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Table of Content

    20 July 2011, Volume 26 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Discussion
    Quantitative Study of Construction Land Increase Limit Year in the Economic Transition Stage in China
    LI Xiao-shun, ZHANG Shao-liang, WANG Ying-hong
    2011, 26 (7):  1085-1095.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1176KB) ( )   Save
    This article takes construction land increase trend in the process of economic development as a start point of research. Based on the law of economic development and construction land increasing, we proposed the growth limit of construction land. Then according to marginal theory we built models to calculate the growth limit of construction land in China. Furthermore, we analyzed the growth limit of construction land in each province. The following conclusions are drawn. Firstly, both economic development and construction land increase are characterized by periodic fluctuations from 1978 to 2000 and the fluctuation periods of them are highly consistent. Secondly, the year of China’s construction land growth limit is 2047. The growth limit years in every province are different. These years appear spatial and temporal distribution which is increasing from southeast to northwest. Thirdly, the eastern region get limit year earlier. For example, the limit year of the 11 provinces or cities of Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong and so on is earlier than the average, and that of the 19 provinces or cities of Hebei, Sichuan, Qinghai and so on is later than the average. Finally, this paper suggests that we should improve the land use efficiency and encourage technological innovation to get the construction land limit year more quickly.
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    Resources Utilization and Management
    Effect in Protecting Cultivated Land of New Construction Land Compensation Fee
    DING Ning, JIN Xiao-bin, TANG Jian, ZHANG Zhi-hong, ZHAO Jie, SONG Jia-nan, ZHOU Yin-kang
    2011, 26 (7):  1096-1106.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (987KB) ( )   Save
    Land taxes and fees have played an important role in protecting farmland and improving the efficiency of land use. This paper studies new construction land compensation fee, which is charged in comparatively large amounts and has experienced a long term of reform. Its effects in cultivated land protection can make a good reference to the improvement and perfection of the land taxes and fees system. The province-level panel data from 2003 to 2008 was used in the research to establish the econometric model that describes the dynamic changes between the charging rate of new construction compensation fee and cultivated land occupation area by construction. The mixed OLS model was applied to estimate the equations and the cultivated land preservation effect of new construction compensation fee was assessed by computing estimated decreased areas of cultivated land occupation with and without new construction land compensation fee policy in effect. The estimated results of model shows that the variables’ sign symbols were consistent with expected and the t test was significant at 10% level. The model can be used to calculate the direct effects and relative effects of new construction land compensation fee on cultivated land preservation. The main conclusions of the research are: 1) The cultivated land occupation reduced by about 47.26 hm2 with a 1% increment of the charging rate of new construction compensation fee. The policy of new construction land compensation fee has played an important role in inhibiting land expansion scale and rate, protecting arable land, relieving contradiction between human and land as well as achieving food security, which proved that the policy setting of new construction land compensation fee is very necessary. 2) The cultivated land area occupied by construction respectively decreased by 13809.85 hm2, 29835.16 hm2, 12224.73 hm2, 34969.34 hm2, 23399.03 hm2 and 38171.86 hm2 from 2003 to 2008 due to the charging of the fee. The total area of cultivated land saved was 152410.00 hm2 during the six years, which was 11.11% of the actual area of cultivated land occupation. At the same time, the effect in protecting cultivated land of eastern developed provinces is generally better than that of western underdeveloped provinces, the main reason of which could be the new construction land compensation fee standard of eastern areas is higher than that of western areas and the policy executive power is stronger as well. 3) The relative effects of new construction compensation fee in cultivated land protection were strengthened year by year, which showed an obvious regional difference but has no regularity. The executive power of new construction land compensation fee policy and its cultivated land protecting effects have been enhanced continuously. Meanwhile, the average level of relative effects in protecting cultivated land of the fee is still low, the RECLPit of most provinces is below 0.5, which could be easily neutralized or weakened during all the cultivated land occupied driving factors. More efforts still should be taken in making and implementing new construction land compensation fee charging policy.
