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    20 July 2014, Volume 29 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources Ecology
    Study on the Provincial Difference and Influential Factors of Eco-Compensation in China
    LIU Chun-la, LIU Wei-dong
    2014, 29 (7):  1091-1104.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2122KB) ( )   Save

    Owing to the differences in China's regional development level, ecological resources situation, etc, so the eco-compensation practical work also has certain regional difference. Eco-compensation's compensation types, benefit bodies (who compensate, compensate to whom), compensation standard (how much should be compensated), compensation form, compensation way and channel are the keys issues for eco-compensation research and practice work. There are great provincial differences in eco-compensation's practice situation in China. 1) In the aspect of eco-compensation types, involving synthesizing eco-compensation, forest eco-compensation, wetland eco-compensation, garbage disposal eco-compensation, watershed eco-compensation and other types, great provincial differences also exist. 2) In the aspect of eco-compensation standard, Beijing, Guangdong and other wealthy provinces had relative high eco-compensation standard, while Xinjiang, Tibet, Gansu, Guizhou and other poor provinces had relative low standard. 3) In the aspect of eco-compensation way and channel, transfer payment from the exchequer was mainly adopted, compensation fee, resource value fee and resource tax, were applied more or less in some provinces. 4) In the aspect of eco-compensation form, central government's transfer payment from the exchequer and provincial government's compensation for eco-protector, are the two main ways. 5) In the aspect of benefit bodies,"central government-local government, local government-peasant household"are the main bodies, which existed in every province, and the bodies of"enterprise-local government, enterprisepeasant household"are the supplement. The provincial differences of eco-compensation in China were closely related to national policy, eco-environment situation, eco-resource endowment and geographical distribution, eco-environmental protection enthusiasm, social and economic development level, public's understanding on eco-resource value, regional geographical environment and etc. With regard to the provincial difference of eco-compensation in China, we should not only realize the objectivity of its subsistent, but also take steps to control and concert.

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    Building Model Based on Processes and Simulating Landscape Change in the Coastal Wetlands—A Case Study of the Core Area in Yancheng Natural Reserve
    ZHANG Hua-bing, LIU Hong-yu, HOU Ming-hang, LI Yu-feng
    2014, 29 (7):  1105-1115.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (8742KB) ( )   Save

    Wetlands are one of the most important ecological systems on earth. Their unique ecosystem function has been sometimes called"the earth's filtration system". Coastal wetland is an important type of wetland, which is not only a rare ecosystem but is also often found in areas disturbed by human activities. Landscape changes have become the most significant feature of this fragile zone. Landscape process model has already become an important means for the further development on the research of landscape changes, and its importance is recognized increasingly. Costal wetland is kind of a highly complicit landscape system, with dynamic changes. The muddy coastal wetland in Yancheng is one of the most typically primitive coastal wetland for its significant strategic position in global biodiversity protection. Over the years, under the influence of the nature and human socio-economic development, the wetland landscape structure and function changed dramatically. In this case, constructing a landscape process model could be used to explain spatiotemporal dynamic change process of the wetland landscape on mechanism. The article divides the core area of Yancheng National Nature Reserve into two patterns: the human-managed one and the natural one. According to the landscape material and wild's ecological monitoring data of 2000, 2006 and 2011, the costal wetland landscape process has been constructed, and the outcome is as follows: 1) Substituting space for time, combined with grey relational analysis, it concludes that the key factor that influences costal wetland landscape change is the soil salinity and moisture. 2) Using artificial neural networks can achieve the space distribution of the soil salinity and moisture, meanwhile, through layer overlay and hierarchical statistical method, it figures out the scope of threshold value and change rules of the soil salinity and moisture. 3) Constructing costal wetland landscape process based on the key ecological process with the GIS-Matlab-CA technology and inspects its overall precision, Kappa coefficient and consistency, it turns out that the concordance rate of spatial location finally determines the accuracy of the whole landscape simulation. 4) Use the founded model to predict the outcome of 2012-2020 and 2025; it forecasts that the tendency of reed swamp, spartina marsh expansion and salsa swamp decrease in Yancheng costal wetland will become much more obvious.

