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    Thinking for the transformation of land consolidation and ecological restoration in the new era
    WANG Jun, YING Ling-xiao, ZHONG Li-na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 26-36.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200104
    Abstract310)   HTML11)    PDF (907KB)(721)      

    As the national land space and ecosystems are affected by global change nowadays, ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning must be the positive responses of China in the new era. Great achievements have been made in the restorations of ecological space and ecosystems through projects for land consolidation and ecological restoration. However, the degradation of some regional ecosystems still exists, and the interference of unreasonable traditional human activities has not been completely eliminated in China. Meanwhile, China faces a large number of challenges in the economic and social developments of the new era. The transformation and improvement of land consolidation and ecological restoration therefore become the inevitable requirement. Through introducing the concepts, connotations of land consolidation, ecological restoration and relationships between them in the new era, this paper suggested that the transformation should be determined by the variations and complexities of regional ecological and environmental issues, the new requirements of ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning. We also indicated the four shortcomings of land consolidation and ecological restoration at present, including working perception, theoretical basis, technological system, and institutional construction. Specifically in recent practices, the integrated and comprehensive concepts are lagging behind, the key theoretical systems are deficient, the technological supports are instable, and the related institutions are insufficient. Therefore, we proposed the strategies for the corresponding transformation, which mainly included: (1) intensifying the systematic thinking and concept to promote the implementation of land consolidation and ecological restoration on a regional basis; (2) upgrading the theoretical system to stimulate the new motivation for land consolidation and ecological restoration; (3) enhancing the technical support to improve the effectiveness of land consolidation and ecological restoration works; (4) improving the institution construction to reinforce the support foundation for land consolidation and ecological restoration implementations.

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    Empirical analysis of the influence of natural resources on regional economic growth: Based on the sample of key coal cities in China from 2000 to 2016
    SI Ri-ji-mo-leng, MAO Pei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2491-2503.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191201
    Abstract271)   HTML6)    PDF (1345KB)(694)      

    In most resource-based regions, their long-term economic growth is slow during the exploitation of natural resources. How to use resource advantages, get rid of resource bottlenecks, and achieve long-term stable economic development are key issues of the resource-based regions. In view of this, this paper takes the panel data of China's key coal cities from 2000 to 2016 as a sample to explore different ways in which natural resources in resource-based areas affect economic growth. The results show that resource-based regions benefit from the "resource bonus" in the short term. However, due to being prone to resource industry dependence behavior, these regions have a "crowding out effect" on other economic activities and resources and environment, which affects the long-term economic growth rate. At the same time, resource-based regions are likely to exhibit the "extensive growth" characteristics of relying on physical capital investment to achieve economic growth. The conclusions of this paper not only enrich the literature on the impact mechanism of natural resources on economic growth, but also have some practical enlightenment on how to achieve sustainable development in resource-based regions.

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    Multi-functional evaluation of metropolitan suburbs and its spatial difference: A case study of 89 towns in Shanghai
    GU Xiao-kun, TAO Si-yuan, LU Fang-fang, ZHOU Xiao-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2281-2290.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191103
    Abstract260)   HTML1)    PDF (2717KB)(592)      
    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization as well as enhancement of geographic differentiation and diversity of man-earth areal system, functions and regional development orientations in metropolitan suburbs have shown an increasingly strong trend towards diversification. It is one of the keys to draw up the Rural Revitalization policy objectively to evaluate the multi-functional system and then sum up pattern of metropolitan suburbs. The multi-functional evaluation method of metropolitan suburbs was constructed. The multi-source spatial data, statistical data and survey data were used to evaluate the multi-functional values of the 89 towns in Shanghai. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in the development of multifunction among 89 towns in Shanghai. The order of mean values is listed as ecological environment function (0.7674) > economic development function (0.6054) > agricultural production function (0.5882) > life guarantee function (0.5238) > leisure culture function (0.2525). (2) The high value areas of the ecological environment were mainly distributed in Chongming Island, Western Qingpu and Southern Fengxian. The high value areas of agricultural production were mainly located in Southern Pudong, Fengxian, Jinshan, Southern Chongming and Qingpu. The high value areas of economic development was mainly located in the vicinity of central city. The low value areas of life security were mainly located in the towns close to the central city and the most remote towns. The high value area of leisure culture was mainly located in Songjiang, Qingpu and Jinshan, which are the most remote from the central city. (3) A total of 89 towns could be divided into 4 types: balanced, mixed, compound and dominant. Among the 8 subdivision patterns, only 10 towns like Pujiang town were multi-functional and presented a highly balanced development pattern, accounting for 11.24%. Thus, the final but main part of this paper envisions the innovative policies and practices in metropolitan suburbs including the diversified rural renewal, homestead regulation, and low efficiency industrial land reduction.
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    Village classification system for rural vitalization strategy: Method and empirical study
    LI Yu-rui, BU Chang-li, CAO Zhi, LIU Xuan-he, LIU Yan-sui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (2): 243-256.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200201
    Abstract419)   HTML3)    PDF (2022KB)(570)      
    Rural Vitalization Strategy (RVS) is an important measure to promote rural development in China in the new era. Village classification is an important work to promote the effective implementation of the plan for RVS at the village level. It is of great significance to achieve the phased objectives of the national RVS. The National Strategic Planning for Rural Vitalization (2018-2022) puts forward four types of villages: agglomeration and upgrading, suburban integration, characteristic protection, relocation and evacuation, but it does not specify the specific principles and methods for classification. Based on the four types of villages, this study further clarifies their sub-types, and puts forward the corresponding principles and methods for classification. A village classification model is also established, which refines the classification index system of villages from five dimensions: village characteristics, villagers' living conditions, village development and construction, urban-rural links and village functions. Based on the principles, methods and models mentioned above, 102 administrative villages in Yanchi county of Ningxia are classified. Empirical study shows that the principles and methods proposed in this study have practical guiding value for village classification. However, in view of the differences and complexity of village characteristics, some parameters and thresholds need to be set according to the actual situation.
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    Spatial-temporal change and collaboration/trade-off relationship of "production-living-ecological" functions in county area of Jiangsu province
    LI Xin, FANG Bin, YIN Ru-meng, RONG Hui-fang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2363-2377.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191109
    Abstract333)   HTML1)    PDF (3780KB)(559)      
    This paper reveals the spatial-temporal correlation characteristics and coordination/trade-off relationship of the "production-living-ecological" functions in the county of Jiangsu province, which can provide theoretical support for the spatial planning of the county. Based on the theory of "production-living-ecological" spatial superior group and niche situation theory, this paper constructs the function recognition system of land space from three dimensions of production, life and ecology. The spatial autocorrelation and correlation coefficient method were used to quantitatively measure the time effect and coordination/trade-off relationship of the "production-living-ecological" function in Jiangsu province in 1996, 2005 and 2015. The results were obtained as follows: (1) The niche width of "production-living-ecological" functions in Jiangsu was varied, and its spatial distribution had its own characteristics. The specific manifestation was that the niche width of production function had a general increasing trend in the period 1996-2015, but the changing process had the stage characteristic, presenting a pattern of "high in the south high but low in the north", the south bank of the Yangtze River was in strips distribution, and the north bank was multi-aggregated. From 1996 to 2015, the niche breadth of life function was continuously compressed, and the space was attenuated by the concentric circle centered on the municipal area. In the same period, the ecological function niche width increased continuously, the ecological functional niche breadth in space has high value near the mountain and water. (2) From 1996 to 2015, the three functions of production, life and ecology in this province had positive correlation type (HH, LL) clustering obviously, presenting a "group" type distribution with the change of time. On the contrary, negative correlation type (HL, LH) with low agglomeration, showing a "discrete" distribution. (3) Production and life function had spatial synergistic relationship, and production and ecological functions showed a coordination/trade-off fluctuations. The changing trend of life function and ecological function was similar to the production and ecological function with more obvious change, and the coordination/trade-off relationship in different years had obvious differences in different units. Studies have shown that all of the above characteristics were in good agreement with regional economic and social development. In the future, we should gradually change the phenomenon of production function expansion and compression of life and ecological functions, so as to protect the ecological environment and to improve the quality of life oriented coordinated and optimized development path.
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    Determining and identifying key areas of ecosystempreservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning based on ecological security patterns: A case study of Yantai city
    FANG Ying, WANG Jing, HUANG Long-yang, ZHAI Tian-lin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 190-203.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200116
    Abstract288)   HTML10)    PDF (3542KB)(527)      

