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    14 November 2015, Volume 30 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Utilization and Management
    Information Detecting and Inter-national Comparison of Land Use Changes in the Border Region of China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand
    LIAO Chen-hua, FENG Zhi-ming, LI Peng, ZHANG Jing-hua
    2015, 30 (11):  1785-1797.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.001
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    With the deepening of international cooperation, the border region of China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand has become the only multi-national geo-economic zone contacting China and ASEAN. The land use and land cover change (LUCC) in this region has become the focus of international research. The purpose of this study is to detect the spatial and temporal land use and land cover changes in the border area, and compare land use differences in the four member countries. Through interpreting the Landsat TM/ETM images of the study area in 1990, 2000 and 2010, this paper classified land use and land cover of this region in the three periods, including some dominant or special land use such as rubber plantations and slash-and-burn cultivation (shifting cultivation), and quantitatively analyzed the spatio-temporal variations and characteristics of land use change during 10-year and 20-year periods as well as mainly land use change area, spatial distribution and dominant transition types. To investigate the area proportion and position of changes, this paper further detected the general variation, net variation and exchange variation of each land use in the study area and in the four member countries respectively. Finally we analyzed the inter-national difference of land use comprehensive degree. The results showed that: 1) The area of rubber plantation and tea plantation had the largest increase during the period of 1990-2010. Meanwhile, the area of shifting cultivation, built-up lands and permanent farmlands also increased, while the area of woodland, shrub, grassland and water decreased. 2) Land use transitions between woodlands and shrubs and their transition with permanent farmlands, shifting cultivations and rubber plantations had determined the basic characteristic of land use changes in the study area. 3) The rubber plantations and tea plantations both increased. Permanent farmlands had little changes in area but changed greatly in spatial distributions. The change of water and shifting cultivations were also location changes. For grasslands, shrubs, woodlands and built-up lands, spatial location changes and area changes had roughly equivalent proportion. 4) The land use comprehensive degree in the border area of China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand increased generally during the period from 1990 to 2010, the increase amount in the later 10 years being larger than before. Comparing the four countries, Thailand had the highest land use degree, followed by China, and Laos and Myanmar had the lowest land use degrees. The increase of land use degree in China and Myanmar became slower in the later 10 years, and became faster in Thailand in the later 10 years. The land use degree in Laos decreased in the first 10 years and then transferred to increase in the later 10 years.

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    Farmers’ Vulnerability in Farmland Conversion:Analytical Framework and Empirical Research on Five Provinces in Central China
    PENG Kai-li, ZHANG An-lu
    2015, 30 (11):  1798-1810.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.002
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    Farmland conversion is a commonly economic and social phenomenon in China’s rural areas. It is not only related to the overall structure and the change in land supply, but also related to the process of urbanization and industrialization, as well as farmers’ living condition. In order to reduce the risk caused by land use change and to improve farmers’ adaptive ability, scientific assessment of farmers’ vulnerability after land conversion is very necessary. This paper presents a theoretical framework for farmers’ vulnerability assessment and sets up a related index system including exposure index (EI), sensitivity index (SI) and adaptive ability index (AI). According to the quantized SI and AI, farmers’ vulnerability indexes can be calculated. Taking the five provinces—Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui, which are located in the central economic zone of China, as case study areas, this paper measures the vulnerability indexes of farmers who have farmland transferred in and out respectively based on a large scale survey. Then, the relationships between the vulnerability index (VI) and exposure index including area-based exposure index (EIA) and time-based exposure index (EIT) are analyzed sequentially. The study finds that: 1) the vulnerability indexes of farmers who have farmland transferred in are always lower than those of farmers who have farmland transferred out in the same province after farmland conversion, which indicates that compared with transferred out land, transferred in land has lower risks or farmers with farmland transferred in have stronger adaptive abilities; 2) the relationship between the vulnerability index and area-based exposure index of farmers with farmland transferred in (VI-EIA) presents a “U” shape, while that of farmers with farmland transferred out is opposite, which presents a “inverted U” shape; 3) the relationships between the vulnerability index of farmers with farmland transferred in and out and time-based exposure index (VI-EIA) are same, which are all positive correlated. The results show that the government should improve the agricultural income of farmers with farmland transferred in and provide surplus rural labor forces more opportunities in urban for reducing farmers’ vulnerability. Only in this way can their adaptive ability be enhanced to resist the risks caused by land use change.

