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    15 August 2015, Volume 30 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert’s Forum
    Improvement of the Evaluation Method for Ecosystem Service Value Based on Per Unit Area
    XIE Gao-di, ZHANG Cai-xia, ZHANG Lei-ming, CHEN Wen-hui, LI Shi-mei
    2015, 30 (8):  1243-1254.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2813KB) ( )   Save
    Ecosystem service value is the base of decision-making for ecological protection, ecological regionalization and ecological compensation, and it appears the dynamic spatio-temporal changes which are closely connected with the variations of ecological structure and function. However, it is still lack of a universal and integrated dynamic evaluation method for ecosystem service value in China. Based on literature survey, expert knowledge, statistical data and remote sensing data, using model simulations and GIS spatial analysis method, this paper modified and developed the method for evaluating the value equivalent factor in unit area, and proposed an integrated method for dynamic evaluation on Chinese terrestrial ecosystem service value. This method can realize the comprehensive and dynamic assessment of ecosystem service value for 11 service types of 14 different types of terrestrial ecosystem at monthly and provincial scales in China. The preliminary application indicated that the total ecosystem service value was 38.1×1012 yuan in 2010, in which the value from forest ecosystem was the highest, accounting for about 46%, followed by water body and grassland. Among different ecosystem service types, the contribution from regulation function was the highest, especially the values from hydrological regulation and atmospheric regulation which accounted for about 39.3% and 18.0% of total service value, respectively. Moreover, ecosystem service value presented apparent spatio-temporal patterns in China. Spatially, the ecosystem service value decreased from southeast to northwest and the highest value appeared in southeastern and southwestern regions. Temporally, the ecosystem service value for most of the ecosystems attained the peak in July and reached the trough during December and January except desert, barren and glacier ecosystem. Generally, although this established method still needs to be developed and optimized, it is the first to provide a relatively comprehensive approach for the spatio-temporal dynamic evaluation of ecosystem service value in China, which will be helpful to the scientific decision-making on natural capital rating and ecological compensation.
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    Resource Utilization and Management
    Cultivated Land Protection Threshold Calculation from Perspective of Multifunctional Demands for Cultivated Land in Mega-urban Region—A Case Study in the Pearl River Delta
    DU Ji-feng, YUAN Zhong-you
    2015, 30 (8):  1255-1266.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.002
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (691KB) ( )   Save
    Cultivated land is the primary resource for the sustainable development of agriculture, society and economy, and its protection has become one of the core objectives of land policy-making in China. Food production, ecological service and sightseeing are the basic functional demands in mega-urban regions, forming the regional particularity which should be fully analyzed in the threshold calculation of cultivated land protection. In a given time period, the demand degree for a certain function in a region depends on the supply sources of the function and its alternatives, and the factual function may not be consistent with the demands as a result of function’s imports from other regions. The total demand for grain has increased dramatically in mega-urban regions since more and more people have settled there. While sufficient food supply from domestic and international grain market has secured the great consumption, the factual grain production function of cultivated land has become weaker and weaker, but the potential grain production capacity of arable land should be a primary objective so as to face the unexpected challenge of food shortage. It is arable land, not only cultivated land, should be protected from this perspective. The demand for social security function of cultivated land is decreasing because more efficient rural social security system has been established in mega-urban regions. Demands for ecological functions, such as soil conservation, hydrologic modulation, air cleaning, and insulating construction land, have increased greatly as a result of serious ecological and environmental problems, while it cannot be imported from outer regions just as the grain consumption does, and also it cannot be supplied by “travel” just as sightseeing function does, it must depend on the region itself. So the ecological function should be an important concern in the calculation of cultivated land protection threshold. Furthermore, cultivated land should be planned systematically within the whole ecological land system. Based on above analysis, the minimum threshold model of arable land protection for food security (SF), the minimum threshold model of tillage land protection for eco-security (SE) and the total threshold model are developed on the base of minimum area per capita model and urban minimum ecological land use planning, such as ecological green equivalent, carbon-oxygen balance and landscape security pattern. The total threshold (SA) is divided into tillage land (SC) and other arable land (SO), laying emphasis on potential productivity protection and structural optimization of ecological land. SC is equal to the minimum value between SE and SB (the actual cultivated land of base year); if SF is greater than SC, SO is the difference between SF and SC; if SF is no larger than SC, SO is equal to 0. The total threshold (SA) at the end of year 2030 is 104.17×104 hm2, with the tillage land (SC) 48.16×104 hm2 and other arable land (SO) 56.01×104 hm2. This case study indicates, to some extent, above calculation models are feasible and suitable.