    Ecosystem preservation and restoration of Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grass System is very important for national ecological security. Current researches on ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning lack the determination and identification of key areas from a perspective of ecosystem integrity and landscape connectivity. Due to wetland degradation and homogeneity of habitat types that resulted in the low ecosystem resilience, it is urgent for in Yantai, a typical bay city in China, to restore degraded ecosystem and preserve natural resources. In the study, a regional ecological security pattern was proposed and key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration including pinch points, barrier points, break points and fragmented ecological functional land were identified using habitat quality model, habitat risk assessment model, granularity inverse method, minimum cumulative resistance model and circuit theory. The results showed that the ecological hubs covered an area of 668.85 km2, with a total of 1548.36 km corridors between them, and most of the hubs were water body and forests. All of them constructed a "two horizontal and two vertical" ecological security pattern. Key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration were identified based on the ecological security pattern, including a total of 13 ecological pinch points, 8 ecological barrier points, 39 ecological break points, and 1308.66 km2 of fragmented ecological land. Suggestions of restoration were proposed, with a combination of the spatial distribution characteristics and land use status of various key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration. It would help to provide scientific guidance for identifying key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning and sustainable ecosystem management.

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    Target setting of food self-sufficiency level in China: Literature review and policy enlightenment
    XIN Xiang-fei, WANG Ji-min
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2257-2269.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191101
    Abstract308)   HTML5)    PDF (605KB)(523)      
    Ensuring the supply of important agricultural products, particularly food, is one of the primary tasks of implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. Setting the goal of food self-sufficiency level is the foundation of food security evaluation and food policy formulation, and this directly affects the strategic direction and implementation path of a nation's food industry development. Based on the review of the existing literatures regarding the goal setting of food self-sufficiency in China, this paper summarizes the relevant concepts of China's food self-sufficiency rate, reviews the evolution of food self-sufficiency policy at the national level, and focuses on the systematic summary of the level, basis and significance of the goal setting of China's food self-sufficiency rate, as well as the causes and effects of its change in recent years. The study results show that the concept of "food" is closer to the essential meaning of food security than the concept of "grain". However, in existing studies, there is no clear or unified judgment regarding the level of self-sufficiency required for food security in China, nor regarding the level of self-sufficiency allowed by resource conditions. This study proposes that the current stage take the carrying capacity of resources and the environment as a hard constraint and stable maintenance of grain production as the red line; replace the former grain self-sufficiency rate target with the total grain self-sufficiency target; and compensate for the gap between domestic supply and demand, by making full use of foreign resources and international markets. Doing so will allow us to more effectively achieve a higher level of unity of domestic food production with ecological environmental protection and food security.
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    Spatial pattern and coupling types of multidimensional morphology of rural residential land
    QU Yan-bo, WEI Shu-wen, LIU Min, ZHAN Ling-yun, LI Ya-nan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2673-2686.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191215
    Abstract361)   HTML0)    PDF (3907KB)(515)      