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    Resource Ecology
    An Assessment of Dematerialization and Effects of Circular Economy Based on Material Flows Analysis
    WANG Hong
    2015, 30 (11):  1811-1822.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.003
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    Material flow analysis is a physical measurement tool to assess economy and the environment. By measuring the quantity, intensity and changing trend of material flows, the materialization or dematerialization trend of economy can be identified and the general state of resource depletion and environmental degradation and the impacts of the adoption of circular economy in China can be assessed. Employing both statistical and econometrics methods, this paper tries to analyze the direct material input (DMI) between the year 2000 and 2014 and its relationship with certain economic features, assess DMI intensity and its changing trend and identify the impacts of resource recycling and reuse in China. This paper finds that, in the past 14 years, total DMI has been steadily increasing while DMI intensity in terms of GDP increased before it decreased, suggesting that China has begun the process of relative dematerialization since 2004. The ratio of secondary sector of economy is identified to have Granger caused the factor of DMI intensity, as when the ratio rises the DMI intensity rises, and vise versa. With the development of circular economy in China, the total waste material recycled and reused has increased 1.76 times to 1.863 billion tons, but the ratio to total DMI has been very low and has no statistically significant impacts on DMI intensity; and the per capita intensity and total DMI will continue to rise in the foreseeable future.

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    Resource Economy
    The Transmission Mechanism of Land Supply Planning on Housing Prices
    WANG Liang-jian, YAN Lei, LI Zhong-hua, TAN Yi-lin, LI Hui
    2015, 30 (11):  1823-1833.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.004
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    With the rapid development of real estate market, the continued increasing housing price has become the focus of national macro-control. To stabilize the fast increasing housing prices, State Council stated a series of policies and measures which covers all aspects of land, finance and banking. In 2010, Ministry of Land and Resources issued a trial notice, state-owned construction land supply planning norms, guiding relevant departments to prepare for the land supply planning. Since then, the land supply planning has become an important tool of land supply policy to regulate and control the housing prices. The purpose of this paper is to explore the interrelation between land supply planning and housing prices, and the transmission mechanism of land supply planning on housing prices.In this paper, we use four-quadrant model which was firstly built by Denise Dipasquale and William C. Wheaton, and introduce a series of relevant variables such as the amount of land, the price of land, the housing stock, and so on. With the modified four-quadrant model, we analyze how land supply planning affects housing prices by conducting intermediate variables. Through theoretical analysis, the land supply structure and completion rate are two factors on housing prices. On the basis of theoretical analysis, we employ the proportion of affordable housing land to residential land and the actual land supply to the plan land supply to represent the land supply planning. In this paper, we use the panel data of 14 cities in Hunan Province from year 2010 to 2013. We also construct a stock-flow model in housing market to investigate the transmission mechanism of the land supply planning on housing prices. It turns out that the implementation of land supply planning affected the expectation of property developers which induced their speculative behaviors, and thus had a significant negative impact on housing prices. Seen from the regression result, the proportion of residential land use for indemnificatory housing and the implementation rate of the land supply plan both have significant negative effects on housing price while in different intensities. The effect of the land supply structure is greater than that of implementation rate of the plan. The smaller the proportion of land for indemnificatory housing or the higher implementation rate of the plan is, the faster housing price drops. This conclusion can provide important decision making reference for relevant departments to make scientific and feasible plan. The result shows that the expectation of developers has greater effect than the expectation of consumers, so it’s critical to take measures to regulate developer’s behavior. The study also shows that demand factors exert greater influence on housing prices than supply factors, especially per capita disposable income. Demand factors are the main factors that affect housing prices. And the housing stock of last year pushes the housing prices higher. This conclusion is different from Peng and Wheaton’s, which exactly reflects the contradiction of current vacant housing stock and increasing new housing supply.

