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Table of Content

    15 March 2016, Volume 31 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Discussion
    Research Progress and Controversial Issues of Natural Resources Accounting
    KONG Han-xiao, SHEN Lei, ZHONG Shuai, CAO Zhi
    2016, 31 (3):  363-376.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150366
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (659KB) ( )   Save
    An exploration on the compilation of natural resources asset debt sheet was proposed in the third plenary session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China to audit the retired leading cadres. China's natural resources balance sheet and its related criterion are designed to audit all natural resources asset and promote the construction of ecological civilization, whilst the natural resources accounting is the fundamental work of resources auditing. This article aims to analyze the consensus and dispute during natural resources accounting in three aspects, including the classification of accounting projects, theoretical methods and their practical applications. We found that the researches about resources accounting were started a little bit earlier in developed countries, where many achievements had been obtained in both theoretical methods and practical applications. China's researches, however, still focused on theoretical method, though some accounting methods used in empirical study were basically derived from the existed achievements of developed countries, and lacked innovation. At present, many countries follow the principles of first physical quantity then value, first stock then flow, first class then general analysis when conducting natural resources accounting. However, there is no unified classification of the core projects of accounting widely accepted by all countries, and many disputes still exist in the selections of valuation approaches. In practice the System of Integrated Environment and Economic Accounting (SEEA), which was proposed by the UN, has been accepted by a wide range of authorities, and then many countries began to explore their own resources accounting system in accordance with the SEEA. The authors propose some essential issues in making the natural resources balance sheet of China based on research progresses and existing disputes at home and abroad, such as determining accounting project, selecting valuation approach, the steps of natural resources accounting, and the connection between the accounting and the debt sheet. Some thoughts and methods for solving the above issues are put forward in the article, that is, selecting controllable or property right clear natural resources as accounting project; taking economic, ecological and social values into account when choosing valuation approach; placing priority to the regional natural resources accounting system of single resource; and designing specific natural resource accounting standards. Considering the resources and environmental accounting in the system of national economic accounting,constructing natural resources accounting system is of crucial importance to the compilation of natural resources balance sheet, and plays an important role in the construction of ecological civilization.
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    Resource Economics
    A Study on Total Factor Energy Efficiency and Its Difference in Resource-based Cities in China with Consideration of Environmental Constraints
    LI Bo, ZHANG Wen-zhong, YU Jian-hui
    2016, 31 (3):  377-389.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150315
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    The objectives of this paper are to measure China's total factor energy efficiencies under environmental constraints at city-level, and study the structure and causes of the inter-city differences of the efficiency. The methods of undesirable output SBM model, Theil index, and Theil index decomposition are adopted, and panel data of 102 typical resource-based cities in China from 2004 to 2012 are used in this paper. The results and conclusions are as follows. Firstly, most resource-based cities in China, except for 12 cities including Tangshan, are inefficient in total factor energies. There exist apparent differences in total factor energy efficiencies among the resource-based cities. Dividing all the resource-based cities into different groups based on region, comprehensive classification, and resource type, the average total factor energy efficiencies of resource-based cities within each group is calculated. It finds that there exist apparent differences among city groups. The Theil index of 102 typical resource-based cities during 2004-2012 shows that the difference among groups has not been narrowed. Secondly, when grouping the cities by region, the result of Theil index decomposition shows that the inner-group difference of each region is the major cause of the total energy efficiency difference (from 94.33% to 81.79%), and the inter-group difference is an increasingly important cause of the total energy efficiency difference (from 5.67% to 18.21%). In addition, the total energy efficiency difference of cities in the central region is the most important cause of the total energy efficiency difference (28.44% in 2012). Thirdly, when grouping the cities by comprehensive classification the result of Theil index decomposition shows that the inner-group difference of each class is the major cause of the total energy efficiency difference (from 89.69% to 86.90%), and the inter-group difference is the minor cause of the total energy efficiency difference (from 10.31% to 13.10%). In addition, the total energy efficiency difference in the group of mature cities is the most important cause of the total energy efficiency difference (56.79% in 2012). Fourthly, when grouping the cities by resource type, the result of Theil index decomposition shows that the inner-group difference of each resource type is the major cause of the total energy efficiency difference (from 80.91% to 84.23%), and the inter-group difference is the minor cause of the total energy efficiency difference (from 19.09% to 15.77%). In addition, the total energy efficiency difference of coal resource city group (41.31% in 2012) and comprehensive resource city group (22.38% in 2012) are the two most important causes of the total energy efficiency difference. Furthermore, the total energy efficiency difference of oil and gas resource city group was completely eliminated in 2012. The related implications are discussed based on the results of the empirical study.