    Systematic understanding and classification of the spatial form of rural settlements is an important basis for rural renovation and scientific implementation of the strategy of Rural Revitalization at the present stage. In this paper, Pinggu district of Beijing is taken as the research area. According to the idea that rural residential areas are regarded as map patches, land use patterns and carriers, the identification indicators of rural residential types are constructed from three dimensions of intensity, structure and function. The intensity suitability, structure rationality and function coordination of each research unit are obtained by using multi-factor comprehensive evaluation method. With the help of ArcGIS and GeoDa, the intensity suitability, structure rationality and function coordination degree of each research unit are obtained. A spatial correlation analysis of the three is carried out, and eight coupling types of rural settlements are classified based on three-dimensional characteristics. It is concluded that: (1) There is a positive spatial correlation among intensity suitability, structural rationality and functional coordination in Pinggu district, i.e. there is a spatial agglomeration characteristic, and the spatial distribution of hotspot analysis of suitability, rationality and coordination degree presents progressive, circle and mosaic patterns respectively. (2) There are significant differences in spatial and regional characteristics in Pinggu district, Beijing, with 62.8% of the villages not suitable for intensity, 51.3% of the villages are unreasonable in structure and 61.4% of the villages are inconsistent in function. (3) The main types of rural settlements in the whole district are unsuitable-reasonable-uncoordinated and unsuitable-unreasonable-uncoordinated, which account for 53.6% of the total rural settlements. Unsuitable-reasonable-uncoordinated rural settlements are mainly distributed in townships close to urban areas and unsuitable-unreasonable-uncoordinated rural settlements are mainly located in the northern, southwestern and eastern hilly areas far from the urban area.

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    The new conception and review of territory consolidation based on the past years of reform and opening-up
    WANG Wei, HU Ye-cui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 53-67.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200106
    Abstract231)   HTML6)    PDF (1206KB)(477)      

    In the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, territory consolidation has changed with the political will and institutional changes in the fields of resources and ecological environment, and has undergone a process of rise, collapse and integration. On the basis of the important policies in the field of territory consolidation in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, this paper summarizes the development experience, the main problems and the new trend of territory consolidation in the new era, and then puts forward a new conception of territory consolidation. The goal of territory consolidation of the new era will be firmly integrated with the ecological civilization strategy to optimize territorry space, resources and ecology and to create a people-oriented and high-quality territorry space. Territory consolidation in the new era will depend on carrying capacity and suitability evaluation mechanism, combining comprehensive research and attribution analysis to divide "territory consolidation" functional zones and carry out major projects. Territory consolidation will deal with "negative externalities" in the process of territory space development and utilization to restore land functions by various measures, so as to optimize territory space,improve resource utilization efficiency, protect important ecosystem, restore damaged ecosystem, prevent disaster and control pollution. It will enhance carrying capacity, suitability, beauty, security and the sustainability of territory space.

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    Impacts of tidal channels on typical landscapes of wetland in the Yellow River Delta
    YU Xiao-juan, XUE Zhen-shan, ZHANG Zhong-sheng, SONG Xiao-lin, ZHANG Hong-ri
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2504-2515.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191202
    Abstract278)   HTML1)    PDF (3067KB)(473)      

    Tidal channels play important roles in governing landscape succession in the estuary areas. In the present work, tidal channels and landscapes types of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) were extracted by visual interpretation based on remote sensing images combined with field investigation during 1989-2016, aiming to decipher effects of tidal channel development on Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa and mudflats in the last 20 years through Redundancy Analysis (RDA). Results indicated that area ratio of mudflats was in the fluctuation of increase and decrease during the past 20 years, and the change trend is opposite to that of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa. Patch density was larger in the Northern YRD than that in the Southern YRD, and fragmentation is relatively high. RDA analysis showed that the first two sequence axes could explain about 85.7% variations of landscape indexes, which better reflected the correlation between the two. Length, number, network connectivity and curvature had greater effects on landscape features; the effect of fractal dimension was the smallest. Length, number, and fractal dimension were negatively correlated with the area ratio and patch density of Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa while they were positively correlated with the area ratio of mudflats.

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    Recreation suitability evaluation of countryside forests in Shanghai and corresponding developing guidance
    ZHANG Kai-xuan, FAN Wen, SHI Jia-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2270-2280.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191102
    Abstract261)   HTML0)    PDF (1686KB)(428)      
    Recreation functions of city countryside forests are becoming more prominent due to rapid increasing needs of public outdoor recreation. It is significant to evaluate the suitability of countryside forests for promoting their recreation functions. In this study, by using the Delphi method, 10 indicators were chosen to make an evaluation system to assess the recreation suitability of countryside forests, which can be classified into three groups, including recreational resources, recreational facilities, and recreational locations of countryside forests. AHP method was applied to calculate the weight of indicators. By using GIS technology, 64 countryside forests of Shanghai in 2000, 2006 and 2012 were assessed in the recreation suitability. According to the results of evaluation, the recreation suitability was divided into four grades: highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable. The results indicated that the recreational suitability of countryside forests in Shanghai showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2012, and lower suitability grades of countryside forests were transformed into higher suitability grades. Based on different grades of recreational suitability, guidance of countryside forest are proposed. It is suggested that development of highly suitable countryside forests should be given priority, and moderate suitable ones should be actively developed, marginally suitable ones should be reserved and developed.
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    Opportunities and challenges of natural resources research of China in the New Era
    SHEN Lei, ZHONG Shuai, HU Shu-han
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1773-1788.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200802
    Abstract588)   HTML21)    PDF (2353KB)(420)      
    The Report of the Nineteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed that building a New Era of socialism with Chinese characteristics puts forward new demands for comprehensive research and management practices of natural resources. Since the completion of large-scale comprehensive scientific investigations and researches of natural resources in the 1990s, comprehensive research on natural resources has gradually become the focus of attention in the field of resources science. In the New Era, natural resources research is facing various opportunities and challenges. This article discusses the nexus relationship between the frame of the Mountain-Water-Forests-Field-Lakes-Grasses, pointed out by President Xi Jinping, and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in terms of natural resources issues. It focuses on the four typical related research topics that are most concerned at home and abroad today, namely, resource-asset-capital nexus, energy-resource-technology nexus, food-water-energy nexus, energy-water-land-carbon emission nexus, combined with the policy guidance proposed in the New Era. It analyzed the geopolitical risks, climate change, international trade uncertainty, major emergency events and other issues and proposed several new perspectives and related suggestions which are aimed to provide some new ideas for the development of natural resources research and disciplines innovation capacity building. The authors believe that the century-long unprecedented changes have a profound impact on the status and role of natural resources. As a result, it is urgent to strengthen the basic theoretical research of natural resources and establish some major R&D plans for natural resources research as soon as possible to serve the national natural resources strategy and major engineering needs and provide some ways of important technological support for China.
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    Ecological remediation zoning of territory based on the ecological security pattern recognition: Taking Jiawang district of Xuzhou city as an example
    NI Qing-lin, HOU Hu-ping, DING Zhong-yi, LI Yi-bo, LI Jin-rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 204-216.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200117
    Abstract319)   HTML4)    PDF (4451KB)(419)      