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    Resource Ecology
    Landscape Fragmentation Model Construction and Scale Analysis for Wetland in Arid Region: A Case Study of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River, China
    XIE Zuo-lun, ZHAO Rui-feng, ZHANG Li-hua, ZHU Wen, LI Jie, LIANG Dan
    2015, 30 (11):  1834-1845.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.005
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    Riparian wetland in the arid region is particularly important to the oasis ecosystems. The health of wetland in the middle reaches of Heihe River is important for the biodiversity conservation and oasis development in Hexi Corridor. It is significant to improve the understanding of wetland fragmentation process between different wetland fragmentation types. Selecting a suitable scale for study object has become the focus of geography and ecology, and was important to a credible wetland fragmentation analysis. Based on remote sensing and GIS, the type change tracker model is constructed with sliding window technique and spatially morphological rule in this study. The suitable scale and optimum scale of the fragmentation model of wetland landscape in the middle reaches of Heihe River is determined by area frequency statistics method, Chi-square distribution normalized scale variance, fractal dimension and diversity index. The results showed that: 1) the type change tracker model, analyzing the spatial pattern of wetland fragmentation on the pixel level, is better than the traditional wetland fragmentation analysis on the landscape and patch level. 2) The suitable scale for the wetland fragmentation is between 150 m × 150 m to 450 m × 450 m and the optimum scale is 250 m × 250 m in the middle reaches of Heihe River. This study would theoretically support the deeply study of the spatial distribution of wetland fragmentation. Simultaneously, the study will supply a case of scale selection for the wetland fragmentation study in arid region.

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    Grassland Eco-compensation: Equivalent Relationship between Livestock Reduction and Compensation
    HU Zhen-tong, KONG De-shuai, WEI Tong-yang, JIN Le-shan
    2015, 30 (11):  1846-1859.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.006
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    Through the policy instruments of subsidy and reward, the goal of China grassland eco-compensation is to achieve livestock reduction and grassland-livestock balance, eventually to slow down the grassland degradation under the condition of without reducing herders’ income. This paper firstly gives a theoretical framework to analyze the equivalent relationship between livestock reduction and compensation in the grassland eco-compensation scheme, and then conducts empirical study based on the field research in Chaganbulige Town, Siziwang Banner, Inner Monglia. The results show that the actual rate of overgrazing is undervalued by statistic result due to the spatial heterogeneity of overgrazing and the difference between herders. The compensation is not enough for the total area, and the reward for grassland-livestock balance to maintain enough compensation should be 28.5 yuan/hm2. There exists serious non-equivalent relationship between livestock reduction and compensation, herders who do not need to reduce livestock take 47.9% of the funds and 0% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced, herders who need and be willing to reduce livestock take 5.5% of the funds and 1.2% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced, herders who need and be only willing to reduced part of livestock takes 46.6% of the funds and 98.8% of the total amount of livestock to be reduced. The expected proportion of livestock reduction to be achieved is only 8.3%. Due to the significant difference in the degree of overgrazing, the expected proportion of livestock reduction to be achieved is sensitive to neither the reward for grassland-livestock balance nor the loss per sheep unit. In order to achieve the purpose of the grassland ecological protection, to ensure the task of livestock reduction, we should take the degree of overgrazing as one of the elements of reward for grassland-livestock balance. Small and medium-sized holders are the main part of grassland overgrazing, so the true meaning of “taking overgrazing degree as one of the elements of reward for grassland-livestock balance” is “small and medium-sized holders should take more proportion of reward”. Except for the reward for grassland-livestock balance, reducing the number of small and medium-sized holders, expanding the scale of the pasture and promote the moderate scale management is the most important way to realize grassland sustainable development.

