these areas to prevent drought disaster. This study proposed a scientific and effective drought disaster risk assessment and division model based on Cloud Model and Bootstrap Method, and the model can further decrease the influence of the uncertainties of drought disaster risk system on assessment results. The paper has a great theoretical significance in guiding regional drought disaster risk assessment and division.
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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Review of Carbon Footprint Research Based on Input-Output Analysis
    ZHANG Qi-feng, FANG Kai, XU Ming, LIU Qing-yan
    2018, 33 (4):  696-708.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170197
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    With the intensification of global warming, climate change has been a serious challenge for human society. Carbon footprint is an up-to-date tool for measuring direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions associated with human activities. With the aim of supporting environmental and energy policy making, carbon footprint has attracted considerable attention from academia, enterprises and the public. Main methods of carbon footprint accounting include the method based on emission inventory and factors, life cycle assessment (LCA), and input-output analysis (IOA). This paper starts with an introduction to the fundamentals of the three methods and then presents a systematic review of the development of IOA methods, such as single-regional input-output (SRIO) and multi-regional input-output (MRIO) models, with a focus on its applications in carbon footprint studies at scales of international trades, industries, consumers, regions, organizations, etc. The paper also explores the opportunities and challenges of input-output-based carbon footprint in a SWOT analysis framework, and finally outlines the possible development of hybrid methods, multi-scale multi-regional input-output (MSMRIO) models and scenario analysis for carbon footprint research.
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    Review and Prospect of Studies on the Dyke-Pond System
    GU Xing-guo, LOU Li-jing, LIU Mou-cheng, MIN Qing-wen
    2018, 33 (4):  709-720.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170498
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    The Dyke-Pond System is a very creative way to make full use of lowland and an ecological circulating agriculture model, which had played an important role in the small-scale peasant economy in China. Since 1950s, Dyke-Pond System has gradually become the focus in research and attracted more attention at home and abroad. Combing and summarizing those research achievements can offer powerful support for protecting the relevant important agricultural heritage and developing modern ecological agriculture in China. This paper systematically reviews the literatures of Dyke-Pond System and introduces the researches on its concept and connotation, origin and development, structure and function, and application and dynamic protection. The analysis shows that there are more plentiful studies in Pearl River Delta than the studies in Taihu Lake Basin on the Dyke-Pond System. There exist disputes about the origin of Mulberry-Dyke & Fish-Pond in Taihu Lake Basin. The economic importance of Dyke-Pond System has degraded. Strengthening the research on its ecological service functions and heritage values is urgently needed. In order to conduct the dynamic protection and creative development of Dyke-Pond System, related researches on technique, management and policy are needed. This paper also proposes some suggestions for future studies. Firstly, it’s in need of more studies on ecological service functions of Dyke-Pond System and more systematically evaluation of the efficiency of Dyke-Pond System. Secondly, the studies on the dynamic protection and management of traditional Dyke-Pond System should be conducted from the perspective of agricultural heritage. Thirdly, it is also necessary to study in depth on the ecological mechanisms of Dyke-Pond System across multi-disciplines and compare the differences and similarities between the structures and functions of Dyke-Pond Systems in the Taihu Lake Basin and the Pearl River Delta. Finally, the research on the origin and evolution of Dyke-Pond System should also be further investigated in order to reinforce its significant role in the agriculture history both in China and in the world.
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