Table of Content

    20 May 2015, Volume 30 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Discussion
    Study on Theories and Methods of Chinese Food Waste
    WANG Ling-en, CHENG Sheng-kui, LIU Gang, LIU Xiao-jie, BAI Jun-fei, ZHANG Dan, GAO Li-wei, CAO Xiao-chang, LIU Yao
    2015, 30 (5):  715-724.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1918KB) ( )   Save

    As an increasingly concerned social phenomenon, food waste has not yet attracted enough attention from academia. Till now, the theoretical study on food waste is weak both at home and abroad, and there is still not yet a complete theoretical system and sophisticated research methods. As an important part of food losses, the food waste occurs in all aspects of the food supply chain. This includes many characteristics, such as diverse forms, complex formative factors, unique production purpose, and different judgment standards in different countries and cultures. Quantitative measurement of food waste, food waste comprehensive assessment, the driving forces of food waste, food waste monitoring and control are the main contents in the existing food waste literature. The use of multidisciplinary research methods will help further advance the research in food waste. Empirical research, systems analysis, economic model analysis, life cycle analysis and ecological footprint method are the primary methods in this field. Based on these findings and the social demands, future food waste study in China should focus mainly on the following five areas: 1) The comprehensive research on food waste in catering services; 2) the in-depth study on household food waste; 3) the school food waste research; 4) research on the processing and use of wasted food; and 5) policy oriented research on food waste.

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    Resource Economics
    Study on Relationship between Spatial Heterogeneity of Land Resources and Economic Development: A Case Study of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration
    ZHANG Jun-feng, ZHANG An-lu
    2015, 30 (5):  725-735.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.002
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    Spatial heterogeneity of land resources is actually the spatial difference of land resources. It has an important influence on land resource utilization and management in China. Studying the spatial heterogeneity of land resources and the land differentiation policy are the new situations, new tasks and new challenges for land resources management. Meanwhile, it is also the objective requirement of the synchronous development of “urbanization, industrialization, informatization and agriculture modernization”. The purpose of this paper is to measure the degree of spatial heterogeneity for land resources and analyze the relationship between spatial heterogeneity and levels of economic development. Wuhan Urban Agglomeration was an empirical research object. The methods of principal component analysis and Tobit model were used. The paper constructed a land resources spatial heterogeneity evaluation model by principal component analysis to measure the degree of spatial heterogeneity for land resources of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration. And then, this paper built a regression model to explore the relationship between spatial heterogeneity and levels of economic development. The results indicate that: The spatial heterogeneity of land resources was actually caused by the heterogeneity of land resource properties, such as quality, structure, quantity and endowment. The heterogeneity of land quality and structure were major reasons. The interval of spatial heterogeneity of land resources indicator was from 0.015 to 0.737, and the land resources in different units of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration had different degrees of heterogeneity, which could be divided into high heterogeneity, mid-high heterogeneity, moderate heterogeneity, mid-low heterogeneity and low heterogeneity. The spatial heterogeneity of land resources of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration presented the characteristics of “higher in center and lower at edge”, and the numbers of units and areas in regions with different degree of heterogeneity were significantly different. For example, the area proportion of low heterogeneous area was 65.57%, but the sum of area proportion of high heterogeneous area and mid-high heterogeneous area were only 18.71%. The level of economic development had a significant influence on land resources spatial heterogeneity. Per capita GDP and urbanization rate had the positive influence on the land resources spatial heterogeneity of Wuhan Urban Agglomeration. However, the proportion of the third industry had a negative impact. Raising the proportion of the third industry could reduce the land resource heterogeneity ofWuhan Urban Agglomeration.