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    Resources Utilization and Management
    The Impacts of Land Use Change and Watershed Scale on Hydrologic Type Regions
    WEI Zhao-zhen, LI Jian-zhu, FENG Ping
    2014, 29 (7):  1116-1126.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (8862KB) ( )   Save

    Using Haihe River Basin as the study area, based on the annual rainfall and water surface evaporation data of 1956-2005, digital elevation model and the remote sensing data of land use (1970, 1980, 2000) and sand content of soil, we delineate the hydrologic type regions (HTR) of the Haihe River Basin adopting GIS and multivariate statistical analyses, with the unit basin as division unit. We analyzed the average characteristic value of underlying surface conditions and climate factor in HTRs, the spatial distribution and hydrological characteristics of each region. Then the impacts of land use change and unit basin scale on hydrologic regions were discussed. Through the delineation of HTRs for Haihe River Basin based on different land use conditions, it turned out that, during 1970-1980, HTRs changed a lot that because land use varied greatly, the land use of Haihe River Basin mainly transferred from urban area and grassland to farmland, which caused HTRs transferred from HTR2 to HTR7 and HTR6 to HTR2; during 1980-2000, the land use of Haihe River Basin rarely changed, therefore HTRs varied a little. The result of hydrologic type regions varies with land use change, and land use change will directly or indirectly influence the spatial distribution of hydrologic type regions, and the more obvious the land use change, the greater the variation of hydrologic type regions. Through the delineation of HTRs for Haihe River Basin based on different unit basin scales, we found that unit basin scale plays some part in the spatial distribution discreteness of HTRs. The distribution of hydrologic regions is more discontinuous for small scale unit basins, whereas, the distribution is more continuous for large scale unit basins. Overall the delineation result is relatively stable when the change of unit basin with an average area less than 150 km2, although the distribution of hydrologic type region does change, yet when a greater change of unit basin average area happens and the area variation reaches more than 250 km2, the delineation result will change greatly.