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    An Analysis on Crops Choice and Its Driving Factors in the Agro-Pastoral Ecotone in Northern China—A Case of Household Survey in Taibus County, Inner Mongolia
    HAO Hai-guang, LI Xiu-bin, TAN Ming-hong, ZHAO Yu-luan
    2011, 26 (7):  1107-1118.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1131KB) ( )   Save
    With the external socio-economic environment changing, driving factors of crops planting changed basically. After transition to market economy, farmers are no longer limited by food demand in China. Farmers have different choices of crops planting structure. Based on household survey data, this paper analyzes the mechanisms of farmers’ crops planting in Agro-Pastoral Ecotone in northern China from three aspects: the benefit of crops, characteristics of farm households, and the differences of land plots. The results show that labor constraints and off-farming income have important impacts on crop planting decision-making due to farmers’ wide participation in off-farm works. Farmers opt to choose the crops with high labor productivity (such as oats, benne and wheat), and they usually plant these crops on the land with higher quality. Furthermore, the crops choice is strongly influenced by livestock breading in the Agro-Pastoral Ecotone. Farmers tend to plant more oats if they bread some livestock because the straw of oats is important forage during the winter.
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    Factors Influencing Southern Rice Farmers Adapting to Climate Change Behavior—Based on 346 Household Survey Data of 36 Counties in Jiangxi Province
    ZHU Hong-gen, ZHOU Shu-dong
    2011, 26 (7):  1119-1128.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.004
    Abstract ( )   PDF (963KB) ( )   Save
    Obtaining 346 household survey data from 36 counties in Jiangxi Province, with the aid of Heckman Probit selection model, this paper analyzes the factors influencing the farmers’ perception on climate change and adaptive behavior. According to the empirical results, factors such as the age of the head of a household, educational level, communication frequency with the villagers, the number of relatives, being in contact with frequency of going to a fair, frequency of watching television, distance from the market and weather information services can all significantly affect the farmers’ perception on climate change;while factors such as the gender, age and educational level of the head of a household,the number of people that can lend mney, the number of the relatives being in contact with, freguency of going to a fair, frequency of watching television and weather information services have significant effect on the decision-making behavior adaptable to climate change. Finally, based on empirical results, we put forward policies and recommendations facilitating farmers to adapt to climate change behavir.
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    Study and Implementation on Multi Dimension Data Management Model in Integrated Resources and Environment Scientific Expedition—Case in Integrated Scientific Expedition in North China and Its Neighboring Area
    WANG Juan-le, ZHU Li-jun, SUN Chong-liang
    2011, 26 (7):  1129-1138.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.005
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1183KB) ( )   Save
    Integrated scientific expedition in the field of resources and environment is one of the important approaches for basic and strategic national and regional background resource and environment data acquiring and accumulation. It is difficult to integrate and manage these scientific expedition data, because they have natural multi-sources, multi-types, and multi-disciplinary features. This not only affects historical expedition data integration and sharing, but also affects ongoing and future scientific expedition data management. Face to this problem, the paper puts forward the idea of multi-dimensional data management. Consistency data model is the core for multi-dimensional scientific expedition data integration and management in the field of resources and environment. Traditionally, these scientific expedition data have various dimensions, including disciplinary dimension, thematic dimension, spatial scale dimension, temporal dimension, application dimension, etc. According to analysis, there are three common dimensions that can be generalized, i.e., data element dimension, data temporal dimension and data spatial scale dimension. A simple common data management concept model is designed based on these common dimensions. One logical data model was designed based on the research of integrated scientific expedition project in northern China and its neighboring area. This project’s expedition scope covers three countries of northern China, Russia and Mongolia. The concept model has three common dimensions’ benchmark. Data element dimension benchmark was designed based on the scientific expedition work duty closely. Data temporal dimension benchmark was designed based on its data collection and update period. Data spatial scale dimension benchmark was designed based on GRID system. This model was used in the expedition data integration and management implementation and was proved feasible for scientific data integration and sharing initially.