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    Regional Differences of Restriction on Farmland Development Rights under Land-Use Regulation and the Economic Compensation: Cases in Wuhan, Jingmen and Huanggang, Hubei Province
    ZHU Lan-lan, CAI Yin-ying
    2015, 30 (5):  736-747.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.003
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    This paper chooses villagers from city of Wuhan, Jingmen and Huanggang in Hubei Province as typical region. We analyze the effects on farmers' income and land-use behavior exerted by land-use regulations, and estimate farmers' possible loss under the land use regulations in different regions in the paper. The results are as follows: Firstly, the farmers' income and land-use behavior have significant regional differences. The farmers' agricultural income in grain producing areas is 30929.29 yuan higher than that in priority development zones. Farmers in ecological function areas prefer to plant economic crops. However, in grain producing areas located at Jianghan Plain, farmers tend to plant food crops and have stronger willing to manage agricultural land. Secondly, land-use regulation has greater impact on farmers having higher agri-income, higher farmland input, lower agricultural land management will, and planting economic crops only or planting food crops combining with economic crops. Thirdly, the effect of land-use regulations has significant spatial heterogeneity. The land-use regulation in priority development zones is the most serious, and it is the most moderate in ecological function areas. Fourthly, the spatial heterogeneity of land-use regulation leads to the differences on farmers' welfare loss in different regions. Thereinto, the annual welfare loss caused by regulation in priority development zones is 23839.34 yuan/(hm2·a), 22266.71 yuan/(hm2·a) in ecological function zones and 14445.58 yuan/(hm2· a) in grain producing areas.

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    Eco-efficiency Change Driven by Products and Factors: Combining Input-Output and System Optimization Models
    ZHANG Xiao-di
    2015, 30 (5):  748-760.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.004
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    One of the goals of China's strategy for a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth is the reduction of CO2 emissions in the meantime keeping economic growth, which requires an increase of eco-efficiency. This paper defines improving eco-efficiency as achieving more goods and service outputs with less resource inputs as well as less waste and emissions. With special focus on low-carbon economy and decoupling carbon emission from economic development, here only GHG is taken into consideration in measuring China's eco-efficiency.
    Starting from Leontief input-output analysis, this paper uses a system optimization model with the constraints for primary inputs to measure the eco-efficiency of an economy, and examine the contributions of individual production factors, desirable outputs and pollutions to eco-efficiency change over time. Employing a multiple objective optimization model an eco-efficiency frontier of the economy is generated, the solutions of which define the virtual eco-efficient decision making units. Then the eco-efficiency of the economy can be obtained as the difference between the potential of an economy and its actual performance. This model considers inputs, desirable outputs and undesirable output (GHG emission only) simultaneously, and takes into account both economical and ecological aspects. Having derived the score of eco-efficiency, a Luenberger productivity indicator is proposed to estimate the eco-productivity change over time; this is then decomposed in a way that enables one to examine the contributions of individual production factors, individual pollutants and individual commodities to eco-productivity change. The results allow an inference as to whether economic growth, primary input-saving or emission abatement are the underlying driving forces for eco-efficiency change.
    Based on China's input-output tables, this paper calculates and compares our country's ecoefficiency performance between 1997 and 2010. A clear eco-efficiency regress of 50% was observed in China during this period, mainly due to the changes in both factor uses and sectoral outputs. Out of the 0.0096 total absolute decrease of eco-efficiency score, primary factor contributes 0.0078, and sectoral output leads to 0.0066, while GHG reduction activities bring about 0.0048 increase. Therefore, it could be concluded that in the past over 10 years, industrial development as well as factor use did not achieve the efficiency frontier, while emission abatement made such a great progress that it improves the efficiency of the economy. Among labor, capital and land, skilled labor is the only scare factor of production which might affect eco-efficiency. During 1997-2010, decreasing utilization of scarce high-skill labor enlarged the distance between the actual production and the efficiency frontier, and thus reduced eco-efficiency. Twelve out of the 18 industries made positive contribution to the efficiency change, while the remaining six including food processing, textile, non-metallic products, transport and services acted as obstacles. The results above would help identify the key sectors and inputs towards the objective of low-carbon growth.