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    Structural Feature of Cultivated Land Use Output in China
    ZOU Jin-lang, YANG Zi-sheng, WU Qun
    2015, 30 (8):  1267-1277.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.003
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (11566KB) ( )   Save
    Structural feature of cultivated land use output, namely the accurate information on cultivated land output value by crops, is important for making appropriate policies to ensure national food security and promote cultivated land use specialization and its sustainable management in China. The crops planted in the cultivated land are divided into cereal crops, tuber crops, legume crops, oil crops, fiber crops, sugar crops and vegetable crops in this paper. Then the output values of the seven types gathered from China Rural Statistical Yearbook are adopted to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of China’s cultivated land use output value. Furthermore, the output elasticity coefficient and price elasticity coefficient are developed to reflect the impacts of crops output and its price on crops output value. The results show that: 1) Cereal crops and vegetable crops have become the main part of cultivated land use outputs in China currently. The output value of vegetable crops was higher than that of cereal crops in 2007, and had become the biggest output crops since then. Thus, it is concluded that the leading crops of cultivated land output is shifting from cereal crops to vegetable crops. 2) The area where cultivated land output is dominated by vegetables expanded from eastern coastal provinces in 2004 to inland regions in 2012, including two thirds of Main Grain Producing Areas in China. 3) The increase of cereal crops output value in most Main Grain Producing Areas in China is largely due to the increasing total output, while the increase of vegetable crops output value in central and eastern provinces mainly attribute to the rise of price. 4) In the process of cultivated land use specialization, the advantage of cereal crops in Northeast China should be further exerted, and the characteristics of cotton planting in Xinjiang need to be given more prominence. Besides, the comparative advantage of farm production by county must be taken into account greatly in Huang-Huai-Hai region.
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    Carrying Capability and Matching Evaluation of Urban and Rural Construction Land in the Coastal Areas of Jiangsu Province
    GAO Yong-nian, BAO Gui-ye, WANG Jing, YAN Chang-qing, JIN Zhi-feng, YANG Xing-dian, HUANG Qi1
    2015, 30 (8):  1278-1288.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.004
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (8372KB) ( )   Save
    Urban and rural construction land is one of the important land use types. Setting bearing capacity of urban and rural construction land, i.e. bearing scope and border is significant for guiding land development. Based on ecological suitability, five types of ecological security elements, including terrain conditions, geological conditions, soil conditions, land biodiversity conservation and water ecological protection, were selected as the ecological constraints for the spatial expansion of urban and rural construction land, and then the integrative ecological suitability and bearing capacity of urban and rural construction land in the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province was evaluated using the GIS spatial analysis tools based on the principle of buckets effect. The spatial distribution of ecological suitability and bearing patterns was mapped, the bearing thresholds were set, and the abundance of bearing capacity in each county and city was counted. According to current distribution of bearing capacity of construction land, the match between bearing capacity and current construction land was evaluated, and bearing potentiality was accounted. The results showed that the ratio of the area of construction land with carrying capacity to the total land area was 29.53% in the case of no harm to ecological security in the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, however, the area percent of current urban and rural construction land was 15.16%, so there was still 14.37% bearing space of current urban and rural construction land. The ratios of the area urban and rural construction land with carrying capacity to the total land area were 32.12%, 25.28% and 35.41% in Nantong city, Yancheng city and Lianyungang city, respectively. Their area percents of current urban and rural construction land were 16.82%, 12.69% and 18.34%, respectively, so there were still big bearing space of urban and rural construction land for these cities. According to the spatial pattern of ecological suitability in the coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, the seven counties (or cities or districts) including Rugao City, Chongchuan District, Gangzha District, Nantong Economic and Technological Development District, Tinghu District, Xinpu District and Lianyun District have abundant resource for urban and rural construction land, then the nine counties (or cities or districts) including the Qidong City, Hai’an County, Tongzhou District, Funing County, Yandu District, Ganyu County, Donghai County, Guanyun County and Haizhou District are moderate in urban and rural construction land resource, and the left nine counties (or cities or districts) including Haimen City, Rudong County, Dongtai City, Dafeng City, Jianhu County, Sheyang County, Binhai County, Xiangshui County and Guannan County lack of urban and rural construction land resource. The results will benefit to the spatial optimization allocation of the urban and rural construction land and differentiated management.