    Ecological security pattern is crucial for implementing the systematic ecological remediation in the resource-exhausted city. It can assist the government in clarifying and facilitating the orientations and priorities in ecological remediation practices. An ecological remediation zoning of territory based on the ecological security is proposed. In the framework, three-phrase remote sensing images, historical mine information, and GIS spatial analysis are utilized. With the application of the paradigm of ecological pattern research, the essential elements of an ecological pattern are obtained. Ecological source areas are recognized from the perspectives of connectivity, sensitivity, and importance. The ecological resistance surface was revised based on the information of the past minefield boundary. By the application of circuit theory, ecological corridors, and other possible areas of ecological processes were identified. Based on the space superposition of the ecological-source area, barrier area, and resistance surface, the ecological remediation zones are delineated along with the consideration of the needs of ecological restoration, the difficulty of ecological processes, and the characteristics of ecological factors. A case study of Jiawang district in Xuzhou city, Jiangsu province is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed method. Results indicate that the average area of ecological sources accounts for almost 20% of the whole district in 2000, 2008 and 2016. The percentage of ecological sources rose before 2008 and fell after 2008 because of urbanization and mine closure. On the contrary, the change of the ecological resistance surface has an opposite trend due to the fact that urbanization becomes the dominant factor. In the past three phrases, the distributions of ecological corridors have an obvious spatial similarity overall, but differentiation within each town. These corridors are either along the rivers or in the low hilly area with good vegetation coverage. However, they are sparsely distributed in the central-, southern-, and southwestern parts of the region. The barrier areas are overlapping among different phrases and sitting to the northern side of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, in which obstruction level is higher in the northern and central parts. Due to the treatment of the subsidence area after mine closure, the area of barrier began to decline. Four ecological restoration zones, namely ecological conservation zone, ecological upgrading zone, ecological restoration zone and ecological control zone, are divided into areas of 144.38 km2, 189.60 km2, 182.68 km2 and 103.34 km2, respectively. These findings can provide spatial guidance for ecological transformation and ecological remediation in Jiawang district.

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    Spatial and temporal bias of tourists' perception ofenvironmental quality
    ZHANG Ye-chen, ZHANG Hong-mei, SONG Zi-bin, HONG Xue-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2291-2304.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191104
    Abstract234)   HTML1)    PDF (1656KB)(414)      
    Environmental quality assessment research is mostly based on objective and professional evaluation, and it is less common to measure the evaluation or perception of environmental quality by residents or tourists. Ordinary people's evaluation may affect their environmental behavior, and thus promote environmental protection. This study investigates the spatial and temporal bias of tourists' perceptions of environmental quality by the environmental quality perceptions of residents, destinations, national spatial scales and current and future time scales in Beijing, Shanghai and Hainan. Some valid questionnaires were collected in Beijing (293), Shanghai (281), and Hainan (296). Data were processed using two-way mixed analysis of variance, one-sample T test, and one-way ANOVA. The study found that: (1) The current environmental quality perception of the surveyed tourists is optimistic bias compared with the whole country, that is, "spatial optimism" (the F value of the two-way mixed variance analysis is 101.09, P value<0.001, f 2=0.20). Compared with the destination, it is pessimistic ( P=0.005, difference=-0.079), which means that the environmental quality of the place of residence is not as good as that of the tourism destination. There is a clear optimistic tendency for the future environmental quality perception, that is, "temporal optimism" (the future environment quality of the place of residence, mean=0.51, P<0.001; destination future environmental quality, mean=0.55, P<0.001; national future environmental quality, mean=0.46, P<0.001). (2) Tourists in different provinces and cities have different perceptions of current environmental quality. Compared with objective environmental quality assessment ( EQI value), tourists in 8 provinces such as Anhui are relatively optimistic, and tourists from 7 provinces and cities such as Beijing are relatively pessimistic. There are also differences in the degree of optimistic bias in the perception of the future environmental quality of tourists. Tourists in Hebei, Shanxi, Henan, and Shaanxi provinces are more optimistic about the future environmental quality, while those in Guangdong, Guangxi, Beijing and other provinces and cities are less optimistic.
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    Characteristics of cropland fragmentation and its impact on agricultural production costs in mountainous areas
    WANG Ya-hui, LI Xiu-bin, XIN Liang-jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2658-2672.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191214
    Abstract292)   HTML2)    PDF (2181KB)(400)      