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    Urban Land Expansion, Economies of Scale and Quality of Economic Growth
    ZHAO Ke, XU Tang-qi, ZHANG An-lu
    2016, 31 (3):  390-401.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150051
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    Despite the fact that the relationship between urban land expansion and economic growth has been repeatedly studied in recent years, little attention has been paid to the effect of urban land expansion on the quality of economic growth. We propose that urban land expansion not only influences economic growth, but also has effect on the quality of economic growth through industrial structure upgrading, urbanization, ecological environmental change and economies of scale. This paper focuses on the effect of urban land expansion on the quality of economic growth through the change of economies of scale. We know that construction land expansion lays foundation for carrying on more capital investment, employment and industrial activity in urban area, and that land expansion is helpful to enlarge the scope of market and to attract more companies and population to concentrate in cities, therefore it improves agglomerative and scale economy. But if the city is too big to be beyond the optimal scale, urban land expansion will bring more administrative, transportation and environmental costs, resulting in a negative impact on the quality of economic growth. Therefore there may be inverted U-shaped relationship between urban land expansion and quality of economic growth. To explore the relationship between them, econometric method was used to analyze relevant data of China during the period of 2001-2012. The sample of this study includes 30 provinces except Tibet autonomous in mainland China due to incomplete statistics. Our results showed that the inverted U-shaped curve between urban land expansion and scale efficiency existed in the space dimensions of the central area, the western area and the whole country, but not statistically significant in the eastern area. Secondly, the results showed that the conclusion is robust that urban land expansion has negative effect on total factor productivity through economies of scale in four spatial dimensions, indicating that urban land has exceeded the optimal scale, and capital, land and labor are not in the best proportion. Thirdly, the results found that human capital, urbanization, industrial structure upgrading, and infrastructure have positive impact on the quality of economic growth, which are consistent with other literature conclusions. The contribution of this paper is that we have explored the effect of urban land expansion on total factor productivity, while other studies focus on the effect on economic growth. The results have two implications for making polices. The first one is that urban land expansion should be controlled within a reasonable range to meet the needs of economic development and residents living. The second one is that land use efficiency should be intensified to a greater extent. Land use intensity would substitute for urban land expansion to reduce land investment.
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    Resource Ecology
    Study on the Regional Difference of Eco-compensation Standards for the Marine Ecological Products Based on Marine Fisheries' Eco-Label Schemes
    XIAO Jian-hong, WANG Min, LIU Juan, ZHANG Ran
    2016, 31 (3):  402-412.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150103
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    Marine fisheries' eco-label schemes are used to research the regional difference of ecological compensation standards (ECSs) for the marine fisheries' eco-label products (MFEPs) using two island tourist destinations as typical cases. The results indicated that: 1) 93.41% of respondents in Putuo District of Zhoushan City would like to pay for the MFEPs , and it is 95.90% in Changdao County of Yantai City. Moreover, the respondents in the two destinations would be willing to pay higher prices for the MFEPs than for the ordinary seafood products. 2) In Zhoushan destination, the ECSs undertaken by tourists from Zhejiang Province, Jiangsu Province and Shanghai City, Anhui-Jiangxi-Fujian-Henan-Hunan-Hubei-Shandong pro-vinces, and the other provinces are 10.53, 10.98, 11.03 and 11.18 yuan per kilogram, or 14.39, 17.59, 20.54 and 22.87 yuan per person, respectively. The ecological compensation funds were 1.035 8×108 yuan in 2013 by marine fisheries' eco-label schemes. 3) In Changdao destination, the ECSs undertaken by tourists from Shandong Province, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei-Shanxi-Henan provinces, and the other provinces are 10.86, 12.85 and 13.70 per kilogram, or 13.26, 17.57 and 17.56 yuan per person. The ecological compensation funds were 0.207 0×108 yuan in 2013 by marine fisheries' eco-label schemes. The study found that the regional difference of ECSs exist in two destinations.