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    Resources Safety
    Virtual Land Trades and External Dependences of China’s Soybean Resources
    WANG Wei-fang, LIU Ai-min, QIANG Wen-li
    2011, 26 (7):  1139-1147.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.006
    Abstract ( )   PDF (731KB) ( )   Save
    Soybean, soybean meal, soybean oil and other soybean processed products can be collectively called soybean resources for they are all the products of resources, of which soybean meal and soybean oil are the two main soybean processed products. All agricultural products and their processed products, including soybean resources contain certain amount of virtual land. Due to the constraints of land resources and the impacts of international soybean market, China has limited soybean producing capacity. However, with the rapid development of feed industry and animal husbandry, and the increasing consumption of vegetable oil, China’s demand for soybean resources has increased rapidly in recent years, which caused that the imports of soybean and its processed products increased year by year. To assess the quantity of the virtual land hidden in the trade of the soybean resources and analyze the land resource savings and the external dependences of China’s soybean resources, we calculated the actual amount of land resources needed according to the yields of producers. Firstly we study the scientific methods of how to quantify the virtual land contents of soybean resources theoretically, and calculate the virtual land contents of soybean resources in different countries. Then we analyze the virtual land trades embedded in soybean resources in China from 2000 to 2009 from the producer point of view, and we also analyze the actual land resource savings and external dependences from the perspective of consumption. The results indicate that: 1)The virtual land contents of China’s soybeans, soybean meal and soybean oil are respectively 0.60, 0.50, 1.24 hm2/t, and the global average stands at 0.43, 0.34, 0.89 hm2/t. 2) In the producer point of view, the actual net imports of virtual land increased from 4.14×106 hm2 in 2000 to 18.15×106 hm2 in 2009, and the proportion of imports from U.S.A, Brazil and Argentina were respectively 44.5%, 37.4% and 15.4% in 2009. 3) From the perspective of consumption, the actual savings of land resources increased from 6.87×106 hm2 in 2000 to 28.51×106 hm2 in 2009. The external dependence of China’s soybean resources rose from 42.0% in 2000 to 76.1% in 2009. Accordingly, the dependences upon U.S.A, Brazil and Argentina are 36.1%, 28.1% and 12.4%.
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    Spatial Distribution and Evolution of Aeolian Sandy Land in the Areas around Shigatse Peace Airport of Tibet, China since 1975
    LI Hai-dong, FANG Ying, SHEN Wei-shou, SUN Ming, SHE Guang-hui
    2011, 26 (7):  1148-1155.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1010KB) ( )   Save
    Based on large number of on-the-spot investigation and four sets of remote-sensing data acquired in 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2008, and the man-machine interaction method, we studied sandy desertification in nine counties near Tibet’s Shigatse Peace Airport, in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River Valley. We analyzed the type and distribution of aeolian sandy land and its evolution since 1975 by interpreting Landsat data from 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2008 using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The purpose is to timely and precisely understand the status, spatial distribution and developmental trend of aeolian sandy land and to provide guidance for future vegetation restoration. The total area of aeolian sandy land in 2008 was 50053.31 hm2, versus 44071.38 hm2 in 1975, 46334.59 hm2 in 1990 and 49064.70 hm2 in 2000, representing a 13.57% increase from 1975 to 2008. The areas of aeolian sandy land caused by windblown sediments and wind erosion within 100 km from Shigatse Peace Airport in 2008 totaled 26656.61 hm2 and 8588.06 hm2, respectively, representing 75.63% and 24.37%. The area of aeolian sandy land totaled 21338.54 hm2 within 40 km from the Airport and 14072.70 hm2 between 0 and 20 km from the airport. The area of aeolian sandy land has increased slowly throughout the study period, at a rate of 150.88 hm2/a during 1975-1989, 273.01 hm2/a during 1990-1999 and 109.85 hm2/a in the last nine years, representing a gradual slowing. However, the overall rate of expansion since 1990 averaged 175.94 hm2/a. The increased area of aeolian sandy land mainly resulted from the region's harsh climate and fragile environment, combined with a warmer and drier climate that accelerated the desertification process.