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    The Differences Between Land Use Function and Land Use to Reflecting the Change of Land Use System and Their Impacts on Landscape Pattern:A Case Study of Lantian County in Shaanxi Province, China
    LIANG Xiao-ying, GU Zheng-ming, LEI Min, WANG Xiao
    2014, 29 (7):  1127-1135.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2259KB) ( )   Save
    The focus of the study is to reveal the land use system change by the change of land use function. Attempts have been made to quantify land functions based on land use information which are often limited since land use is not always a good indicator for the actual functions performed by the land at that location. According to the difference of providing services by the land, the land use function is divided into three categories and six types in this paper. Compared to the result of land use change and the effect on the landscape pattern, several conclusions of differences by using land use function were drawn: 1) Both land use types and land use functions can reveal the change among the different types of both. The land use types can reveal the change among the differenct types making up the special land use functions more clearly. Meanwhile,this indicated that land use function can maintain the same with the dramatic land use types'change too. 2) The land use function may dramatically change without any change in land use types, this indicated that impact assessments based on current monitoring and modeling techniques are often limited to land functions. 3) The analysis on the land use function may give a more comprehensive result of land use system than the result of land use change under the combination of special land use types. The analysis result by using land use function is not the simple sum of the result by the land use types composing the special land use function. The analysis of land use change's effect on the land use system may only show the effect of a special land use type, while the analysis of land use function on the land use system not only provide the information of the effect of the special land use type, but also the integrated effect among different land use types.
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    Environmental Management Zonation for Coal Mining—Taking Inner Mongolia as an Example
    GENG Hai-qing
    2014, 29 (7):  1136-1144.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2082KB) ( )   Save
    Energy, metallurgy, building materials, chemicals and other heavy industries have been developing fast in China in recent years. Correspondingly, the resources & environmental impacts become more and more serious, so the new spatial framework as well as stricter regulations are very necessary. However, the current regionalization such as natural division, sector division, economic division and functional division can hardly be applied to policy-making for the fixed industries. Accordingly, the "one size fits all policies" widely existed in environmental management. To make the policies more suitable to regional resources & environment capacity, the concept of environmental management zones for industries has been brought forward and practiced in coal mining of Inner Mongolia. For the zonation, indices of ecological sensitivity, water resources sensitivity and arable land sensitivity are constructed. The ecological sensitivity is graded into three levels according to Analytical Hierarchy Processes and Grey Fixed Weight Clustering analysis. The water resources sensitivity is graded into three levels according to the weighted sum of sub-indices. The arable land sensitivity is defined as the ratio of arable land to the county or city and the most sensitive areas are extracted. By combining the grades of the above indices, Inner Mongolia is classified into four types of zones at the countylevel except to the forbidden exploitation areas which are represented by the main nature reserves. Based on that, the resources conditions, development status and the main environmental constraints for coal mining in each type of the zones are depicted, the recommendations for environmental management are raised.
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    Resources Economics
    National Coal Emergency Reserve Scale Modeling and Sensitivity Analysis from Welfare Economic Perspective
    LIU Man-zhi, QU Chuan-zhi, ZHOU Mei-hua, XIE Feng-min
    2014, 29 (7):  1145-1158.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1337KB) ( )   Save
    Decision-making of optimal scale of coal emergency reserve is the core problem in coal emergency reserve management. From the perspective of welfare economy, using costbenefit analysis method and combining the characteristics of coal reserves products, we built the national coal emergency reserve scale model. Through the parameter estimation, numerical simulation, the optimal scale of national coal emergency reserve was estimated under the baseline scenario and its main influencing factors were excavated by sensitivity analysis. The results show that: the optimal scale of national coal emergency reserve is the scale when the national coal emergency reserve marginal revenue equals to its marginal cost; under baseline scenario the optimal reserve scale is 16 days of coal consumption amount which is equivalent to the 4%-5% of annual total coal consumption through parameter estimations of the price elasticity of coal demand, coal reserve cost, coal price and coal supply interruption scale by using numerical simulation; the price elasticity of coal demand and coal supply interruption scale are the two main factors which influence the optimal reserve scale by sensitivity analysis, if the price elasticity of coal demand transfers from -0.12 to -0.1, -0.13, -0.15, the optimal coal emergency reserve scale would respectively change from 16 days to 27 days, 12 days and 7 days, and if the average number of days of coal supplies disruptions transfers from 14 days to 20 days, 12 days and 7 days, the optimal reserve scale would respectively change from 16 days to 44 days, 9 days and 1 day. That if the average number of days of coal supplies disruptions is 7 days and below, the amount of national coal emergency reserves is built equaling to 1 day amount of the coal consumption. The conclusions of the study can provide a theoretical basis and data support for the decision-making of national coal emergency reserve scale.
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    Assessing the Economic Vulnerability to Disasters of Cities:A Case Study of Haidian District in Beijing
    YUAN Hai-hong, GAO Xiao-lu
    2014, 29 (7):  1159-1172.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2560KB) ( )   Save
    Cities in China face high and rapidly increasing exposure to disaster risk, calling for effective countermeasures. Disasters occur only when hazards meet vulnerability; it is difficult to control the hazards, especially the natural hazards under current technology conditions, reducing disaster vulnerability is the most direct and effective way to reduce disaster risk, which requires first and foremost the identification and assessment of vulnerabilities of societies, economies, etc. Economic vulnerability assessment is a significant step in risk assessment, a prerequisite for effective disaster prevention planning and an important base for emergency management and recovery plan. Strong variation in economic vulnerability by location calls for microanalytic study which can provide useful and practical information for prevention planning, crisis management and recovery plan, therefore we choose block as the basic spatial unit. This paper developed a model for the economic vulnerability assessment, which is composed of the scale of enterprises, the vulnerability and importance of industrial sectors and economic density, accordingly, this paper conducts a case study of Haidian District in Beijing, the results show that the overall economic vulnerability of Haidian District is relatively low, 103 out of 647 blocks which account for only 4.91% of the area of Haidian District are at the level of high and very high economic vulnerability, however, these regions spatially agglomerate and have been the agglomeration areas of high-tech industries, commercial services, exhibition services, medical services, and the government services, all of which play an important part in Haidian's economy as well as Beijing's, therefore, we suggest that more attention should be paid to these regions in disaster risk management.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Scaling Effect on Spatial Variability of Soil Organic Carbon in Different Geomorphic Units on the Loess Hilly Region
    ZHANG Zhi-xia, XU Ming-xiang, SHI Chen-di, QIU Yu-jie
    2014, 29 (7):  1173-1184.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (7705KB) ( )   Save