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    Grain Size Effect of Landscape Metrics in Wuxi City
    WU Wei, FAN Shi-wei, XU Li-ping, ZHANG Min, OU Ming-hao
    2016, 31 (3):  413-424.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150303
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    Wuxi city in the Yangtze River Delta Area is taken as a representative case of urbanizing regions of China with great pressure of biodiversity conservation and environmental protection. The multi-weight factors model based on natural and artificial factors was applied in the process of identifying local ecological contribution pattern patches. Five main factors, i.e., slope, height, land use type, distances to settlements and traffic network, and their relative weights were obtained from previous results. The basic spatial cell unit is 30 m. By the scale the landscape pattern was converted to ArcGrid formats with grain sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 cells. Above two steps were computed in ArcGIS 10.0 environment based on the dataset interpreted from TM images. Landscape metrics were used to detect the grain size effects of ecological pattern. Five landscape connectivity indicators, including number of links (NL), number of components (NC), integral index of connectivity (IIC), probability of connectivity (PC) and importance value of PC (dPC), were computed in ConeforSensinode 2.2 environment. Landscape metrics at class and landscape levels, including total class area (CA), number of patches (NP), patch density (PD), largest patch index (LPI), landscape shape index (LSI), perimeter area fractal dimension (PAFRAC), aggregation index (AI), splitting index (SPLIT), mean shape index (MSI), area-weighted patch fractal dimension (AWMPFD), cohesion index (COHESION), division index (DIVISION), Shannon's diversity index (SHDI), Shannon's evenness index (SHEI), were computed in Fragstats 4.0 environment. The results showed that with the increase of grain size, these metrics changed dramatically, and there existed scale domains of landscape metrics. The scale domains of landscape metrics at class and landscape levels were 2-30 cells and 2-10 cells respectively, and that of landscape connectivity indicators was 2-7 cells. The scale domain of 2-7 cells, i.e. 60-210 m, was recommended. The scale domain of landscape connectivity indicators was more precise compared with those of other landscape metrics. Landscape connectivity indicators were suitable for the research of grain size effect. However, it should be noticed that the response degrees of different landscape connectivity indicators were different.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Restructuring and Optimizing Production-Living-Ecology Space in Rural Settlements--A Case Study of Gougezhuang Village at Yesanpo Tourism Attraction in Hebei Province
    XI Jian-chao, WANG Shou-kun, ZHANG Rui-ying
    2016, 31 (3):  425-435.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150172
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    Currently, optimization and adjustment of spatial pattern in rural settlements is necessary for promoting the ecological civilization and the new urbanization. Integrating the methods of participatory rural assessment (PRA), GIS spatial analysis and remote sensing images' interpreting, this study analyzes the rural spatial restructuring process of tourism villages through a case study of Gouge Village in Yesanpo tourism area in the past 28 years. The results indicate that Gouge Village had gone through a rapid spatial restructuring process induced by tourism. It is manifested in the reduction of traditional production and living space, and the increase of new production-living and production-ecology space. Rural restructuring is characterized by three aspects: the migration of production space from the periphery to central area of the village, the transformation of living space from scattered distribution to agglomeration, the change of the utilization of ecological space from scattered to integrated mode. The traditional rural spatial restructuring is for assembling industrial development, centralizing farmers' living and intensive resources utilization. Different from the restructuring of traditional rural settlements, the spatial restructuring in tourist settlements are characterized with spatial fusion, tridimensional expansion and moderate intensive. This process of rural restructuring, representing an ideal pattern of urbanization, is precisely anastomosed with the starting point of new urbanization. The spatial evolution path of tourism urbanization should follow the outward direction, putting much emphasis on the construction and reconstruction of public space for living space, the integrated function for production space, and the consolidation and protection of ecological landscape and traditional culture for ecological space, so as to establish a comprehensive institutional system. The research conclusion will provide theoretical basis to promote China's new tourism urbanization and rural planning.