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    Resources Ecology
    Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Meteorological Environment of Urban Ecologic Security—A Case Study of Beijing
    YE Cai-hua, LUAN Qing-zu, LIU Yong-hong, QUAN Wei-jun, GAO Yan-hu
    2011, 26 (7):  1156-1165.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.008
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1066KB) ( )   Save
    By selecting meteorological environmental factors closely related to ecologic security in ecologic system for metropolitan city of Beijing, we established ecologic safety evaluation index system of meteorological environment for metropolis, including indicators of ecological state of the environment, air quality indicators, harmful meteorological indicators and human health indicators, which are the primary evaluation indexes, and the 18 corresponding secondary evaluation indexes are also used to calculate the weight values for each index with the application of Vertical and Horizontal Scatter Degree method. Meanwhile, we established methods for indexes calculation and standardization. Linear weighted comprehensive method was chosen for calculating comprehensive evaluation. Application results of the established method in Beijing in recent 9 years showed that the top four districts in Beijing with ecologic security of meteorolgical environment are Yanqing, Huairou, Miyun and Mentougou, the last four are urban area, Fengtai, Haidian and Chaoyang. This is in line with the distribution of Beijing’s main function of urban regional planning, indicating that urban ecologic security assessment index system and evaluation method identified in this research are feasible.
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    Spatial-temporal Variation of Ecosystem Services in the 38°N Ecological Transect of Hebei Province
    YUAN Yuan, JIN Zhan-zhong, LIU Hong-juan, TAN Li-mei, LIU Hao-jie, LIU Hui-tao, ZHANG Guang-lu, LIU Jin-tong
    2011, 26 (7):  1166-1179.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1298KB) ( )   Save
    This study has improved the traditional evaluation model of ecosystem services value (ESV) by introducing a regional modification coefficient, an environmental cost coefficient, and by assessing the spatial distribution and temporal trends of the ESV which is driven by land use changes. As an empirical application, this improved assessment model was applied to a case study of a typical ecological transect at 38°N of Hebei Province, Northern China. This area consists of Taihang Mountain area, piedmont plain, the low plain and the coastal plain from the west to the east. It was found that in the Taihang Mountain area, the ESV per unit area in the western part of the region was higher than that in the eastern part of the region; forest and grassland were dominant contributors to the total ESV in the region. In the piedmont plain and the low plain regions, the ESV per unit area was very low and had a homogeneous distribution pattern; the highest total ESV contribution in these two regions came from farmland. In the coastal plain, wetlands, water bodies, and farmlands contributed the majority of the total ESV in the region; the ESV per unit area in the eastern part of this region was significantly higher than that found in the center and western ends of the region; the spatial difference here was more significant compared to the other three ecological zones. From 1990 to 2008,the total ESV of the whole study area had increased from 334.83×108 yuan to 360.13×108 yuan, which had a lower growth rate (0.92 %) from 1990 to 2000 compared to the rate (6.57%) from 2000 to 2008. The ESV of gas regulation, climate regulation, recreation and culture, water regulation, and biodiversity protection increased from 1990 to 2008 while the ESV of food production showed a decreasing trend(totally decreased by 4.67%)due to the reduction of farmland areas. Therefore, in order to maintain a healthy and stable ecosystem, it is proposed that provincial governments should implement ecological construction projects continuously to promote positive ecosystem services and oppose negative ecosystem services.
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    Land Ecological Sensitivity Evaluation of Yan’an Based on Zonal Statistics of ArcGIS
    WU Jin-hua, LI Ji-wei, ZHU Hong-ru
    2011, 26 (7):  1180-1188.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.010
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1062KB) ( )   Save
    "Outline of National Land Use Planning (2006-2020)" indicates that in the new round of land use planning we should not only adhere to the guiding principles including strict protection of arable land, using land economically and intensively, and coordinating all types of lands, but also make overall arrangements of life, ecology and production land and strengthen ecological construction of land with the requirements of construction of environment-friendly society. Land ecological sensitivity evaluation has significance for identification of land ecological problems, guidance of land use zoning control, coordination of land use and construction of ecological environment. Based on the investigation of land ecological problems of Yan’an, we use the zonal statistics method of ArcGIS to evaluate land ecological sensitivity. The variation coefficient method which is objective is used to determine the weights of evaluation factors in similar studies for the first time. Compared with the previous evaluation methods, the method of this paper is improved in the evaluation idea, the weight determining method,the evaluation unit and the overlay method, which makes the evaluation result more accurate, objective and practical. The land ecological sensitivity evaluation result shows that extremely and highly sensitive area of the city accounts for 40.11% of total area and insensitivity and low sensitivity area accounts for 52.06%; the sensitivity gradually decreases from north to south in regional differentiation law; the result of ecological sensitivity evaluation of land use shows that high-intensity land use activities like farming, livestock, urban and rural construction and infrastructure construction cause land ecological problems. Lastly, land use policies for the current round of land use planning revision and future scientific use of land are proposed according to the land ecological sensitivity.