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    Resource Ecology
    The Study of Landscape Health Based on Landscape Structure and Water Environment: A Case Study of Xixi Wetland Park in Hangzhou
    LI Yu-feng, LIU Hong-yu, ZHANG Hua-bing, SUN Yi-ming, LI Yu-ling
    2015, 30 (5):  761-771.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.005
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    In recent years, urban wetland parks are developed rapidly, but there are few theoretical researches on urban wetlands. So the theoretical researches are demanded urgently to maintain the health and sustainability of urban wetland parks. As a new concept emerging from landscape ecology and ecosystem health, landscape health is the subject dealing with ecosystem health on the scale of landscape. Several theories and methods, including the theories of geography, landscape ecosystem, environmental science and the methods of RS, GIS, geostatistical analysis and modeling, were used to study the theory of landscape health in urban wetland park. Considering the characteristics of urban wetland parks, landscape structure health and landscape process health were applied in landscape health assessment based on the landscape functional classification, and a case study was done in Xixi Wetland Park. The main research findings include: 1) the area of very good health and good health landscape mainly distributed near the center of the park, covering 23.63% of the whole park; and 2) the area of ill health and diseased landscape accounted for 41.39% of the park and distributed near the surrounding area of the park. Based on the study of landscape health, many suggestions were provided for the management of the park, including reducing human disturbance, adjustmenting landscape structure, and maintaining the water quality in the wetland park.

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    Effects of Coast Beach Reclamation on the Change of Landscape Pattern and Its Spatial Centroids: A Case Study in Coastal Wetland of Part of Yancheng National Natural Reserve
    FANG Ren-jian, SHEN Yong-ming
    2015, 30 (5):  772-783.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.006
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    Landscape pattern change has received much attention in recent years, since they provide key information of the effects of human activities on landscape. Most of past works mainly focused on the whole landscape pattern rather than the internal variation of the landscape. Meanwhile, lots of studies are about urban area, watershed, forest and wetland, while few have been done on the coast. In China, works about landscape change in the Liaohe River Delta, the Yellow River delta and the Zhujiang River Delta have been conducted at the county scale, and some works have been done concerning the features of coastal landscape at the national scale. To investigate the impact of reclamation on the landscape pattern of coastal wetlands, in this paper, Yancheng National Natural Reserve (from Xinyang Port to Simaoyou River) was chosen as the study area. This area was divided into two parts: unreclaimed (from Xinyang Port to Doulong Port) and reclaimed (from Doulong Port to Simaoyou River) zones. Supported by RS, GIS and FRAGSTATS technologies, using remote sensing data from 1984 to 2013 as basic information resource, the impacts of reclamation on the change of coastal wetland landscape pattern and the displacement of patches' centroids were analyzed. The results indicated that: 1) In unreclaimed zones, the natural landscape remained dominant in the landscape structure, taking 84.6% of the area in 2013. From 1984 to 2013, the wetland of Pragmites communis and Spartina spp. increased by 4770.6 hm2 and 4202.8 hm2 respectively, while the wetland of Saueda spp. decreased by 2656.7 hm2. In reclaimed zones, massive original natural landscape converted to artificial landscape types during 1984-2013, and the artificial landscape held dominant position in the landscape structure since 2000. The natural vegetation area continuously decreased except Spartina spp., while the aquaculture pond area increased rapidly, reaching 60.5% of the area in 2013. 2) In unreclaimed zones, the landscape fragmentation remained at low level (from 0.27 to 0.28) after 1995, while the shape of patches trended to be complex and irregular. And the landscape diversity increased by 0.19 from 1984 to 2013. On the contrary, in reclaimed zones, the landscape fragmentation had a significant increase of 0.27 during 1984-2013, while the patches' shape trended to be simple and regular, and the landscape diversity decreased by 0.26. 3) In unreclaimed zones, the main driving factor of landscape pattern change was natural forces, and the centroids of landscape types moved continuously and keep the same direction. Conversely, because of the intervention of human activities, the movement of landscape type centroids in reclamation zones was disordered, variable and intricate.