    Under the background of the continuous increase of agricultural cost and the wide use of labor-saving technology, in the mountainous areas, cropland fragmentation has gradually become a key factor to curb the increase of farmers' income. The clarification of the degree of cropland fragmentation and its impact on agricultural production cost has guiding value for reducing agricultural costs. Degree of cropland fragmentation was measured from the perspective of land ownership and spatial distribution, and the semi-logarithm econometric models were developed to evaluate the impact of land fragmentation on agricultural costs based on the field survey data of 1015 farm households in counties of Wulong, Wushan and Youyang of Chongqing, China. The results showed that the cultivated land in the study areas was severely fragmented, with the Simpson Index and the Plot Distance Index being 0.71 and 0.19, respectively. The cropland area per farm household was 6.19 mu, the number of parcels was 8.89 and the distance between the parcels and families was about 430 m, the characteristics of cropland fragmentation demonstrated "more parcels, small scale and short distance". The increased degree of cropland fragmentation has improved the production cost of agriculture. When the Simpson Index and the Plot Distance Index increased by one standard deviation, the total cost per unit of production increased by 33.8% and 16.6%, respectively. To be specific, the increased degree of land fragmentation has significantly increased labor, fertilizer and seed costs, while limiting the use of machinery and other factors. The study further found the heterogeneity in the impact of land fragmentation on production costs in different crops. In addition, high-quality cropland can alleviate the cost increase caused by the fragmentation of the plots, while expanding the scale of the plots will help to reduce production costs. The policy enlightenment was that reducing agricultural operation costs was an important measure to alleviate the cropland abandonment in mountainous areas. The government should establish a low-cost cropland transfer network and encourage land exchange between farmers or villages to expand the size of the plots and reduce the distance of cultivation, and the government should also promote the wide use of micro-farming machinery suitable for mountain agriculture.

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    Ecological vulnerability assessment for a transboundary basin in Central Asia and its spatiotemporal characteristics analysis: Taking Amu Darya River Basin as an example
    CHEN Tao, BAO An-ming, GUO Hao, ZHENG Guo-xiong, YUAN Ye, YU Tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2643-2657.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191213
    Abstract305)   HTML3)    PDF (4765KB)(398)      

    Quantitative assessment and long-term analysis of ecological vulnerability (EVI) are greatly important for understanding the dynamics of regional ecological environment and guiding ecological environmental protection and restoration. However, in the previous studies, there was rare assessment for ecological vulnerability of the special area of a transboundary basin. In this paper, the Amu Darya River Basin was used as the study area and 11 indicators were selected to reflect the vegetation, hydrology, climate, topography, soil and human activities. After the collinearity diagnostics, an ecological vulnerability assessment system for the study area was constructed. Further, subjective weight method and objective weight method was combined to determine the weight of all indexes, and quantitative estimation for the ecological vulnerability and the spatiotemporal characteristics analysis of the study area from 1990 to 2015 were conducted. The results showed that: (1) The ecological environment of the study area showed a deteriorating trend, and most of the areas were in a heavy vulnerable situation; the average proportion of heavy vulnerability during the study period was 46.40%. The proportion of extreme vulnerability also increased from 2.58% in 1990 to 16.97% in 2015, an increase of 14.39% over the past 25 years. (2) The ecological vulnerability of the study area varied greatly among different land cover types. The EVI value of grassland changed the most, the ecological environment of bare land was the most vulnerable, and the ecological vulnerability of forest was the lowest. In all, the ecological vulnerability levels among different land cover types were in an oreder of bare land > shrub > grassland > cropland > urban land > forest. (3) The relationship between EVI and topographical factors indicated that the area with lower elevation and smaller slope or higher elevation and larger slope was the most vulnerable regions, while the area with low vulnerability was mainly distributed in the regions at an altitude of 2500-3500 m or on a slope of 15-25°.

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    Spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of leisure tourism resources in Chengdu
    LI Li, HOU Guo-lin, XIA Si-you, HUANG Zhen-fang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (3): 683-697.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200314
    Abstract293)   HTML1)    PDF (3040KB)(394)      
    Leisure tourism will be the future trend of tourism consumption, and leisure tourism resources are the carrier and foundation for the development of leisure tourism industry. Based on the POI data of Chengdu's leisure tourism resources, this paper aimed to analyze the spatial pattern and its influencing factors of leisure tourism resources in the city. We explored and analyzed the spatial distribution of leisure tourism resources using methods including Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical Clustering Analysis, Ripley's K function and Geographic Detector. The results show that: (1) The distribution pattern of Chengdu's leisure tourism resources is featured by central agglomeration and peripheral dispersion. The recreational, cultural, special and natural leisure tourism resources show the layout characteristics based on traditional business districts, cultural centers, green parks and natural attractions respectively. (2) There are different types of leisure tourism resources in terms of spatial scale. The largest spatial scale presents recreational and entertainment features, followed by special and cultural features, and the smallest one exhibits natural features. (3) Distance from the city center, tourist density, street vitality, resident density, resource endowment, road density, etc. are important factors influencing the spatial distribution of leisure tourism resources in the study area. (4) Among the influencing factors, the distance from the city center and the density of tourists and residents are the dominant factors; resource endowment and street vitality are the driving factors; road density, distance from main road and regional economic level are the predisposing factors; government behaviors and major events are the adjustment factors, and all these four factors form the spatial distribution pattern of leisure tourism resources in Chengdu.
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    Ecological carrying capacity monitoring and security pattern construction in arid areas of Northwest China
    ZHANG Xue-yuan, WEI Wei, XIE Bin-bin, GUO Ze-cheng, ZHOU Jun-ju
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2389-2402.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191111
    Abstract255)   HTML1)    PDF (3954KB)(393)      
    In this paper, ecological function elasticity, resource supply and environmental capacity, social and economic pressure rule of three layers are used to set up a comprehensive evaluation system of ecological carrying capacity. On this basis, the spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) is used in the arid areas of Northwest China covering 2000, 2007, 2012 and 2016 to examine spatial and temporal variations so as to monitor the ecological carrying capacity evaluation, and construct ecological security pattern. The results show that the ecological carrying capacity of the study area is mainly weak bearing, and the area of the weak bearing area is decreasing, while the area of the strong bearing area is increasing. In terms of spatial distribution, the ecological carrying capacity of Hexi region, Northern Xinjiang and Western Inner Mongolia is on the rise, while that of Southern Xinjiang is in the decline. The MCR model was used to extract 51 road-type corridors, river-type corridors and green corridors, with a total length of 7285.43 km, and 71 nodes in important patch area, river wet area and ecological fragile area were extracted. According to the calculation results, the arid areas of Northwest China are divided into 16 ecological security patterns, and the existing security patterns are optimized according to the changes of ecological carrying capacity.
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    Effects of biochar amendment on carbon and nitrogen cycling in coastal saline soils: A review
    ZHANG Qian, LIU Bing-jie, YU Lu, WANG Rui-rui, ZHENG Hao, LUO Xian-xiang, LI Feng-min
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2529-2543.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191204
    Abstract319)   HTML8)    PDF (2322KB)(373)      