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    Resources Evaluation
    Ice Volume Changes and Their Characteristics for Representative Glacier against the Background of Climatic Warming —A Case Study of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan, China
    WANG Pu-yu, LI Zhong-qin, LI Hui-lin
    2011, 26 (7):  1189-1198.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.011
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1081KB) ( )   Save
    The changes of ice volume are closely related to the changes of glacial water resources and the contribution of melt water to the river runoff. Based on the ice thickness measured data, topographic maps and the long-term field observation data, this study has calculated the ice volume of Urumqi Glacier No.1 in different periods using GIS technique and analyzed the characteristics of their changes. Results indicated that the ice volume of Urumqi Glacier No.1 is 10736.7×104 m3, 10296.2×104 m3, 9989.4×104 m3, 8797.9×104 m3 and 8115.0×104 m3 in 1962, 1981, 1986, 2001 and 2006, respectively. During 1962-2006, the total ice volume of the glacier has reduced by 24.4% and the reduction rate of ice thickness, area and maximum length is 12.1%, 14.0% and 7.6%, respectively. The glacier was in a state of rapid shrinking with an accelerated tendency against the background of climatic warming in the past several decades. Before 1981, area shrinkage and terminus retreat was the key cause of the ice volume reduction; during 1981-2001, the reduction of ice volume was caused by three aspects: ice thickness, area and length, and area shrinkage was considered as the main factor; the noticeable reduction in ice volume is due to the intensive thinning of the ice thickness after 2001.
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    Characteristics of Agricultural Climate Resources in the Three Provinces of Northeast China from 1961 to 2006
    HE Yong-kun, GUO Jian-ping
    2011, 26 (7):  1199-1208.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (931KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the meteorological data at 72 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2006 in three provinces of Northeast China, the variation characteristics of agro-climatic resources including stable farming stage, the growing period, accumulated temperature, precipitation and sunshine hours were analyzed. The results showed that the average farming stage and growing period prolonged for 2.4 days and 2.3 days per one decade, respectively. The M-K test results showed that the mutation time of the farming stage and the growing period was 1988 and 1992, respectively. Accumulated temperatures increased consistently in 46 years, with the climatic variation trend of 63.2 ℃·d·10 a-1 and 58.6 ℃·d·10 a-1 in the corresponding two periods. In 1961-2006, there were decreasing trends in both farming stage and growing season’s precipitation, especially in the southern part of Liaoning Province. The climatic variation rates of two stages were-7.1 mm·10 a-1 and -6.2 mm·10 a-1 respectively. The decreasing rate of sunshine hours in the corresponding two periods were -10.3 h·10 a-1 and -5.1 h·10 a-1, and the decreasing trends were much more obvious in the northwestern part of Jilin and Liaoning provinces. However, sunshine hours increased in the northern pare of Heilongjiang Province. Compared with the change characteristic in 1961-1987, average accumulated temperature increased by 172 ℃·d in the farming stage in 1988-2006. The area with accumulated temperature ≥3200 ℃ moved eastward and northward by about 11.8×104 km2. Meanwhile, the average accumulated temperature in 1992-2006 increased by 156.9 ℃·d in growing season compared with those in 1961-1991. The border of the belt with accumulated temperature ≥2 800 ℃·d moved northeastward by about 7.79×104 km2. In general, precipitation in most research areas decreased, but increased in some parts of Heilongjiang. The average precipitation decreased by 15.5 mm in the farming stage. The high and low value regions narrowed to some degrees, while the regions with moderate value of 500-650 mm expanded southeastward by about 4.5×104 km2. Average precipitation in growing season decreased by 13.8 mm. The regions with the value of ≥400 mm reduced by about 3.39×104 km2, especially in the eastern part of Heilongjiang Province and the southern part of Liaoning Province. There was no significant change of sunshine hours in the farming stage, however, the spatial difference was obvious with high and low density areas decreasing while middle density areas increasing. The area with sunshine hours of 1500-1800 h expanded by 11.8×104 km2 in the farming stage, but the average sunshine hours decreased by 27.9 h in the growing period in 1992-2006. The area with sunshine hours of 1000-1300 h narrowed by 5.25×104 km2 in the growing period. Moreover, the increasing areas were mainly distributed in eastern and western parts of Heilongjiang Province.