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    Resource Ecology
    A Study on Spatial Spillover and Correlation Effect of Carbon Emissions across 30 Provinces in China
    LIU Jia-jun, SHI Dan, WANG Chuan
    2015, 30 (8):  1289-1303.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.005
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (9001KB) ( )   Save
    In this study, we take use of spatial correlation and spillover models, combining with 30 provinces data of China (Xizang, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan not included due to data constraints), to make a spatial analysis of the carbon emission intensity and per capita. The results show that: during 2000-2010, the carbon emission intensity was highly spatial correlated, and the spatial pattern of “cold” and “hot” points is relative stable. The spatial correlation of per capita carbon emission was low, with no significant “hot” and “cold” area. The region with significantly spillover effect of carbon emission intensity mainly concentrated in the economically developed provinces at eastern coastal area and traditional energy product provinces in the central and western China. The region with significantly spillover effects of carbon emission per capita mainly concentrated in the area around the Bohai Sea and the Yangtze River Delta where urban agglomerations took place. The central area (Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui) and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau also exhibited some agglomeration effect of carbon emission per capita. The share of carbon emission per capita and intensity in the whole showed a significant divergent effect in the economically developed eastern coastal provinces, while notable convergence effect was found in the western energy products output provinces.
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    The Scenario Analysis on Urban Ecological Land Spatial Conflict and Ecological Security Hidden Danger in Guangzhou
    WANG Hai-ying, QIN Fen, ZHANG Xin-chang
    2015, 30 (8):  1304-1318.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.006
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (8933KB) ( )   Save

    The detection and obtainment of ecological security hidden danger area plays an important role in the protection of urban ecological security. In this paper, based on the intelligent model and spatial analysis method, scenario simulation and analysis of spatial conflict and ecological security hidden danger were made for urban ecological land use in Guangzhou. Three scenarios with different proportion of ecological land were simulated. The research shows that: 1) spatial conflict areas mainly distribute in the urban fringe. In 15%, 30% and 50% scenarios, the urban fringe areas take 95.40%, 86.28% and 77.45% of the total area of spatial conflict respectively. Baiyun, Huadu, Tianhe and Panyu districts of Guangzhou are the major area of spatial conflict. With the increase of the percentage of ecological land, the proportion of spatial conflict in urban core area increase gradually. In 50% scenario, the urban ecological land in Guangzhou will face huge pressure of spatial conflict. 2) Areas with urban ecological security hidden danger mainly distribute in urban fringe area. In 50% scenario, the hidden danger area of urban fringe takes 74.13% of the hidden danger areas. Baiyun and Huadu districts are the most concentrated area of ecological security hidden dangers. While the areas with hidden dangers in the urban core area face greater ecological security pressure. The research results can provide advices for urban ecological security monitoring and pre-warning, and provide referential methods and tools for urban ecological protection.