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    Study on Time Sequence of High-standard Prime Farmland Based on LESA
    BIAN Zhen-xing, YANG Zi-jiao, QIAN Feng-kui, ZHU Rui-xue, KANG Meng
    2016, 31 (3):  436-446.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150081
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    Large-scale, high quality capital farmland construction is regarded as one of great national strategies in China. The paper makes full use of agricultural land classification results and is based on stable background of the high-standard prime farmland construction. As the material basis for the development of modern agriculture, well-facilitated capital farmland is the key to ensure food safety in China which improves the comprehensive productivity of cultivated land and agricultural production condition. The construction, effective management and efficient utilization of well-facilitated capital farmland have great significance for food security and modern agriculture. The time sequence of high-standard prime farmland construc-tion were determined by the integrated quality and limiting factors. Taking Shenbei city in Liaoning province as an example, based on the actual situation of Shenbei, the farmland quality and site condition were evaluated separately with LESA method. First of all, we established land evaluation system mainly about soil fertility. The key indicators are soil texture, depth of obstacle layer, content of soil organic and profile configuration. Expert evaluating method was applied to calculate the weight. We established site evaluation system reflecting the external condition. The evaluation is divided into two parts, farm infrastructure and socio-economic conditions. Then indicators were used to calculate the correlation coefficient, and quality score of each part was obtained. Finally the system of farmland evaluation and site assessment was established. According to the definition of quality facilities in capital farmland, capital farmland, which is presently in good condition or can be transformed into good condition in the future, are quality facilities. They can be divided into three kinds of construction zones. The capital farmlands with the highest ranking were those which can achieve the construction standard very soon through slight improvement. They belong to short-term construction zone. Those capital farmlands have the potential to become high quality farmland by improving the limiting factors belong to mid-term construction zone. Some capital farmlands having more limiting factors belong to long-term construction zone. According to different regional chara-cteristics, quality facilities in farmland construction should be carried out differently. Regions strategies that can improve the present limiting factors should be carried out first. Short-term construction zone of the study area accounts for 43.95%. The construction of short-term zone is targeted at agricultural infrastructure construction to build well facilitated, high quality and stable modern farmland. Mid-term construction zone of the study area accounts for 25.01%. The leading construction for mid-term zone is improving natural quality to establish coordi-nated and productive farmland. Long-term construction zone of the study area accounts for 31.04%, being in the worst socio-economic conditions. It is under high pressure of urbaniza-tion, so the attention should be focused on the balance between urbanization and agriculture when constructing quality facilities. In order to improve the overall condition of farmland, the construction should be in full swing to achieve high standards of prime farmland construction.
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    Site Condition Assessment during Prime Farmland Demarcating
    QIAN Feng-kui, ZHANG Lin-lin, JIA Lu, WANG Shan-wei
    2016, 31 (3):  447-456.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150218
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    Good quality and stable site conditions of farmland are important basic qualifications of demarcating permanent basic farmland. The researches of basic farmland concentrated more on farmland quality but less on farmland site conditions, which has made the basic farmland be adjusted frequently and be unstable. Taking the Donggang City in Liaoning Province as the research case, this paper explores the questions of basic farmland demarcating from the point of farmland's site conditions under the condition of guaranteeing the good and uniform quality of farmland. The research constructed the assessment system of farmland site condition by location factors and farming convenience factors. It calculated the quantified effecting values of farmland site condition factors with exponential decay model and calculated the risk distance and stable region with correlation analysis model. The results showed that: 1) the site conditions are the important composition of permanent basic farmland and have great effect on the stability of basic farmland; 2) the location factors have negative impact on the risk of farmland being occupied in certain distance, and have positive impact beyond the risk distance with the effect attenuating gradually in concentric circles; and 3) the farmland site condition in Donggang City is divided into four grades, the area of farmlands of first grade, second grade and third grade is 89 954 hm2, accounting for 86.30% of the farmland. They have better site location and farming convenience, thus are suitable for basic farmland.