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    Resource Evaluation
    Temporal and Spatial Variations of Chinese Maize Production Potential on the Background of Climate Change during 1960-2010
    GE Ya-ning, LIU Luo, XU Xin-liang, ZHANG Xue-xia, YUAN Lan-lan, ZHANG Xiao-feng
    2015, 30 (5):  784-795.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.007
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    Based on the remote sensing data of arable land spatial distribution in China in 2010, and meteorological data, soil data and other data from 1960 to 2010, using GAEZ (Global Agro-Ecological Zones) model, we took into account of the light, temperature, water, CO2 concentration, agro-climatic constraints, soil, topography and other factors to estimate Chinese maize production potential, and analyzed the spatial and temporal patterns of Chinese maize production potential caused by climate change in the past 50 years. Studies have shown that: 1) In 2010, the total production potential of maize in China is 834 million tons, and there are significant spatial differences of maize production potential, which gradually decreases from east to west; the total production potential of maize in Northeast China Plain is the highest, reaching 197 million tons; maize production potential in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the minimum. 2) In the past 50 years both the maize production potential and total production potential of China showed decreasing trends. 3) The changes of maize production potential and total production potential in China have great regional differences. Northeast China Plain has the greatest increase of both the maize production potential and the total production potential; changes in other districts are relatively smaller. This study reveals the temporal and spatial variations of Chinese maize production potential on the background of climate change in the past 50 years. It provides a scientific basis for exploring how to adapt to climate change, how to raise the level of Chinese maize production and how to guide maize production and management.

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    Characteristics of Radiation Budget and Energy Partitioning on Land and Lake Surface under Different Summer Weather Conditions in the Hinterland of Badain Jaran Desert
    MANing, WANG Nai-ang, HUANG Yin-zhou, LI Hong-yu, LU Jun-wei
    2015, 30 (5):  796-809.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.008
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    Based on the in-situ observations on land and lake surface in the hinterland of Badain Jaran Desert, we compared the diurnal variation of radiation flux, energy partitioning and bowen ratio under different weather conditions in summer. The results showed that the radiation flux on two underlying surfaces performed significant difference in different weathers. The downward shortwave radiation, upward shortwave radiation and net radiation (Rn) on both land and lake surfaces decreased in the order of “sunny-cloudy-overcast-rainy day”, while the downward long wave radiation increased in the same order. However, the increase of upward long wave radiation on the lake surface indicated that energy from groundwater and advection influenced the temperature of lake surface to some extent. The sensible heat took up the main portion of Rn on land surface on a sunny day. Both cloud and rain could lead to significant change of bowen ratio on land surface. Apparent temperature inversion was observed on the lake surface in the afternoon on sunny days because of the negative H; however, this phenomenon could be broken by the rain. The latent heat was decided by wind speed rather than temperature, and it showed no relevant relationship with weather's change. The advection effect and groundwater recharge could enable the sum of H and LE larger than the Rn on the lake surface. The radiation budget and energy partitioning of land surface on typical sunny days showed no significant difference to the monthly average status; however, the radiation and energy partitioning on the lake surface on sunny days showed great deviation from the monthly average.