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    Spatial-temporal Characteristics and Factor Analysis of the Cold Island Effect in the Shihezi Oasis Based on Remote Sensing Images
    GAO Yuan, LIU Pu-xing, YAO Yu-long, YONG Guo-zheng, WANG Yun
    2015, 30 (8):  1319-1331.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.007
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    The paper analyzes the characteristics of spatial-temporal change and factors of the cold island effect in the Shihezi Oasis based on the remote sensed Landsat TM/ETM+ and Landsat 8 TIRS data in 1989, 2000 and 2013 as well as NDVI, LUCC and annual average rainfall data. The results showed that the cold island effect of Shihezi Oasis firstly went weakened and then became strengthened in recent 25 years. There were two heat center, which located in the southern and eastern of the study area. NDVI and LST have a significant negative correlation (R= -0.912). The vegetation index in extreme-high temperature and high temperature area is low. In 1989-2000, the proportion of extreme-low temperature and low temperature area increased 1.1 times. The reason is that some grassland, woodland and farmland turned into water which led to the cold island effect of oasis increased. During 2000-2013, the area of farmland and grassland reduced, while the proportion of extreme-high temperature and high temperature area increased from 19.64% to 26.75%, since the expansion of construction land resulted in the weakening of the oasis cold island effect. It disclosed that LST is closely related with NDVI and LUCC. In addition, urbanization index and temperature are also influence factors of the cold island effect. The temperature risen in the Shihezi Oasis is consistent with global warming. It is important that we should make use of the cold island effect of the oasis in the future urban development.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Spatial Pattern Dynamics of Resource-based Industry in China
    MAO Xi-yan, LIU Ying, HE Can-fei
    2015, 30 (8):  1332-1342.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.008
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    Resource endowment is identified as the primary cause of geographical concentration or agglomeration of resource-based industries. Nevertheless, these industries seem to be able to get rid of resource dependency due to the improving condition of traffic, technology and trade which, in turn, leads to significant spatial dynamics. This paper used locational Gini coefficient to describe the spatial pattern of resource-based industries in China during 1998-2007. Building on this premise, a decomposition method was employed to explore the spatial dynamics of these industries. We elaborate two major claims: 1) resource-based industries exhibited a stable level of concentration, but the result of decomposition revealed a significant trend of spatial mobility. Subject to the dependency of producing processes on natural resources, extractive industry distinguished itself from manufacturing industry due to its higher level of concentration. Moreover, industry mobility of extractive industry was more significant than that of manufacturing industry. 2) Extractive industry primarily concentrated in the inland areas, closely related with the distribution of natural resources. Unlike extractive industry, manufacturing industry tended to concentrate on the coastal area where there are robust and competitive industrial bases. Although there were significant spatial dynamics of both extractive and manufacturing industries, the differentiated spatial patterns of these two sectors never changed. Moreover, resource-based industries did not concentrate at port cities as it was anticipated. On the other hand, a lot of resource-based cities still relied heavily on extractive industries, and are mired in decades of transformation.