    Coastal saline-alkaline soil plays important roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycling and climate change regulation. Biochar (BC), as an eco-friendly soil amendment, shows a promising prospect in terms of alleviating climate change and promoting sustainable agricultural development. However, most of the previous studies focused on the influence of BC application on greenhouse gas emissions and nitrogen availability and loss in coastal saline-alkaline soil, but little information that comprehensively summarized the effect of BC on the soil carbon and nitrogen cycling is available. As a result, the objective of this review is to comprehensively summarize that: (1) The influences of BC on soil carbon pools (vegetation and soil organic carbon) and soil organic carbon mineralization in the coastal saline-alkaline soil; (2) The influences of BC on nitrogen cycling, including biological nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and ammonia volatilization; (3) The underlying mechanisms responsible for the BC-regulated carbon and nitrogen cycling in the soil. At last, we also point out that more efforts should be paid to the investigation of long-term experiments in field circumstances in future, and the explanation of the microbial mechanisms underlying soil carbon and nitrogen cycling affected by BC application using modern molecular biotechnology (e.g., metagenomics). This review would provide useful information for maintaining health and function of the coastal soil ecosystem by incorporation of BC.

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    Threshold effect analysis of the change of forest vegetation coverage in red soil region under different recovery modes
    ZHANG Jun-ze, CHEN Xi-yun, YUE Hui, FENG Chong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2403-2414.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191112
    Abstract190)   HTML1)    PDF (2331KB)(367)      
    The threshold effect of the change of canopy and shrub & grass cover during vegetation restoration often determines the success or failure of ecological restoration. If this effect is ignored, other ecological problems may arise. In order to further promote the restoration of forest ecosystems in China and fill in the relevant research gaps, we study the dynamic characteristics of vegetation coverage of tree layer and shrub & grass layer under natural and artificial restoration patterns in typical red soil regions. Based on the advanced ecological threshold assessment framework, we evaluated the threshold effects between the two coverage indicators for different recovery modes through the linear model and three threshold models (including piecewise regression models, step function models, and general models). The results show that, according to the form of posterior distribution of the ecological threshold, there is a threshold effect between the canopy cover and shrub & grass cover under artificial restoration, but it does not exist in the natural recovery mode. Compared with the accuracy of the evaluation results of each model, the results of the hockey stick (HS) model are more accurate. Using the HS model, the threshold of canopy cover in the current artificial restoration plot is 42.85% (95% confidence interval is 41.57%-44.13%), and the shrub & grass cover is 58.75%. If the threshold is crossed, the coverage of the shrub & grass will begin to decrease. Our results can provide an important scientific basis for the structural improvement of plantation ecosystem in red soil region of China.
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    The locality and adaptability of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin: Challenges and opportunities
    WANG Fang, MIAO Chang-hong, LIU Feng-gui, CHEN Xing-peng, MI Wen-bao, HAI Chun-xing, DUAN De-gang, WANG Jin-ping, ZHANG Zhan-cang, WANG Cheng-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (1): 1-26.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210101
    Abstract511)   HTML29)    PDF (10349KB)(352)      

    Due to the particularity of natural environment and geographical location, the human settlement environment of the Yellow River Basin is in a complex process of constant changes and is always facing severe challenges. The coupling process of human environment space with natural and social elements originates from the dynamic, comprehensive and systematic adaptation mechanism presented in the process of human-land relationship change, so revealing the system adaptation mechanism is the key to solve the human environment dilemma in the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, based on the perspective of "locality and adaptability", this paper invited experts and scholars from Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan and Shandong along the Yellow River and other provinces. They interpreted the characteristics of human settlements in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of natural geography, social economy, urban and rural development, and heritage protection, and sought sustainable strategies to adapt to China's new urbanization path. The main points are stated as follows: On the whole, the adaptability of human settlements in the study area has multi-scale spatial correlation and historical geographic dependence. The Yellow River Basin has an important ecological function, but the natural environment in different regions is facing such problems as land salinization, soil erosion and pollution, etc., so it is necessary to promote the greening of human-land coupling relationship. The Yellow River Basin, especially the cities along the upper reaches of the river, have distinct characteristics of openness, ethnic cultural diversity and integration. Due to the complex natural environment, caves and other special settlements have been formed in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River. In the process of rapid urbanization, they are faced with transformation and disappearance, retaining the cultural genes of traditional settlements, and it is urgent to classify and treat them differently to promote their healthy evolution. The internal and external radiation drive of urban agglomeration in the Yellow River Basin is the foundation of high-quality development throughout the river basin, and the optimization and upgrading of urban structure is an important way to promote high-quality development. To achieve sustainable development, scientific and technological innovation and industrial structure transformation and upgrading are also needed.