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    Quantitative Analysis of Climate Factors for Potential Evapotranspiration Changes in Shandong
    DONG Xu-guang, GUWei-zong, WANG Jing, LIU Huan-bin
    2015, 30 (5):  810-823.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.009
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    Based on the daily data from 1961 to 2010 of 90 meteorological stations in Shandong Province, the changes of potential evapotranspiration (ET0) were studied by analyzing the sensitivity coefficients of ET0 to average wind speed, relative humidity, sunshine duration, daily maximum temperature and daily minimum temperature together with the relative changes of these climate factors by using the Penman-Monteith method recommended by FAO. The results showed that the annual ET0 was decreasing with the speed of -1.818 mm/a, and it is more significant in summer. The mutation of annual ET0 happened around 1983 and the annual ET0 increased indistinctly after that. The influence of average wind speed on the changes of ET0 was greater in northwest Shandong and was less in the coastal area. The influence of average relative humidity on the changes of ET0 was larger in the peninsula and was less in the middle mountain area. The influence of sunshine duration on the changes of ET0 was greater in southwest Shandong and south Shandong. The influence of maximum temperature on the changes of ET0 was greater in southwest Shandong, west Shandong, and north Shandong. The correlation between climate factors and the changes of ET0 was significantly different in space. The changes of ET0 was primarily attributed to the wind speed due to its significant trends of decreasing, and followed by sunshine duration. The maximum temperature and the minimum temperature had a little positive contribution to the change of ET0. The positive contribution of relative humidity was greater in the coastal area. The main impacting factor was the wind speed generally in a whole year, and it was so in spring, autumn and winter, but it was sunshine duration in summer. However the peninsula is an exception, that the relative humidity was always the main factor. The sites dominated by the wind speed reduced obviously after the mutation, but that dominated by the relative humidity increased evidently. Because of the significant decrease of sunshine duration in summer, the main impacting factor in summer was sunshine duration in most areas after the mutation.

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    Evaluation on Stationarity Assumption of Annual Maximum Peak Flows during 1951-2010 in the Pearl River Basin
    GU Xi-hui, ZHANG Qiang, WANG Zong-zhi
    2015, 30 (5):  824-835.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.010
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    The stationarity is the basic assumption in the traditional statistical analysis of hydrological series. Taking the cases of the annual maximum peak flows at 28 stations across the Pearl River basin during 1951-2010, this study attempts to evaluate the abrupt changes of the mean and the variance of peak floods with Pettitt method. Besides, two nonparametric (Mann-Kendall and Spearman) tests are used to detect the temporal trends. Generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and long-term persistence are used to test the stationarity assumption. The results suggest that: 1) The mean/variance variation are detected mainly in the basins of the West River and the East River where the change points mainly happened in 1990 and during 1968-1987, respectively. 2) The existence of change points greatly affected the trend test results. The annual peak flood flow series are free of significant trends if change points are taken into account. 3) For both the annual peak flow series with and without abrupt changes, the results based on GAMLSS model indicate that gamma distribution are the best extreme value distribution, however the differences between the parameters of non-stationary and stationary models in terms of θ1 or θ2 is small for series without change point, while it is on the contrary for the series with change points. 4) Higher Hurst coefficient is detected at the stations where the peak flood flow series show significant abrupt changes or significant trends, and vice versa. It should be noted here that the Hurst coefficient is subject to larger uncertainty due to limited sample size in this case. It can be confirmed that the peak flood flow series of the East River Basin is still non-stationary even though the Hurst coefficient is high; and the high Hurst coefficients of the peak flood flows within the West River Basin could be attributed to the short-term variability in the backdrop of long-term stationary processes. The results of this study are crucial for the risk assessment of flood events and the design practice of hydraulic engineering facilities.