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    Landscape Pattern in Da’an City of Jilin Province Based on Landscape Indices and Local Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis
    DONG Yu-hong, LIU Shi-liang, AN Nan-nan, YIN Yi-jie, WANG Jun, QIU Yang
    2015, 30 (11):  1860-1871.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.007
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    As one of the typical salinization regions in the western Jilin Province, Da’an city was taken as the study area. Based on remote sensing data and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) data in 2000 and 2010 and by using moving window method and local spatial autocorrelation analysis, the landscape pattern of Da’an city was analyzed. The results showed that the dominant landscape types in this region were farmland, grassland and saline land. The proportion of farmland, grassland and saline land were 40.20%, 19.09% and 19.26% in 2000, respectively, and 41.69%, 18.16% and 19.94% in 2010, respectively. From 2000 to 2010, the area of farmland and saline land increased, LPI increased and the shape become complex, and landscape connectivity of saline land increased. The area of grassland decreased, LPI decreased and the shape become complex. The spatial heterogeneity of landscape pattern in Da’an city was significant. The area with the dominant landscape types including the grassland, farmland and saline land, showed higher landscape connectivity, lower fragmentation and heterogeneity, while the area with various landscape types showed higher fragmentation and stronger heterogeneity. The local spatial auto-correlation of EVI in 2000 and 2010 were 0.73 and 0.75 respectively, indicating a significant spatial correlation. In the two periods, the high-high self-related areas are mostly farmland, where vegetation cover are excellent, and the low-low self-related areas are mostly saline land with lower vegetation cover in these areas. Moran’s I of Da’an city showed negative correlation with PD and LSI, and positive correlation with LPI and CONTAG. The moving window method combined with spatial autocorrelation analysis method will contribute to the understanding of spatial variation of landscape pattern and spatial aggregation of vegetation cover, thus providing the basis for ecological environment protection.

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    Resource Evaluation
    Spatial and Temporal Variations of Water Resource Security Level in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Chongqing Based on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollutant
    ZHANG Guang-na, SHAO Jing-an, WANG Jin-liang
    2015, 30 (11):  1872-1884.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.008
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    Agricultural non-point source pollution (NPSP) is becoming an increasingly important eco-environmental problem, and it has become the major source of river basin pollution in China. It is difficult to control due to its dispersive and extensive characteristics. The Three Gorges Reservoir area is typical frangible ecotope. Therefore, water resource security is especially important. According to the investigation on the pollution sources of chemical fertilizer, organic manure, Crops straw, breeding, agriculture, dormitory sewage, dormitory wastes and soil erosion in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) of Chongqing, the Nemerow index was adopted to analyze the river basin water resource security level over the period 2005-2011. Spatial and temporal variations of water resource security level was analyzed by using geostatistical methods and Nemerow index based on theoretical data and monitoring data at the districts (counties) level. There were four major findings from the study. 1) From the judging the amount of water quality concentration in 2005, 2008 and 2011 in the TGRA of Chongqing, the concentration of TN, TP had exceeded the Surface Water Quality Standards III. 2) The results showed that the Nemerow index of theoretical data were 2.48, 2.51 and 2.88 in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Judging from the results of the spatial and temporal variations analysis of Nemerow index(theoretical data), with the completion of the reservoir water, the water resource security level of the hinterland and central of the TGRA (Chongqing section) has declined, whereas the metropolis’ core district of the end of the TGRA (Chongqing section) has improved. 3) The Nemerow index of monitoring data were 1.26, 1.38 and 2.14 in 2005, 2008 and 2011. The results of theoretical data and monitoring data showed that there was similarity in the spatial distribution. 4) The high coincidence was showed by comparing of the monitoring data and theoretical data in the TGRA of Chongqing.