    The scaling effect on spatial variability of the soil organic carbon (SOC) of cropland in different geomorphic units were studied in Zhuanglang County on the Loess Hilly Region by using a geostatistics method combined with Geographic Inform System (GIS),the scales included county scale, complete geomorphic unit and town scale. The results showed that: 1) Soil organic carbon content was low in different scales on the study area. The order of mean and the variation coefficient of organic carbon content in complete geomorphic unit and town scale was different. 2) As the research scale changed, the impact of natural factors on the variance of SOC did not significantly change in high mountain region, whereas it changed obviously in hilly and gully region where the influence of random factors increased with the decrease of the study area. The rates of nugget to sill were 0.08 and 0.41 respectively in complete geomorphic unit and town scale of hilly region, whereas in the high mountain region they were 0.16 and 0.10 respectively. For example, the smaller the area, the interpolation information about organic carbon content was more abundant. 3) The elevation and soil type were the main influencing factors of SOC spatial variation on the county scale. In gully region, all the factors were not significant between the complete geomorphic units and the town scale. In the hilly region, the main factors were the altitude and the soil type on the complete geomorphic unit scale, but on town scale it was the slope gradient of field surface. In the high mountain region, the main controlling factor was soil type on the geomorphic unit scale, but the town scale was the soil erosion degree.

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    Change Characteristics and Prediction of Climatic Conditions of Heating in Northeast China
    CHEN Li, LI Shuai, QIN Xue, ZHANG Hong-mei, ZHANG Hong-jie
    2014, 29 (7):  1185-1195.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3652KB) ( )   Save

    Northeast China is so cold in winter that it is defined severe cool region based on the regulations of"Thermal Design Rules for Civil Building (GB50176-93)". With the highest heating intensity and the longest heating days in China,the energy requirement for heating in Northeast China is the strongest. The amount of energy for heating depends on the air temperature. Analysis of change characteristics of climatic conditions of heating in Northeast China is urgent, because the climate change affects the energy usage. According to the regulation of "Code for Design of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (GB50019-2003)", a 5-day running mean method is used to determine the start and end date for heating. The degree day method is used to calculate the heating intensity, with the indoor base temperature of 18℃ as a standard according to"Energy Conservation Design Standard for New Heating Residential Buildings (JCJ26-95)". Changing rate of energy consuming for heating is calculated too. Based on the data of daily average temperature of 88 weather stations in Northeast China from 1957 to 2011 and statistics methods of trend coefficient, increasing/decreasing ratio, Mann-Kendall abrupt analysis and a linear regression, this article analyzes change characteristics of the air temperature during the heating period, the heating days and the heating intensity from 1957 to 2011 in Northeast China. Conclusions are as follows. The mean value of average temperature during heating period from 1957 to 2011 is -8.2℃. The average temperature during heating period increases obviously in Northeast China, with the ratio reaching 0.17℃/10 a and its abrupt year is 1982-1983. The mean value of heating days from 1957 to 2011 is 186 d. The heating days decrease obviously in Northeast China, with the ratio reaching -2 d/10 a and its abrupt point is the year of 1990. The mean value of heating intensity from 1957 to 2011 is 4959℃·d. The heating intensity decreases obviously in Northeast China, with the changing ratio of energy consuming for heating reaching -17.7%/10 a and its abrupt year is the mid 1980s. Based on the method of a linear regression, the heating intensity could fall 210℃·d and the changing ratio of energy for heating could decrease by 4.4% when the average temperature during the heating period increases by 1℃. In addition, a forecast model is built by using the circulation index.