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    The Effects of Climate Warming on Different Cultivars of Spring Maize under Climate Warming in Northeast China and the Adaptation Countermeasures
    WANG Pei-juan, HAN Li-juan, ZHOU Guang-sheng, LIANG Hong
    2015, 30 (8):  1343-1355.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.009
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (7592KB) ( )   Save
    Maize is one of the main grain crops in China, and three provinces of Northeast China are the main areas of planting spring maize. The study on the effects of climate warming on spring maize and the adaptation countermeasures is important for national food security. In this paper, daily time series of air temperature during the past 50 years (1961-2010) and the next 20 years (2021-2040) under RCP 4.5 scenario at 71 stations were jointly used to study the spatio-temporal characteristics of heat resources and spring maize cultivars in Northeast China. At the same time, the adaptation countermeasures under RCP 4.5 scenario are discussed. Results show that in the next 20 years, the first date of air temperature ≥10 ℃ stably will be gradually earlier, and the end data of air temperature ≥10 ℃ stably and the first frost date will be later in Northeast China. Therefore, the durative days and accumulated air temperature ≥10 ℃ stably will increase accordingly. The maximum fluctuations of heat resources locate in Sanjiang Plain, where the first date of air temperature ≥10 ℃ stably shift 8 days earlier, and the first frost date are 10 days later. Correspondingly, the durative days and accumulated air temperature ≥10 ℃ stably increase about 15 d and 300 ℃·d, respectively. In the next two decades, the northern boundaries of different spring maize cultivars will move to north and east faster than in the past 50 years. Till 2030s, the north boundary of the mid-late spring maize will expand to 49°32′N, and the east boundary will be at 135°E based on RCP 4.5 scenario. If the planting system is the same as current in 2030s, the sowing date can be 16-20 days earlier or later in Songnen Plain, and be 8-12 days in Sanjiang Plain, and be less than 8 days earlier or later in the coastland of the south region. The alternative countermeasure is to move different spring maize cultivars northward and eastward when climate become warming. If so, the north boundaries of late maize, mid-late maize, and mid maize will move northward about 2°13′N, 1°08′N and 3°N to current boundaries in Northeast China.
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    Temporal and Spatial Variation Characteristics of Extreme Temperature in the Pearl River Basin during 1960-2012
    LIU Qing-e, WU Xiao-qing, CHEN Xiao-hong, YANG Bing
    2015, 30 (8):  1356-1366.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.010
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (7073KB) ( )   Save
    Extreme and high frequency weather events caused by the global warming, have brought huge influences to human activities as well as ecological environment. Within this context, analyzing extreme temperature event that is one of the extreme weather events is of paramount importance for human activities. The Pearl River Basin, one of the richest basins in China, locates in the subtropical monsoon region where the climate characteristics are quite complicated. Meanwhile, as global climate changes, the extreme temperature event in the basin should bring some new change which, however, is still unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of the extreme temperature event in the Pearl River Basin. In this paper, 16 indexes related to extreme temperature were selected. The data about these indexes at 43 weather stations (1960-2012) have been collected and processed to guarantee the rationality of the results. Linear regression, Mann-Kendall as well as wavelet analysis were used to analyze the temporal variation characteristics of the extreme temperature. Kriging, one of the spatial interpolation technologies, was also used to analyze the spatial variation characteristics. The results show that: 1) for the temporal trend, the indexes of ID0, TXn, TX10p and GSL showed non-significant trend whereas the others showed significant increasing or decreasing trend (P<0.05). 2) Spatially, the indexes of TN10p, CSDI, DTR and TX10p showed an overall downward trend whereas the others showed an overall upward trend in the basin, with non-significant spatial variations. 3) The mutation analysis disclosed that except the indexes of ID0, TX10p and GSL, the other indexes all passed significance inspection and most of the abrupt change points happened in 1980s but that of TR20 and SU25 occurred in 1994 and 2001 respectively. 4) The wavelet analysis discovered that there existed multiple periodic oscillations for the values of most indexes and the primary periods were 2-4 years. SCSMI and ENSO are the main factors caused the extreme temperature event in the study area. This study has the potential to provide valuable references for agricultural protection, water resources management, drought disaster control, and other crucial applications in the Pearl River Basin.