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    Research on Dynamic Change and Regional Differences of China’s Planting Industry Carbon Sink Surplus
    TIAN Yun, ZHANG Jun-biao, WU Xian-rong, CHENG Lin-lin
    2015, 30 (11):  1885-1895.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.009
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    The study is on the regional differences and evolution of China’s planting industry carbon sink surplus. Based on the scientific measurement of planting industry carbon sinks surplus in 31 provinces of China from 2000 to 2012, this article systematically investigates the regional differences and evolution of the carbon sink surplus in planting industry with the indicator of carbon sink surplus level and Gini coefficient. The results show that: 1) China’s carbon sinks surplus in planting industry is spatially unbalanced. According to the trends of carbon sink surplus, 31 regions can be divided into four types: “continuously increase”, “fluctuantly increase”, “fluctuantly decrease” and “continuously decrease”. Among them, Heilongjiang has the biggest increase which is up to 118.10%, followed by Inner Mongolia and Jilin; Zhejiang has the largest decline which is 49.72%, followed by Shanghai and Fujian. Compared with 2000, there are 16 regions have great improvements in the planting industry carbon sinks levels, while the remaining 15 regions have declines. 2) The calculated results of Gini coefficient show that the regional differences of plant industry carbon sinks surplus are generally enlarging during the inspected period, although there are fluctuations between different years. From the perspective three regions of China, the regional gaps in eastern China are moderate which have experienced the narrowing period, the fluctuantly expanding period and the fluctuantly stable period; the regional gaps in middle regions are the maximum and its absolute value is the highest, and they have experienced the rapidly expanding period, the fluctuantly stationary stable period, the fluctuantly narrowing period and the slightly expanding period; the regional gaps in western regions are the minimum and have alternately experienced the periods of “expanding” and “narrowing”.

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    Spatial and Temporal Variation of Precipitation in Weihe River Basin from 1965 to 2013
    ZHAO An-zhou, ZHU Xiu-fang, LIU Xian-feng, PAN Yao-zhong
    2015, 30 (11):  1896-1909.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.010
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    Linear regression, the decomposition of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), Mann-Kendall Test and Pettitt Test are used to analyze the spatial-temporal distribution characteristics of precipitation in the Weihe River Basin in 49 years based on the data from 1965 to 2013 at 22 meteorological stations in the Weihe River Basin and nearby. The results showed: 1) From the view of temporal variation, the changes of annual and seasonal precipitation were not significant at the level of 0.05 but the precipitation in spring which showed an obvious decreasing trend (-6.23 mm/10 a). Meantime, there was no obvious abrupt change of annual and seasonal precipitations but the spring of 1991 on basis of mutation test. 2) Precipitation in the Weihe River Basin was unevenly distributed, decreasing spatially from southeast to northwest, and the decreasing trend in the upstream was more obvious than that in the midstream. 3) The EOF decomposition indicated that the spatial distribution of annual and seasonal precipitation in the Weihe River Basin are overall coherent, and there was an opposite phase in the direction of southeast-northwest.

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    Study on Spectral Response of Wetland Reed to Eutrophication by Multiscale Hyperspectral Remote Sensing
    WANG Li-wen, WEI Ya-xing
    2015, 30 (11):  1910-1921.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.011
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    In recent years, most coastal estuarine wetlands were influenced by human activities which caused the eutrophication of water body. However, the worse situation of water eutrophication has controversy brought deep influence to social economy. The fast, stable, and correct way monitoring the water eutrophication of coastal estuarine was expected on different temporal and spatial scale. In this paper, hyperspectral remote sensing technology was adopted. It can extract the little change of vegetation’s nitrogen absorption. The data measured in field at three different times and the HJ-1A HSI hyperspectral remote sensing data were used. The hyperspectral feature of wetland vegetation reed located in coastal estuarine region was studied. The spatio-temporal response feature of reed to water eutrophication was researched based on three scales including leaf, canopy, and landscape scale. By this means, the wrong evaluation of water eutrophication induced by pulse effect of nutrients can be corrected. The results showed: There exists difference in the spectral features of leaf and canopy of reed when the nitrogen concentration of water are different; on leaf and canopy scales, all hyperspectral vegetation indices can respond to the change of total nitrogen concentration of water. Compared with leaf scale, the correlation of various hyperspectral vegetation indices with total nitrogen concentration of water on canopy scale was lower. Among them, TCARI/OSAVI index has obvious positive correlation with total nitrogen concentration of water (R2 was 0.73 on leaf scale, and R2 was 0.7 on canopy scale); on landscape scale, SVM model based on bootstrap was adopted to construct the estimation models of total nitrogen concentration based on hyperspectral index TCARI/OSAVI. The model was used on three time phases of HJ-1A HSI hyperspectral images. The precision validation showed good correlations between the simulated values and the measured values (R2=0.61, RMSE=2.96 mg/L). The spatial distribution maps of total nitrogen concentration of water in Shuangtaizi estuarine region acquired from the images of the three time phases showed obvious spatio-temporal distribution patterns. The research on three kinds of scales of leaf, canopy and landscape proved that the hyperspectral response feature of wetland vegetation can be used to estimate the water nitrogen concentration in coastal estuarine region to indicate the water eutrophication level of wetlands.