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    Research on the Characteristics of Wind and Thermal Field for Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Xining
    MAMing-liang, QI Dong-lin, SHEN Hong-yan, ZHANG Jia-kun
    2014, 29 (7):  1196-1206.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5268KB) ( )   Save
    Based on ground meteorological and upper altitude data from 2009 to 2011 in Xining district, the characteristics of wind and thermal fields in atmospheric boundary layer was studied and simulated. The results show that, the surface wind field in Xining was complex, which had a great influence on terrain. The wind direction at higher frequencies agreed with valley's changes. The average wind speed in valley floor was lower, about 1 m·s-1, and it had features of low wind speed in Beichuan Valley and Southwest Huangzhong County. The high and surface dominant wind direction was conversed below 100m, and the high dominant wind direction was mainly W and WNW at 7:00, however the dominant wind direction was mainly ESE and WNW, and the maximum wind speed was mainly W and WNW at 19:00. The vertical wind shear index is about 0.6 in winter, and about 0.45 in summer. The change of vertical speed in winter is greater than that in summer, and is greater during the nighttime in summer than during the daytime. The feature of thermal fields showed that the temperature inversion frequency is about 30% higher in winter than in summer. The characteristics of thermal fields were higher frequency and deeper inversion layer in the morning than in the evening. The characteristics of inversion in Xining district were more obvious than that in the valley city and humid region of Loess Plateau, weaker than that in the arid region of Loess Plateau. The characteristics of mixing layer height in winter and spring was higher, and the lowest in winter, while the mixing layer height in arid season is higher in humid season within the same temperature of air. The daily mean of mixing layer height has larger variation, from 200 to 3000 m, and larger daily variation of diffusive condition.
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    Climatic Change of Sunshine Duration in the Bailong River Valley in Gannan from 1973 to 2012
    NING He-ping, AO Ze-jian, ZHAO Hong-yan
    2014, 29 (7):  1207-1215.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1745KB) ( )   Save
    Change of sunshine duration affects climate and eco-environment greatly. Using the modern statistical methods such as linear trend and abrupt change analysis, the recent 40 years (1973-2012) sunshine duration changing trend and abrupt change in the Bailong River Valley in Gannan were analyzed. The results showed that the average annual sunshine duration in the Bailong River Valley in Gannan increased significantly in recent 40 years with an increasing rate of 33.0 h/10 a. The seasonal sunshine duration showed different increasing rates,which was the largest in spring and the smallest in summer. This phenomenon was different from those occurred in most of China with a decreasing trend of sunshine duration, and reflected the unique characteristics of climate anomaly and complexity change in sunshine duration in the Bailong River Valley in Gannan. The average annual sunshine duration anomaly was negative before 1994 and positive after 1994 in the Bailong River Valley in Gannan. The average annual sunshine duration as well as seasonal sunshine duration showed abrupt increase. The average annual sunshine duration presented abrupt increase in 1983, the summer sunshine duration increased abruptly in the 1990s, and increased abruptly in other seasons in the 1980s. Meanwhile, the annual sunshine duration of less anomalous years occurred in the 1980s while more anomalous years occurred only in 2002. Under background of the climate warming, the rainy days with over 0.1 mm precipitation per day decreased in the Bailong River Valley in Gannan, which was a primary cause for the increases of sunshine duration. Sunshine duration, temperature and evaporation showed a significant positive correlation and shared a strong consistency in the changing trend.
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    Analysis on the Changes of Human-water Relationship in Zhengzhou City under the Interconnected River System Network
    ZUO Qi-ting, LI Ke-ren
    2014, 29 (7):  1216-1224.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1344KB) ( )   Save
    River system network is not only the water carrier, but also a medium between human and water, whose effect on human-water relationship is mainly reflected in the connectivity. If the factor of connectivity changes, the relationship between human and water will also change. It is urgent and critical to analyze and research on the changes of human-water relationship under the interconnected river system network. Based on the systematical summary of connectivity conditions and typical connectivity projects, this paper takes Zhengzhou City as the study area, analyzes the human-water relationship and obtains changes in relationships between human and water in Zhengzhou City under the context of interconnected river system network with the comparison of human-water relationship in different periods. This paper also summarizes the changing law and the trend of human-water relationship, and further, it reveals intrinsic links between the evolution of interconnected river system network and the changes of human-water relationship, which provides a reference for further regulating of human-water relationship and achieving human-water harmony.
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    Studies on the Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Suburban Scenic Area Based on Stakeholders:A Case Study of Hubei Province
    WANG Fang, YAO Chong-huai
    2014, 29 (7):  1225-1234.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (3642KB) ( )   Save