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    Analysis of Water Resource Utilization Change Based on Factor Decomposition Model
    ZHANG Qiang, WANG Ben-de, CAO Ming-liang
    2011, 26 (7):  1209-1216.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.013
    Abstract ( )   PDF (758KB) ( )   Save
    In order to guide water-demand management better, it is an urgent need to study the mechanism of water resource utilization change. Index decomposition methodology is an effective technique used to study the mechanism of resource utilization change. But many index decomposition methods have a problem which is the existence of a residual in the decomposition result, so a completely decomposition method: logarithmic mean divisia index method (LMDI) is introduced in this paper. And influencing factors of water resource utilization change in Dalian between 1980 and 2009 are decomposed into four kinds of effect: quota effect, industrial structure effect, economic effect and population effect based on three types of general factor decomposition model and LMDI model. The results show that: 1) LMDI has the best decomposition effect, its residual was 0. 2) Economic effect and population effect are the pushing effects on water resource utilization, and economic effect plays a main role. Quota effect and industrial structure effect are the inhibitory effects on water resource utilization, and quota effect is the main factor. 3) From the game between total pushing effects and inhibitory effects, water-saving capacity can adapt to water demand in 1980-2005; after 2005, water-saving capacity can no longer meet the water demand which is fast growing.
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    Simulated Hydrologic Responses to Climate Change of the Zhangweihe River Basin
    ZHANG Li-ping, ZENG Si-dong, XIA Jun, WANG Ren-chao
    2011, 26 (7):  1217-1226.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.014
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1189KB) ( )   Save
    The climate change impact on water resources of the temporal and spatial pattern in China’s various regions is an important aspect of climate change impact assessment. In this paper, for the Zhangweihe River Basin,the linear regression and Mann-Kendall non-parametric test methods were used to analyze the change characteristics of the hydrological and meteorological elements. Then the distributed hydrological model SWAT was established based on the digital elevation model, land use and soil type data,and the applicability of SWAT model in the basin was verified. Finally the precipitation, temperature, runoff and evaporation response process was analyzed based on the IPCC AR4 multi-mode climate models under different GHG emission scenarios(SRES-A2,A1B and B1) in the 21st century. The results will provide scientific basis for Zhangweihe River Basin and important reference value for the socio-economic sustainable development of North China.
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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Soil Moisture-physical Properties in Water Conservation Forest in Lianhua Lake Reservoir Area
    DUAN Wen-biao, CHEN Li-xin, YAN Yong-qiang
    2011, 26 (7):  1227-1235.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.015
    Abstract ( )   PDF (974KB) ( )   Save
    Spatial distribution characteristics of soil moisture-physical properties in water conservation forest of Pinus koraiensis in Lianhua Lake reservoir area were analyzed by geostatistics. The results showed soil moisture content, soil bulk density, capillary porosity and non-capillary porosity all exhibited lognormal distribution. The optimum fitting model for capillary porosity was spherical model; that for the other factors was exponential model. For soil moisture content, soil bulk density, capillary porosity and non-capillary porosity, their nuggets, effective ranges, proportions, fractal dimensions and maximum Moran’s I were 0.311, 0.297, 0.192, 0.293; 6.87 m, 10.29 m, 8.31 m, 8.88 m; 0.690, 0.694, 0.814, 0.707;1.968, 1.939, 1.937, 1.945; 0.111, 0.200, 0.246, 0.157, respectively. Therefore, the spatial autocorrelation of soil moisture-physical properties was strong, and the correlation decreased with the increase of separation distance. Capillary porosity had conspicuous homogeneous character, and soil moisture content had complicated spatial distribution and high degree of fragmentation.
