In recent years, eco-water requirement has been a new and hot spot in the study of ecology, hydrology and science of water resources. In this study, an eco-hydrological model is constructed to simulate the vegetation eco-water in the Yellow River Basin, China. The structure of vegetation ecological water during a series of land use changes in the Yellow River Basin were studied by using a combination of Remote Sensing and GIS technology, along with the meteorological data and in situ field survey, vegetation and soil texture data. The results show that: in terms of interannual changes, the vegetation ecological water fluctuations are mainly affected by climatic factors such as precipitation, the vegetation ecological water of the Yellow River Basin in the 1960s and 1980s were more than the 1970s and 1990s, and in 2000, vegetation ecological water consumption was 263.5 mm; the maximum value of vegetation ecological water was in June, July and August; in terms of vegetation types, grassland had the minimum value, followed by shrubland, and the largest was woodland; and in terms of water resources division, the mainstream of the Lanhe River Basin had the smallest (240 mm) and the Yiluo River Basin had the largest (563.1 mm) green water flows, respectively. Among the basins, the mainstream of the Lanhe River Basin, the mainstream of the Helong River Basin, the Inner-flow Section, the Huangshui River Basin, the mainstream of the Long-Lan River Basin, the upwards section of the Longyang Gorge and the Taohe River Basin generally had less than 400 mm of green water flow. In contrast, the Fenhe River Basin, the lower Yellow River Basin, the Jinghe River Basin, the Bei Luohe River Basin, the Qinhe River Basin, the Weihe River Basin, the mainstream of the Sanhua River Basin and the Yiluo River Basin generally had over 400 mm of green water flow.