    Stakeholders of scenic spot are composed of different industries and sectors, these organizations or groups with their individual goals and interests constitute a complex network of interests together. The balance of interests between them is the fundamental guarantee of the sustainable development of scenic area.
    This paper attempts to build up an evaluation system of the sustainable development of suburban scenic area, which can evaluate subsystems development level/the overall coordination and the comprehensive development index through the principal component analysis and standard deviation method, based on the index system. Then it is utilized in analyzing the suburban scenic area of Hubei Province.
    The results show that the evaluation system could help us understand the suburban scenic area about the status of sustainable development and the development level of stakeholders subsystem, put forward development suggestions, and have some guiding significance to scenic area of our country in planning, management system and policy making.

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    Resources Research Methods
    Model of GreenWater Price Based on Coupling Values of Water Resources and Its Application in Lower Liaohe River Plain
    ZHENG De-feng, ZANG Zheng, SUN Cai-zhi, ZHANG Yu
    2014, 29 (7):  1235-1245.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (697KB) ( )   Save

    In order to correctly reflect differential, dynamic and integral characteristics of water resource values, the concept of coupling values of water resources was defined based on the green accounting of natural capital, and the index system of comprehensive assessment on coupling values of water resources was firstly established. Then the variable fussy optimization model combined with entropy weight theory and analytic hierarchy process was introduced to calculate the coupling values of water resources. On the basis of the above-mentioned issues, the unified model of green water price in a watershed was presented. This model could realize various unifications on urban area and rural area, agriculture and industry and business and service industry, the same water department in a watershed, macroscopic and microscopic tax fees, value and price of water resources, which would provide a theoretical basis for the unified management of water resources in a watershed for reference. Taking nine prefecture-level cities in lower Liaohe River Plain as the examples, the coupling values of water resources were estimated by using multi-objective optimization and decision-making methods. All coefficients on natural values, additive values, economic values, social (public benefit) values, ecological values and environmental values of regional water resources were calculated using variable fussy optimization model and the results were respectively 0.1591, 0.0458, 0.1500, 0.0677, 0.2196 and 0.3578. The standard water price was determined based on macro tax burden and water resource consumption per unit Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In the study area, the macro tax burden was 0.1258, water consumption per 10 thousand yuan GDP was 72.71 m3, and the standard water price was 17.30 yuan per m3. Furthermore, the unified standards of green water price in the districts of lower Liaohe River Basin were obtained on the basis of the above results. The green water prices were respectively 3.54 yuan per m3 for domestic water of urban-rural residents, 6.14 yuan per m3 for water in agriculture and industry and business and service industry, 4.72 yuan per m3 for administrative water, 7.34 yuan per m3 for landscaping water, 12.33 yuan per m3 for special industry water. Considering these current situations as objective bearing capacity of China's families of rural residents at present, development level of the productive force in agriculture, agricultural non-profit and fundamentality, the water price was temporarily 132 yuan per person annually for domestic water of rural residents, and 0.79 yuan per m3 for farmland irrigation water. The case study showed that this model of green water prices could incarnate the regional water resources endowment and the water resources demand in socio-economic development and ecological environment. Therefore, it would be beneficial to execute green water price policies in promoting the consciousness of economizing water of the units and individuals, enhancing the utilization efficiency of water resources, advancing harmonious development of water resources and economy, society, ecology and environment.