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    Variation of Sunshine Duration and Related Driving Forces in Jilin Province during 1961-2012
    LIU Yu-ying, WEI Xiao-li, LI Yu-fan
    2015, 30 (8):  1367-1377.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.011
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3865KB) ( )   Save
    Variation of sunshine duration and its related driving forces have regional difference. In this paper, annual sunshine data at 47 stations in Jilin Province were collected for performing the homogeneity test using the traditional standard normal homogeneity (SNHT) method. Results showed that 31 of 47 stations have homogeneous data. Based on sunshine duration observations at the 31 stations, the characteristics and the influential factors of sunshine duration change was analyzed by the method of linear trend analysis, Mann-Kendall test and wavelet analysis. Some conclusions were that the annual sunshine duration had significant decreasing trend from 1961 to 2012 with a decreasing rate of 53.9 h/10 a. The annual sunshine duration turned from sufficient to absent around 1985. The sunshine durations in four seasons all significantly decreased. In recent 52 years, the annual sunshine hours in most Jilin Province decreased, and the most significant decrease happened in southeast part of the midwestern area and west part of the southeastern area of the province. The low cloud cover is the main cause of the changes of sunshine duration. The increase of air optical depth caused by the atmospheric pollutants had significant influence on the long-term change of sunshine duration and the interannual variation of sunshine hours in winter.
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    Estimates of Agricultural Water and Soil Resources’ Utilization Potential—A Case Study on Hetao Irrigation Area
    NAN Ji-qin, TAO Guo-tong, WANG Jing-lei, LIU Zhan-dong
    2015, 30 (8):  1378-1390.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.012
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    Based on the current situations in calculating agricultural water and soil resource potential in a separated and discontinuous manner, this paper defined and constrained the conception of matching index of agricultural water and soil resource and comprehensively integrate factors related to climate, planting structure, and irrigation efficiency into a whole to evaluate the effects on regional water requirements. To resolve this problem, the paper put forward an innovative conception of calculating soil and water resources potentials, and created and defined the matching index of these two resources. Then, a multi-objective evaluation function and its constraints were used to evaluate the regional economic, ecological and social benefits. A case was studied in Hetao irrigated areas, taking 2010 as a baseline year. Comprehensive potentials and the optimal matching results of water and soil resources under RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5 scenarios in the predicted years of 2020 and 2030 were calculated respectively. Thus a visible expression of resources utilization potential was realized for the first time. Results under RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5 scenarios both in 2020 and 2030 showed significant increases in the economic, ecologic and integrated benefits, but social benefits were unstable. The utilization potentials of water and soil resources showed positive values, that was 0.18×104, 0.04×104, 0.51×104, and 0.10×104 yuan/hm2, respectively. At the meantime, except Jiefangzha Irrigated District, the other irrigated districts all had increases in soil and water utilization potentials compared to 2010, and the per unit integrated benefits were between 0.31×104-8.24×104 yuan/hm2.
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    Research on Evolution of Agritourism in Jiangsu Province
    LI Tao, TAO Zhuo-min, LIU Rui, HE Hai-zhen, WU Jiao, CHENG Shan-shan, WANG Ze-yun
    2015, 30 (8):  1391-1402.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.013
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    Development of agritourism is the effective way to promote the rural economy, optimize the agricultural structure, increase farmers’ income and improve the rural ecological environment. Based on the existing researches, the paper takes 439 star level agricultural tourist attractions and 102 agricultural tourism festival activities as the research variables, and studies and compares the evolution of agritourism in Jiangsu Province by shift-share method during 2000-2012. The results show that agritourism spots and farming festivals play positive roles in promoting the agritourism during 2000-2012 in Jiangsu Province, and they are all the factors contributing to the development of agricultural tourism in Jiangsu Province. Star level agricultural tourist spots are the most important content of agricultural tourism attractions, leading the regional agricultural tourism, and the proportion of their contribution is increasing; With respect to enhance agricultural tourism competitiveness with activities, the contribution of agricultural tourism festival to the structural optimization of agricultural tourism resources is more prominent than that to the agricultural tourism competitiveness, and become a new way to comprehensively develope the agricultural tourism in middle and north of Jiangsu where agricultural tourism resource is abundant. Based on the results of the dynamic shift-share method, the paper divides the development of agritourism in Jiangsu Province into four types: agricultural tourism resource abundant and advanced developed area, agricultural tourism resource scare and lagged developed area, area advantage in agricultural tourism structure, and area advantage in agricultural tourism competitiveness. It is concluded that agritourism was improved in the whole Jiangsu Province during 2000-2012, but there was great regional difference. The development of agritourism is rapid in the northern and middle region of Jiangsu Province, and their advantages are obvious; the development of agritourism in south Jiangsu Province is relative slow, but it kept the core role of agricultural tourism in Jiangsu Province. Finally, the paper puts suggestions on the resources exploration, operation and management, and public participation of the agritourism.