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    Resources Research Methods
    The Effect of Flooding on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Riparian Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir
    CHANG Chao, XIE Zong-qiang, XIONG Gao-ming, CHU Li-min
    2011, 26 (7):  1236-1244.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.016
    Abstract ( )   PDF (896KB) ( )   Save
    The soil physical and chemical properties play a key role in ecological environment of the riparian zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir. This research was done to analyze the variation of soil nutrients after flooding which would contribute to the study of the flooding effect on water-soil in the reservoir riparian zone. We measured the content of soil bulk density, pH, organic matter, total N, total P, total K, NO3-N, NH4-N, available P and available K in different water levels of the riparian zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Different water levels did not exhibit significant divergence of nutrients content before flooding. Compared to the criterion of the second national soil survey, soil pH was alkaline and the soil nutrients were limited in the reservoir riparian zone after flooding. Different water levels exhibited significant divergence in bulk density, organic matter, total N and available K (P<0.01). pH value was significantly higher after flooding and the soil nutrients were much lower than soil without flooding. Soil organic matter, total N, total P and total K accumulated in 146 m which was always in submergence state.
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    Full Cost of Grain Production in Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China: A Case of Qiyang County in Hunan Province
    ZHANG Ying-long, XIE Yong-sheng, JIANG Qing-long, WANG Hui, LI Xiao
    2011, 26 (7):  1245-1257.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.017
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1335KB) ( )   Save
    In view of the resources and environmental problems existing in current agricultural production, this paper claims that the main causes for the present problems are the incomplete cost accounting and no compensation for the cost due to the resources depletion and environmental degradation caused by grain production. According to this, environmental economics and sustainable development theories were used to analyze the complete cost of the grain production. The present paper proposed that the complete cost of grain production should include direct costs and resources-environmental cost of grain production. In this paper, the author investigated the full cost of grain production in Qiyang County, Hunan Province, Hilly Red Soil Region of Southern China in 2008. The results showed that resources and environmental damage due to grain production in this region was equivalent to 36.55% of the agricultural output in 2008. Full cost in this region reached 4.27 yuan/kg for early-season rice, 3.84 yuan/kg for mid-season rice, and 4.40 yuan/kg for late-season rice in 2008. Among them, resources-environmental cost and direct cost were 1.38 yuan/kg and 2.89 yuan/kg for early-season rice, 1.65 yuan/kg and 2.19 yuan/kg for mid-season rice, 1.64 yuan/kg and 2.79 yuan/kg for late-season rice. However, unit sales were 1.76 yuan/kg for early-season rice, 1.90 yuan/kg for mid-season rice, and 1.84 yuan/kg for late-season rice. Finally, the results of this study have some reference value to formulate related agricultural policies, adjust grain production distribution for relevant departments, and promote the regional grain production and sustainable development further.
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    Special Forum
    Comparisons of Energy Consumption between Cold Regions in China and the Europe and America
    CHEN Li, FANG Xiu-qi, LI Shuai, ZHANG Shao-feng
    2011, 26 (7):  1258-1268.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2011.07.018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1007KB) ( )   Save
    Three heating criterions coming from China, Germany and the United States of America are used to calculate and compare the energy consumption for heating in winter between eight typical cities in severe cold and cold regions of China and the cities which locate at the same latitude respectively in the Europe and America. Conclusions are drawn as following. Firstly, energy consumption for heating in the eight cities in China is higher than the oversea cities when they adopt the same heating criterion, because the winter in the severe cold and cold regions of China is colder and longer than the other regions locating at the same latitude in the Europe and America due to the monsoon climate. Secondly, much more energy consumption is needed for heating in China from the current basic survival standard to the thermal comfort standards in the developed countries at the same latitude in the Europe and America. Thirdly, even if the lower heating criterion is adopted by China and the higher heating criterion of Germany or the USA are adopted by the oversea cities, five or six cities’ heating intensities, that is, heating energy requirements and greenhouse gas emission intensities in China, are obviously higher than that in the western cities.
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