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    Quality Evaluation and Protection Zoning of Forest Land Based on Local Spatial Autocorrelation
    XIONG Chang-sheng, TAN Rong
    2016, 31 (3):  457-467.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150254
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    Designing a suitable zoning scheme for forest land protection can play active role in guiding and regulating the sustainable usage of forest resources, the balance of ecology and the coordinated development of economic and ecological civilization. This paper takes the spatial distribution properties of forest land into account when formulating a scientific protection scheme of forest land, taking the Tunchang County locating in Hainan Province as an example. Firstly, the quality of forest land was evaluated scientifically, and the local spatial autocorrelation analysis was introduced to explore the spatial characteristics of forest land quality. Then, the natural and socio-economic properties of forest land are combined with the spatial distribution characteristics to form the basis for protection zoning of forest land. Results indicate that: 1) the quality value of forest land varies from 5.40 to 8.56 in the whole county with little variation, overall being in moderate and upper levels. In detail, 13.71% of the forest land is the first-grade land which mainly locates in the southwestern Xichang Town and along the border between Nankun and Fengmu Town, while 18.35% of the forest land is the fourth-grade which mostly spreads over Poxin and Nanlü Town. The second-grade and third-grade forest land take 32.57% and 35.26% respectively which disperse all over the county. 2) The index of Moran's I is 0.531 7, which means strong positive spatial autocorrelation of forest land quality. Therefore, it reveals that the forest land quality has a certain spatial clustering characteristics in the county. 3) According to the local spatial autocorrelation analysis, the protection scheme of forest land in Tunchang County was designed. It is consistent with the quality evaluation results basically, which divides the forest land into key protected region, active protected region and general protected region. Different protection measures can be implied in different kinds of protected regions. In conclusion, taking the spatial distribution property of forest land into consideration in the design of protection zoning is a method for forest land protection division, and it provides a new idea for rational forest land use planning.
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    Study on the Effect of Farm Households' Specializationon Low-carbon Agriculture: Evidence from Vegetable Growers in Beijing, China
    SONG Bo, MU Yue-ying, HOU Ling-ling
    2016, 31 (3):  468-476.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150214
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    It is of significance for studying on effect of households' specialization on low-carbon agriculture since the farm household' specialization and low-carbon agriculture are both important aspects of modern agriculture's sustainable development. Using specialization theory and low-carbon economic theory, this paper analyzed the effect of farm households' specialization on low-carbon agriculture. Then, according to the field survey data of vegetable growers in Beijing in 2013, simultaneous equations model and seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) method were used to test the theoretical results. The findings show that the specialization of farm household is negatively correlated with agricultural carbon emissions at the 5% significance level, while it is positively correlated with both agriculture yields and agricultural carbon productivity at the 1% significance level. The result of theoretical analysis was proved empirically, which indicates that the specialization of farm household will be great beneficial to low-carbon agriculture.