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    Resource Research Method
    Discussion on Two Key Problems of Multivariable Linear Regression Models for Spatialization of Grain Yield
    LIAO Shun-bao, JI Guang-xing, HOU Peng-min, YUE Yan-lin, YANG Xu
    2015, 30 (11):  1922-1932.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.012
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    The spatialization of statistical and observed data is one of the important methods for processing geospatial data. It is beneficial to comprehensive analysis between inter-disciplinary data. Multivariable linear regression models are often applied to spatialization of attribute data. However, spatialization is a downscaling issue, so the scale of variables and the setting of constant should be considered when a multivariable linear regression model is constructed. In this paper, the problems on the setting of constant and the scale of variables of multivariable linear regression models for spatialization of statistical data were discussed with using national grain yield of China as a case. Firstly, the country was treated as a whole. The relative coefficient of the yield-area model based on statistical samples at county level was 0.74 and that at prefecture level was 0.83. While the country was divided into 7 regions for modeling, the relative coefficient of the model based on statistical samples at county level was 0.82 and that at prefecture level was 0.90. Therefore, the partition modeling based on statistical samples at prefecture level was a reasonable choice. Secondly, based on partition modeling at prefecture level, the constant settings and variable scales of the grain yield-sown area models were further discussed at the scales of region (prefecture level), grid cell (1 km×1 km) and sub-grid cell (100 m×100 m) respectively. The following conclusions were drawn: 1) the multivariable linear regression models based on statistical samples at regional level (for example prefecture) could not be used for spatialization of statistical data at grid scale if the constant was not set to 0, but they could be used at grid scale while the constant was set to 0; 2) the multivariable linear regression models based on statistical samples at grid scale could be directly used for spatialization of statistical data at grid scale whether or not the constant was set to 0; 3) the multivariable linear regression models based on statistical samples at sub-grid scale could also be used for spatialization of statistical data at grid scale whether or not the constant was set to 0. However, the calculated results by the models at sub-grid scale have to be multiplied by a ratio, which is just the ratio of the area of a grid cell to that of a sub-grid cell. The conclusions drawn from this paper have guidance and reference value for spatialization of other kinds of statistical data though they were drawn based on spatialization of grain yield.

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    Method and System Implement of Property Rights Readjustment of Cultivated Land Divided by Linear Project: A Case Study in Land Consolidation Project Along the Shunping Section of Baofu Highway
    TANG Xiu-mei, HAO Xing-yao, PAN Yu-chun, LIU Yu, REN Yan-min
    2015, 30 (11):  1933-1942.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.013
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    With the rapid urbanization and industrialization in China, linear network projects, including highway, railway, water conservancy, oil and gas pipe line, and other projects, develop rapidly. The construction and operation of linear projects lead to land fragmentation, destruction of water conservancy facilities, and problems of cultivated land quality. Because of the linear projects’ construction, the land along the linear projects is inevitably divided into two or more parts. Although the channel reservation and other measures can alleviate the problems, they bring difficulties to modernized agricultural production since large machines are not usable and daily farming activities are inconvenient in fragmented lands. Taking cultivated land divided by highway as a case, this paper explores the method of readjusting the property right of cultivated land divided by linear projects. In this case, the rights readjustment processes are divided into two types, replacement of ownerships and transfer of use rights, according to different readjustment policy. And two kinds of right readjustment methods, equal-area and equal-value, are proposed in this paper. The divided cultivated land plot must be readjusted form one side of the highway to the other side for the convenience of agricultural production. The replacement of ownerships is adopted if two villages readjust their lands each other, then the ownerships of the lands will be replaced and the way of compensation will be determined based on the land area or value. The transfer of use rights is adopted if the readjustment of land is single direction, then the land plot will be used by the other village and also the annual compensation will be determined based on land area or value. The equal-area method and equal-value method are suitable for different occasions. Equal-area method is easy, and it is applicable to lands with small difference in condition attribute difference is small; equal-value method is mainly applied to lands with different conditions, and it is not simply determined by the area conversion index. Supported by GIS service software—SuperMap iServer, an interactive web application for land rights readjustment is built. Taking the land consolidation regions of Gaoyupu town and Yaoshan town along the Shunping section of Baofu highway as the study area, and rights readjustment scheme of the cultivated lands divided by the highway is generated by the software system. The result shows that the generated schema is corresponding with the local situation. The software system can be used to generate rights readjustment scheme automatically, and the scheme can be modified according to user’s require-ments. In addition, the data used by the system can be managed dynamically.