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    The Distribution of Precipitation and Multi-temporal Scales Drought-flood Analysis in the Jialing River Basin
    DU Hua-ming, YAN Jun-ping, YANG Deng-xing, YANG Rong
    2015, 30 (5):  836-845.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.011
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    Based on the meteorological data in the Jialing River Basin from 1961 to 2012, the distribution of precipitation and drought-flood were analyzed by using the methods of mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that: In the past 52 years the annual average precipitation had a decreased trend in the Jialing River Basin with the rate of 13.69 mm/10 a, the sudden precipitation reduction occurred in 1984. The trends of seasonal precipitation varied greatly, that summer and winter precipitation increased by the rate of 5.76 mm/10 a and 0.64 mm/10 a respectively, and spring and autumn precipitation decreased by the rate of 5.1 mm/10 a and 15.16 mm/10 a respectively. Affected by the monsoon and the altitude, the precipitation had distinct spatial difference in the Jialing River Basin. The precipitation in this basin showed a decreasing trend from the southeast to the northwest. The annual average precipitation was 1000.01-1254.63 mm in the east of Bazhong-Langzhong-Suining, 800.01-1000.00 mm in the east of Lueyang-Mianyang and west of Bazhong-Langzhong-Suining, and it was 464.59-800.00 mm in the west of Lueyang-Mianyang. The precipitation showed a decreasing trend except that in Daxian and Shapingba. The areas in the east of Bazhong-Langzhong-Suining and in Wudu region had the most reduction of precipitation, with the rate of -0.01 mm/10 a--10.00 mm/10 a. The precipitation largely reduced in the line of Lueyang-Guangyuan-Mianyang, with the rate of -20.01 mm/10 a--39.08 mm/10 a. The frequency of waterlogging was high in the 1960s. The drought and flood disasters appeared alternately in the 1970s and 1980s, but it was overall waterlogged; it was droughty since the 1990s, that the frequency and the degree of drought were higher than that waterlogging. The Jialing River Basin became increasingly dry in recent 52 years. However, 1990 was a turning point that this area was flood before 1990 and drought after 1990. It was coherent with the precipitation in this area, which had an obvious waterlogging to drought trend, and the trend of drought was persistent. More attention should be paid to the drought control work.

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    Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Hainan Tourism Based on a Climate-Resolving Index
    XING Cai-ying, ZHANG Jing-hong, LIU Shao-jun, ZHANG Ming-jie
    2015, 30 (5):  846-857.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.012
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    Based on daily observation data (temperature, wind, relative humidity and visibility) of five cities and counties in Hainan during 1965 to 2012, the paper develops a New Climate Index for Tourism (NCIT). This index is used to quantitatively evaluate the regional tourism climate resources in Hainan, and investigate the impact of climate change on tourism. It turns out that: 1) The annual frequencies of ideal tourism weather conditions in the five cities and counties all show downward trend with fluctuations; the dominant factor affecting tourism condition in Sanya is wind, and it is apparent temperature in the rest of cities; the seasonal distribution of the frequency of ideal tourism weather condition in Wuzhishan is unimodal, while it is bimodal in other cities. 2) In winter and earlier spring, the climate warming has little influence on the tourism condition of Sanya, but it'll obviously improve the tourism climate environment of other places; in summer and early autumn, the tourism condition are generally in disadvantage conditions except in Wuzhishan; for the full-year, climate warming does more harm than good to the tourism comfort degree in Haikou, Sanya and Changjiang. 3) In summer and early autumn, the increase of humidity in Sanya, Qionghai and Changjiang will improve the tourism comfort degree due to the frequency of the rainfall; however the humidity increase in winter will benefit the tourism condition of Wuzhishan. 4) The new climate-resolving index for tourism not only shows the characteristics of tourism climate resources in different parts of Hainan, but also can be used to evaluate the effects of climate change on tourism climate resources. Statistical analysis shows that the tourism climate conditions are closely related to the climate change and geographical environment.

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    The Relationship between Terrain Factors and Spatial Variability of Soil Nutrients for Pine-Oak Mixed Forest in Qinling Mountains
    WU Hao
    2015, 30 (5):  858-869.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.013
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    In the middle part of Qinling Mountains where the mixed forest of Pinus tabuliformis and Quercus aliena var. accuteserrata distributed densely, we set 20 sampling plots and took soil specimens to assay the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter in three different soil layers (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm). By calculating the variable coefficients of those seven soil nutrient indices and using CCA ordination (canonical correspondence analysis), we analyzed the relationships between spatial variability of soil nutrients and four terrain factors (elevation, slope-position, aspect and slope). Results indicated that: 1) The One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the contents of total nitrogen, organic matter, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium have significant decline tendency with the increased depth of soil layer, while the contents of total phosphorus and total potassium have no significant difference in three different soil layers. 2) The results of variation coefficients showed that all of the seven soil nutrient indices have moderate variability. The highest variation coefficient is that of available nitrogen in 0-20 cm, and the least is that of total potassium in 0-20 cm. 3) From CCA diagram we can see that the different types of terrain factors have obviously different influences to different degrees on soil nutrient spatial variability. The effect of terrain factors on 0-20 cm surface soil is very weak; the main influence factors on 20-40 cm soil layer are aspect and elevation; for 40-60 cm soil layer, they are elevation and slope position; and as for the 0-60 cm layer they are slope and elevation. Above all, the high heterogeneity of terrain caused the different spatial distribution patterns of soil nutrients in the pine oak mixed forest in Qinling Mountains.