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    Water Use Patterns of Two Typical Plants Based on Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotopes at Dumping Site in the Opencast Coal Mining Area of Heidaigou
    YANG Guo-min, WANG Li
    2016, 31 (3):  477-487.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150190
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    The stable isotope tracer technique was used to analyze the water sources and their seasonal changes of two plants (Populus simonii and Hippophae rhamnoides) with different life forms, and IsoSource Model was used to determine the probable contribution of certain soil-layer water source to total water uptake of plants. The result showed that δD and δ18Ο in rainfall water are in significantly negative correlation with the amount of precipitation, and there are obvious seasonal variation of δD (δ18Ο) values. In the dry season (March-June), hydrogen isotopic composition is enriched and the value of δD (δ18Ο) is higher; in the wet reason ( July-September) when rainfall events are frequent, the δD (δ18Ο) value in rainfall water deplete. In the dry season, Populus simonii uses soil water largely from the 10-150 cm layer, 25.6% of which is from the 100-150 cm layer. Hippophae rhamnoides uses soil water from all the soil layer (0-150 cm), 26.5% of which is from the surface layer (0-10 cm). Populus simonii does not used soil water from the 0-10 cm layer that avoids the inter-specific competition with Hippophae rhamnoide. In the wet season, two species both absorb water from shallow layers (0-60 cm). Populus simonii uses more than 70.9% of water from the 0-60 cm layer, and Hippophae rhamnoides uses more than 73.5% of water from the 30-60 cm layer. These findings indicated that two species utilize rationally the limited soil water in dry season by the different strategies, and use preferentially the shallow soil water when the soil water supply is adequate in wet season, which makes it much easier for them to be adaptive to the fragile ecological system in opencast coal mining area. The research will be useful for vegetation reconstruction in the opencast coal mining area.
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    The NDVI Characteristics of Vegetation and Its Ten-day Response to Temperature and Precipitation in Beibu Gulf Coastal Region
    TIAN Yi-chao, LIANG Ming-zhong
    2016, 31 (3):  488-502.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150188
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    By analyzing the response of vegetation coverage climate change in Beibu Gulf coastal region, this paper aims to provide references for studies on regional vegetation restoration and vegetation productivity. Based on 10-day SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI data and 10-day temperature and precipitation datasets during the period of 2000-2011, this study uses the mathematical-statistic methods, such as dimidiate pixel model, correlation analysis, partial correlation analysis and time-lag partial correlation analysis to explore the quantitative characteristics of temporal-spatial change of vegetation coverage and their correlation with the climatic factors in Beibu Gulf coastal region. The results indicate: 1) In recent 12 years, the vegetation coverage in the Beibu Gulf coastal region increased by 6.79%, from 65.23% in 2000 to 72.02% in 2011. 2) The ten-day average NDVI in growing season ranged from 0.21 to 0.67, showing the tendency of a little reduce at the beginning, then going up steadily and finally going down again. 3) The NDVI of all kinds of vegetations had significant relationship with temperature, all passing the test at significant level of 0.01, and the significance level of correlation between NDVI and temperature is higher than correlation between NDVI and precipitation, which showed that the vegetation coverage of NDVI is more sensitive to temperature. 4) The time-lag partial correlation coefficient of NDVI and temperature was significantly higher than that of NDVI and precipitation, the lag time of NDVI and precipitation being 6-9 ten-day periods, that of NDVI and temperature being 0-5 ten-day periods. 5) The growth of different types of vegetations responded to temperature and precipitation differently, and the vegetations whose NDVI have higher time-lag partial correlation coefficient with water and heat conditions have short response time. In conclusion, the vegetation in Beibu Gulf coastal region is in recovery in past 12 years, and its response to precipitation and temperature has obvious threshold and is lag in time.
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    Resource Research Methods
    Crop Identification Based on MODIS NDVI Time-series Data and Phenological Characteristics
    PING Yue-peng, ZANG Shu-ying
    2016, 31 (3):  503-513.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150358
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    Agriculture is the foundation of the national economy. Identification of agricultural information by using remote sensing technique in real-time have been a hot topic. This paper aims to study the distribution of the main crops (soybean, corn, rice) effectively in large scale. Firstly, with the Asymmetric Gaussians method of TIMESAT software, the MOD09Q1 datasets with 250 m resolution were used to filter and reconstruct the time-series NDVI curves. Then seven phenological characteristics (start time of the growth season, end time of the growth season, length of the season, amplitude of NDVI, left derivative of NDVI at the beginning of the growth season, right derivative of NDVI at the end of the growth season and integral of NDVI during the growth season) were extracted. Secondly, to analyze the characteristics of time-series NDVI curve of vegetables, water and construction land were masked off because their maximum NDVI values were less than 0.5. Then in order to get the optimal classification accuracy of the crop land, hierarchical classification method was conducted as below: 1) using SVM classification to extract agricultural area based on the time-series NDVI data; 2) using SVM classification to identify three crop classes (soybean, corn, rice) with different combination of three bands (NDVI: NDVI bands; PH: phonological bands; NDWI: NDWI bands) on the basis of the first step. We compare the Overall Accuracy and Kappa coefficient of different combinations, and the result was as below: NDVI+NDWI>NDVI+PH+NDWI>PH+NDWI>NDVI+PH>NDVI>PH, the combination of NDVI+NDWI being the best. It was found that higher dimensions won't bring higher accuracy necessarily, and the application of NDWI can improve the overall accuracy of rice effectively. In addition, it is workable to identify the crop types with the help of phonological information.