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    Comparison of Assessment Methods for Regional Water Resources Sustainable Utilization
    WANG Ren, CHEN Xing-wei, CHEN Ying
    2015, 30 (11):  1943-1955.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.014
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    The assessment method of regional water resources sustainable utilization is one of the core issues for water resources sustainable utilization evaluation. In order to reveal several typical evaluation methods of regional water resources sustainable utilization and its application effect, in this paper, seven evaluation methods or models which can be grouped into two categories have been selected. The first category is consist of principal component analysis (PCA), analytic hierarchy process (AHP), gray correlation method and improved rank correlation analysis. And fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, BP neural network and support vector machine (SVM) composite the other category. Above seven methods were selected to evaluate indicator system for sustainability assessment of water resources use (ISSAWRU) which has been built in Fujian Province. Then nine districts of Fujian Province were taken as the example. Firstly, the initial ISSAWRU of Fujian Province is constructed from 24 indicators based on the content of Driving -Pressure-State-Impact-Response conceptual model which is abbreviated as DPSIR. The related evaluation results and characteristics of those seven methods or models were compared subsequently. Final analysis of results shows that: 1) The evaluation results of PCA and improved rank correlation analysis method have the highest consistency, and the latter is AHP and improved rank correlation analysis method. Furthermore, improved rank correlation analysis has the most reliable among the comprehensive index type methods. While gray correlation method has some shortages that it may obtain smaller range of evaluation value and higher assessment value of some regions, which actually has lower level of regional water resources sustainable utilization. In addition, the evaluation results of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, BP neural network and SVM are quite different without obvious regularity. 2) In general, traditional methods including PCA, AHP, gray correlation degree and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method are relatively simple and stable. Although BP neural network and SVM can reduce subjective intervention, they show poor stability because of the impacts of index ranking standard, training sample, parameter settings and other factors. 3) Compared with BP neural network, evaluation stability of SVM is better, but the reliability of SVM is greatly affected by division of sample space. This research can provide scientific reference for selecting or analyzing assessment method of water resources sustainable utilization.

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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Research Progress and Prospects in the Methodology of Assessing the Potential of Rural Residential Land Consolidation
    TU Shuang-shuang, LONG Hua-lou, LIU Yong-qiang, LI Ting-ting
    2015, 30 (11):  1956-1968.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.11.015
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    Under the background of rapid industrialization and urbanization, the phenomenon of hollowed villages is aggravating increasingly in China. So it is imperative to carry out rural residential land consolidation, especially in hollowed villages. Assessing the potential of land consolidation is an important part of rural residential land consolidation. This paper reviews related researches about the methods assessing the potential of rural residential land consolidation in order to provide technical references for the practice of hollowed villages consolidation. Firstly, three basic potential evaluation methods were elaborated, including the methods based on per capita construction land standard, per household construction land standard, and vacancy rate of rural residential land. Then, this paper introduces some new methods for potential evaluation in detail, i.e., the comprehensive potential measurement of multi-factors, and remote-sensing interpretation. Finally, this paper proposes that in the future more attentions should be paid to: 1) to emphasize the application of remote-sensing technology; 2) to establish the evaluation index system that reflect the integrated regional differentiation; and 3) to strengthen the dynamic prediction of potential evaluation index based on future rural spatial restructuring and the construction pattern of towns and villages.

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