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    Suitable Evaluation on Cultivated Land Based on Fuzzy Weights of Evidence Method in the Yarlung Zangbo River, Nyangqu River and Lhasa River Region, Tibet
    JIN Gui, WANG Zhan-qi, LI Wei-song, HU Shou-geng, ZHANG Dao-jun, CHONG Duo
    2014, 29 (7):  1246-1256.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2729KB) ( )   Save

    Cultivated land suitability evaluation of the plateau is an important prerequisite to promote the planning of regional agricultural development and the construction of food security system. This paper takes cultivated land of 18 counties in the Yarlung Zangbo River, Nyangqu River and Lhasa River (YNL) region of Tibet as the object of evaluation. The fuzzy weight of evidence model is introduced to screen out nine factors included in the four aspects of topography, climate, soil and water conditions as evidence layers, calculate the fuzzy weight of evidence of factor layer, and finally synthesize parameters of all factor layers to calculate posterior probability weight and revise it to format a distribution map of cultivated land suitability. The study shows that: 1) 80.83% of the known suitable points are above moderately suitable level in the grading figure of modified posterior probability, reflecting a high coherency, which indicates that the fuzzy weight of evidence connecting with modified posterior probability can evaluate the suitability of cultivated land scientifically and effectively. 2) Fuzzy weight of evidence model, which is both data-driven and knowledge-driven, can give full play to the prior knowledge and the role of objective laws. It can also increase the intervention of knowledge by the membership function, effectively using the experience of experts, which, to some extent, avoids arbitrariness in selecting indicators and determining the weight in the knowledgedriven method and overcomes the weakness of purely data-driven method. 3) Highly suitable, moderately suitable, generally suitable and unsuitable culti-vated land in the study area cover 213200 hm2 of cultivated land, accounting for 32.03%, 31.94%, 27.19% and 8.84% respectively, which corresponds to the spatial distribution. This can optimize the scale and layout of cultivated land and also can be used in the practice of cultivated area on the plateau to promote the rational utilization and management of cultivated land.

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    Comprehensive Discussion
    On the Current Key Issues in Wetland Restoration
    LI Xiao-wen, LI Meng-di, LIANG Chen, ZHUGE Hai-jin
    2014, 29 (7):  1257-1269.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2014.07.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1363KB) ( )   Save
    This article discussed and summarized a broad range of key issues prevailing in wetland restoration both from the ecological and socio-economic perspectives, with emphasis on the definitions, restoration modes, assessment and application of eco-hydraulics in wetland restoration, as well as the socio-economic mechanism for wetland restoration. The article argued that the narrow & broad concepts of wetland restoration were both valuable and meaningful corresponding to the different circumstances, their application should be quite site-specific. In practice of wetland restoration, the first step should be priority assessment of the necessity and feasibility of the candidate sites to be restored, and then prudent selection of the positive or passive modes & measures of restoration project based on the assessment of wetland degradation. With regard to the complication and uncertainty lying in the wetland restoration project, it is vital to pre-and post-assess the restoration project by using a more comprehensive measurement and index system. As the state-of-art issues, the article prospected the application of modern eco-hydraulic engineering in wetland restoration, and socio-economic mechanisms of community-based participation and market-oriental incentives were also targeted. Finally, the article concluded that the longitudinal, lateral and vertical hydrological connectivity with upstream subcatchments, adjacent watershed and groundwater system should be addressed in wetland restoration project, and the ecological integrity and health of the larger scale watershed should be maintained to guarantee the long-term persistence of restored wetland.
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