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    Research on the Effect of Wetland Vegetation LAI on the Relationship between LUE and PRI by in situ Data and PROSPECT-SAIL Model
    WANG Jing-xu, DING Li-xia, CHENG Qian
    2016, 31 (3):  514-525.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150240
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    Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) is an effective index to rapidly estimate Light Use Efficiency (LUE). The analysis of various factors influencing the relationship between these two variables is the premise for improving the precision of estimating LUE. In this paper, three kinds of wetland plants Salix matsudana, Tamarix chinensis and Phragm itescommunis in Hangzhou Bay were selected, and the diurnal variations of their photosynthesis and the synchronous vegetation spectrum were measured. At the same time, the PROSPECT-SAIL model was used to simulate the Leaf Area Index (LAI) of canopies from small to large vegetation, and the effect of LAI on the relationship between canopy PRI and LUE were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) the diurnal variations of PRI and LUE all have good relations for Phragm itescommunis, Salix matsudana and Tamarix chinensis, and the R2 were 0.581 6, 0.524 6 and 0.514 6, respectively; however the correlation between PRI and LUE of the same vegetation in different periods of growth will be weakened, since PRI can't accurately estimate the LUE when the canopy LAI is small. 2) When LAI < 5, the soil background has great influence on canopy PRI, and the low brightness of soil has less affected on the canopy PRI. 3) When LAI > 5, the soil background has little influence on canopy PRI, and canopy LAI itself is the key factor that influence the relationships between PRI and LUE. Therefore, the relationships between PRI and LUE needs further exploration, such as model improving and more parameters should be researched in order to constantly improve the accuracy of the LUE estimation.

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    Comprehensive Discussion
    The Transformation Development of Recreation and Tourism from Traditional Industrial Zones in Metropolis
    YU Hu, LI Ya-juan, LU Lin, CHEN Tian
    2016, 31 (3):  526-542.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150284
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    Transformation development of leisure tourism from the traditional urban industrial zone is a key issue in the process of space optimization and industry transformation of Chinese metropolis contemporarily. Research on leisure tourism transformation of traditional industrial zone in metropolis has not formed systemic theories and research methods yet. The paper combed the domestic and foreign researches on the trend, value, spatial evolution, elements, mode, effect and strategy of the leisure tourism transformation, and discussed the difference in research period, contents, and method at home and abroad. The value of developing leisure tourism in the traditional industrial zone mainly lies in their industrial heritage, location, land and public welfare. Meanwhile, leisure tourism transformation of metropolitan traditional industrial zone is beneficial to the development of the city in stimulating the population to flow back, recovering economics, redeveloping brownfield,promoting the urban landscape reformation, improving the urban ecological environment and living environment, and finally developing the urban culture. In terms of transformation modes,the successful modes at home and abroad include urban public recreation space,modern urban business district (CBD), creative industry park as well as hybrid functional areas. As to the successful transformation strategies,there are networked cooperative organization based on multiple themes,important festival events at the breakthrough point, cyclic and hybrid development of land, integration of the local historical cultural characteristics. It lacks systematical analysis of background, elements, power, and spatial evolution of transformations in existing researches. The future research on the leisure tourism development from traditional industrial zones in Chinese metropolis should focus on transformation modes, effect of economy, society and space, transformation process and mechanism. At the same time, we should pay attention to drawing lessons, absorbing foreign successful experiences and improving the research methods and technical routes.
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