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    Ecological Stoichiometry Characteristics and Physical-chemical Properties of Soils at Different Latitudes on the Loess Plateau
    ZENG Quan-chao, LI Xin, DONG Yang-hong, LI Ya-yun, CHENG Man, AN Shao-shan
    2015, 30 (5):  870-879.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.014
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    The element stoichiometry has been successfully used in indicating community succession and vegetation restoration in recent years. Information about the stoichiometry of soil C, N, and P at different latitudes can help to understand the relationship between vegetation restoration and soil quality, and it is also beneficial to the processes and functions of ecosystem. However, the soil stoichiometry characteristics at different latitudes are poorly documented on the Loess Plateau. To explore the effects of latitudes on ecological stoichiometry of soils in the north of Shaanxi Province on the Loess Plateau, 34 soil sites were sampled from five vegetation zones. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and other properties were analyzed in all soil samples. The results indicated that soil C:N, C:P, N:P ratios varied with latitudes in the range of 8.79-22.00, 9.91-35.92 and 1.06-3.25 in the 0-5 cm soil layer and in range of 8.02-21.03, 7.36-24.01 and 0.82-2.22 in the 5-20 cm soil layer, respectively. Soil C: N ratio did not change much with latitudes. Soil C:P ratio and N:P ratio decreased significantly with the increase of latitude. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were quite consistent with each other in the regular spatial distribution, showing the same trend of declining with the rising of latitude in the studied areas, and their contents were higher in the 0-5 cm soil layer than those in the 5-20 cm soil layer. There were significant positive correlations between soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Both soil C:N ratio and C:P ratio were significantly positively correlated to the soil N:P ratio, while the soil C:N ratio was significantly negatively correlated to the soil C:P ratio. Phosphorus was lower in the high latitude areas than that in the low latitude areas. The soil nutrients, such as total nitrogen, phosphorus and soil organic carbon, gradually accumulated with the vegetation restoration, and the contents of these nutrients were significantly higher in forest soil than that in desert and sandy areas. It seemed that the vegetation at higher latitude is more easily limited by nitrogen than that at lower latitude.

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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Research Progress on the Quantitative Relationship between Land-Use/Land-Cover Change and Climate Change
    CAO Qian, YU De-yong, SUN Yun, HAO Rui-fang, LIU Yu-peng, LIU Yang
    2015, 30 (5):  880-890.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.05.015
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    Currently, global warming poses a serious threat to sustainable development of human society. Taking effective measures to promote adaptation to climate change are of strategic significance for the sustainable development of human society. Research shows that the main driving forces of global climate change are greenhouse gas emissions, and changes of land use/land cover. In the past, scientific communities mainly focused on how to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, however, the relationship between land use/land cover change and climate change as well as how to adapt to climate change did not arouse enough attention. This article discusses the biogeophysical impact of land use/land cover change on regional climate, summaries the research progress of their quantitative relationship, and finally points out that current studies pay less attention to: 1) the relationship between landscape pattern and climate processes; 2) impact of human activities on land surface biophysical characteristics; 3) limitations of regional climate models; and 4) adaptation to climate change from the view point of land system planning. In view of the existence of above questions, this article proposes that sustainable land system design is an effective way to promote climate change adaptation, and will be a key issue of future research.

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