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    The Flow-sediment Relationship and Its Response to Watershed Management in Yanwachuan Watershed, Loess Plateau Gully Region, China
    WANG Yun, LIU Wen-zhao, LI Huai-you, ZHANG Xiao-ping
    2015, 30 (8):  1403-1413.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.014
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    In this study, we investigated the variation of flow-sediment relationship before and after comprehensive management and its response to the management in Yanwachuan Watershed of Loess Plateau gully region. Results showed that the runoff and sediment underwent a significant shift in 1997, and the human activities, which had positive influences on controlling soil erosion, were enhanced in the watershed after 1997. Thus, the whole period was divided into two sub-periods, the base period (1981-1997) and the management period (1998-2009). Whether at annual scale or single rainfall event scale, the flow-sediment relationship between runoff depth and sediment transport modulus varied significantly in the management period comparing with that in the base period. The sediment discharge at unit runoff depth in the management period was significantly lower than that in the base period. At single rainfall scale, the flow-sediment relationship tended to be stable when the flow discharge exceeded a critical value of 3 mm. When precipitation was less than 50 mm, rainfall intensity was lower than 4 mm/h or rainfall duration was longer than 3 h, the flow-sediment relationship in the management period showd significant variation. The comprehensive management of soil and water conservation had altered the flow-sediment relationship significantly at annual scale and single rainfall scale. The sediment discharge at unit runoff depth of individual rainfall under condition of medium-low precipitation, medium-low rainfall intensity or medium-long rainfall duration would be significantly decreased by the comprehensive control measures.

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    Study on the Priority of Soil-covering Demand of Farmland Cultivated Horizon in Hilly Areas—A Case Study in Guangze County of Fujian Province
    CHEN Yan-hua, HE Jia
    2015, 30 (8):  1414-1424.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.015
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    The cultivated horizon has the richest nutrients, the best farming performance and the greatest production capacity in the soil structure. It is the essence of the cultivated land and also the non-renewable precious resource for agricultural production. In order to provide scientific basis and decision reference for regional special planning and land consolidation, this paper took Guangze County of Fujian Province in the southeastern hilly regions as the study area, and utilized the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to establish a synthetic evaluation index system for the priority of farmland cultivated horizon’s soil-covering demand in hilly regions. The index system consisted of two levels. The level I included four aspects of soil configuration, traffic convenience, field site condition and field physicochemical condition. The level II included eight indices of thickness of the farmland cultivated horizon, thickness of the soil layer, distance between the plot and the roadway, slope, plot size, irrigation and drainage condition, soil texture and organic matter content. Then, the weights of indices and evaluation criteria were determined by the modified Delphi method. Finally, the established model was used to evaluate and classify the farmland by the demand of soil-covering. The results were as follows: 5.2% of the whole region was the grade I region which had the most priority of soil-covering demand, in which 54% of the grade I region was the planning and development farmland in low quality, and the other was low-yield paddy field which had good basic conditions but was in low quality. Covering soil in these regions would be lower cost and higher benefit. The region of grade II priority approximately accounted for 49.1% of the total, which was inferior to the grade I region, and was the alternative region of soil-covering for cultivated horizon. The region of grade III and IV priorities accounted for 45.7%, where it was unnecessary to arrange soil-covering projects. The evaluation results consistent with the reality in Guangze County well, which would provide a scientific basis for the project of soil transfer and muck increase and the practice of cultivated land protection.
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