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    New insights into assessing the carrying capacity of resources and the environment: The origin, development and prospects of the planetary boundaries framework
    CHEN Xian-peng, FANG Kai, PENG Jian, LIU Ai-yuan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (3): 513-531.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200302
    Abstract230)   HTML6)    PDF (5386KB)(349)      
    Maintaining the magnitude and intensity of human activities within the carrying capacity of resources and the environment is the core of the sustainable development theory. Therefore, how to assess the carrying capacity in a scientific way receives top priority among sustainability development strategies. The Planetary Boundaries Framework (PBF) that takes into account the Earth system as a whole provides new insights into assessing the carrying capacity of resources and the environment. The PBF has attracted considerable attentions and discussions within the sustainability science since its first appearance in the literature. However, the opportunities and challenges facing the PBF remain largely unexplored by the scientific community. This paper aims to fill in this gap by elaborating on the theoretical basis of the PBF and its conceptual evolution, revisiting the development and applications of the framework at the national, provincial, urban and organizational scales, identifying the challenges that the framework is facing and the solutions, and comparing the framework with the traditional paradigm for assessing the carrying capacity of resources and the environment. As a combination of historical experiences and scientific studies based on the theory of stable states and catastrophe in complex systems, the PBF serves as a useful supplement to the present assessments of carrying capacity. Primarily the downscaling of PBF to sub-global scales can be achieved through either top-down allocation or bottom-up integration. A systematic understanding of the linkages between these two pathways and their potential synergies would be of crucial significance to the development of the framework. However, we observe that there is a lack of clarity and transparency in the PBF regarding the scaling properties and interactions between various biophysical processes, leading to arguments over variables selection and boundaries setting. Besides, methodological challenges appear when we integrate PBF with tools for environmental impact assessment, such as environmental footprints and life cycle assessment, and extending the framework to socioeconomic dimensions. Therefore, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the PBF with respect to its theoretical basis, technical approaches and practical applications, so as to enhance the policy-guiding value of the framework as an approach to address the world's major public issues such as achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
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    Dynamic monitoring and early warning of resources and environment carrying capacity in Gansu, China
    CHEN Xiao-yu-jing, WU Yan-hong, XIA Jian-xin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2378-2388.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191110
    Abstract351)   HTML3)    PDF (3545KB)(348)      
    The monitoring and early warning index system of RECC in Gansu province was constructed by comprehensively considering the policies issued by different departments of the state. The weights were determined by the comprehensive weighting method based on AHP-entropy weight method, and the warning threshold of each index was discussed and determined by referring to the existing achievements. On the basis of the above methods, the comprehensive index model was used to analyze the carrying capacity of resources and environment in Gansu province and the county administrative units from 2006 to 2016. The results show that: (1) The level of resources and environment carrying capacity of Gansu province in 2006-2016 was between 0.32-0.46, which was in the state of overload warning despite of the overall increasing trend. Spatially, the bearing capacity of Hexi region was high, followed by the southern and southeastern regions, while the central region showed a poor carrying capacity. Moreover, the carrying capacity of resources and environment in ethnic minority areas was lower than that in the core towns; (2) From 2006 to 2016, the resources carrying capacity of Gansu increased steadily, in which the carrying capacity of water resources and energy mines is at a relatively poor level. The carrying capacity in Linxia and Tianshui was in an orange overload state; (3) The level of environment carrying capacity in Gansu fluctuated greatly from 2006 to 2016, showing a "W"-shaped curve, and the environment carrying capacity was seriously overloaded. Spatially, the southern region and Lanzhou had better environment carrying capacity, while the carrying capacity in Hexi and eastern region was lower. The results show the serious resources and environment overload in Gansu province. Although great progress has been made in the ecological civilization construction since the 12 th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015), it is still long-term task to ease the pressure and make continuous efforts.
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    The development history and prospect of natural resources research in China
    CHENG Sheng-kui, SHEN Lei, FENG Zhi-ming, ZHONG Shuai
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1757-1772.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200801
    Abstract815)   HTML36)    PDF (2208KB)(347)      
    Since the 1950s, driven by large-scale, long-term and continuous comprehensive investigations of natural resources oriented to serve national strategic needs, China's natural resources research has formed a comprehensive and integrated development characteristics, and the development process of "task with discipline" has also gradually created a more systematic resources science theoretical basis and empirical methodology system. Faced with the country's major demand for deepening the reform of the comprehensive management system of natural resources since the establishment of the Ministry of Natural Resources, promoting the establishment and improvement of an independent resources science discipline system has become an important task in the field of natural resources research in China. This article systematically sorts out the development process of comprehensive investigation and research on China's natural resources from the 1950s to the early 2000s, focusing on the key development directions and characteristics of different periods. Combining the summary and prospects of historical opportunities in different periods, we believe that China's natural resources research has formed a national demand-oriented and leading discipline development trend. In the future, we should continue to adhere to the comprehensive research paradigm featured by multi-disciplinary integration; open up new perspectives on resources science system research with Chinese characteristics; accelerate the formation of a complete discipline system; improve the talent training system of resources science; strengthen the study of the discipline history of resources science; determine the relationship between resources science and geography, geology, ecology, environmental science and other related disciplines; actively introduce the big data theoretical framework and technical advantages to innovate "Natural Resources Big Data" or "Resource Utilization Big Data" and other related theories and technologies and to establish a dynamic evaluation method for the process of natural resources development and utilization; provide the background of natural resources and its comprehensive impact assessment with the ecology and environment for ecological civilization construction and sustainable development strategies support for decision-making; explore and analyze natural laws, socio-economic laws and the systematic association between the two in the process of natural resources utilization.
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    Ecosystem services transition in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and its spatial patterns
    LU Long-hui, CHEN Fu-jun, XU Yue-qing, HUANG An, HUANG Ling
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (3): 532-545.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200303
    Abstract182)   HTML3)    PDF (6534KB)(345)      

    Land use changes can affect the ecosystem services. Since the implementation of reform and opening-up policy in 1978, the transformation and development of society and economy has led to the land use transition, and furthermore led to the "ecosystem services transition". Based on the data of LUCC, net primary productivity (NPP) and statistics in 1980, 2000 and 2015, this paper analyzed the changes and spatial patterns of two types of ecosystem service, e.g., food production, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by using the methods of GIS and ecosystem service values calculation, and revealed the reasons for the "ecosystem services transition". The results show that: (1) In the past 35 years, the land use changes in the study region was mainly characterized by the expansion of construction land and the decrease of cultivated land. The phenomenon of conversion of cultivated land to construction land was particularly prominent in this region. Between 1980-2000 and 2000-2015, the cultivated land in mountainous areas changed from decrease to increase and the forest land changed from decrease to increase. The cultivated land in dam areas continued to increase and the forest land changed from decrease to increase. Both the cultivated land and forest land in plain area continued to decrease. In 1980 and 2000, areas with high values of NPP were mainly located in mountainous areas, and in 2015, they were mainly found in plain areas. (2) From 1980 to 2000, the ecosystem services in the study area were mainly reflected by the increase of food production service and the decrease of carbon sequestration and oxygen production service. From 2000 to 2015, the ecosystem services in the region were mainly featured by the simultaneous increase of food production function and carbon sequestration and oxygen production function. The pattern of "ecosystem service transition" was "food production + carbon sequestration and oxygen production -" → "food production + carbon sequestration and oxygen production +". (3) The main reasons for "ecosystem services transition" were the improvement of agricultural productivity, the increase of area and quality of forest land, and the increase of the quality of cultivated land and grassland. In general, the "ecosystem services transition" in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has a positive impact on food security. It is particularly necessary to pay attention to areas where both food production function and ecological function declined. Policies aimed at improving agricultural productivity should be formulated, while policies for supporting ecological restoration should be continued.

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    Determining the intensity of the trade-offs among ecosystem services based on production-possibility frontiers: Model development and a case study
    YANG Wei, JIN Yu-wan, SUN Li-xin, SUN Tao, SHAO Dong-dong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2516-2528.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191203
    Abstract275)   HTML3)    PDF (3698KB)(337)      

    We developed a four-step method to quantify trade-offs among ecosystem services: evaluate the targeted services at different spatial-temporal scales; identify whether a trade-off exists between pairs of ecosystem services; graph the production-possibility frontier curve; and use that curve to calculate the trade-off intensity between services. Using China's Yellow River Delta wetlands as a case study, we examined the potential trade-offs between material production, carbon storage, and habitat quality under three land-use scenarios (business-as-usual, protection, and exploitation). We found significant correlations between all pairs of the three ecosystem services. Trade-offs existed between material production and habitat quality in all scenarios, with the following order of intensity: protection (6.4) < 2015 status quo (21.8) < business as usual (22.5) < exploitation (24.3). Synergies always existed between habitat quality and carbon storage. The material production and carbon storage services were synergistic in the protection and business as usual scenarios, but they exhibited a trade-off in the exploitation scenario, with a trade-off intensity (59.9) comparable to that (60.3) in the 2015 status quo. The methodology can be flexibly used to analyze trade-offs and compare alternative management plans, thereby revealing the optimal management, which provides a scientific basis for achieving sustainable regional development and resource management.

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    Spatio-temporal characteristics and influencing factors of Chinese red tourism network attention
    GAO Nan, ZHANG Xin-cheng, WANG Lin-yan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1068-1089.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200505
    Abstract1112)   HTML15)    PDF (2914KB)(332)      
    Red tourism network attention degree is a typical method for measuring the performance level of red tourism development promotion, and it is also an important reflection of the influence of red tourism promotion level. This paper takes the "red tourism network attention degree" of 31 provincial-level regions as the research object, and uses the Moran index and panel vector autoregressive model to analyze the spatio-temporal characteristics and the influencing factors of the red tourism network in China from 2011 to 2018. The results show: (1) The network attention of the national red tourism shows a fluctuant growth trend in the study period, and its seasonal difference is significant. (2) The national red tourism network attention shows a decreasing trend from the eastern to central and western regions, but the trend of attention in the red tourism 5A-level tourist attractions is prominent in the western region. (3) The attention of red tourism networks in the 31 provincial-level regions has significant global spatial autocorrelation. The phenomenon of "high-high" and "low-low" agglomerations is concentrated in the eastern region, and central and western region. (4) The contribution of the factors affecting red tourism network attention was ranked as follows: internet penetration rate > per capita GDP > tourism information index > regional media attention > red tourism classic scenic network attention.
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    The impact of land fragmentation on farmer's chemical fertilizer use efficiency
    SHI Chang-liang, ZHANG Yi, GUO Yan, ZHU Jun-feng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2687-2700.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191216
    Abstract215)   HTML1)    PDF (1640KB)(331)      

    In the background that China strongly advocated the chemical fertilizer use reduction and zero growth, how to improve chemical fertilizer use efficiency by farmers has become a crucial issue. This paper measures the chemical fertilizer use efficiency from the perspective of technical efficiency and analyzes the influence direction and degree of land fragmentation on the chemical fertilizer use efficiency through regression analysis and Shapley value framework based on R2. The results show that: (1) The technical inefficiency is high in the use of chemical fertilizers. In the case of other inputs such as unchanged labor and land, about 52.51% of fertilizer input can be reduced with no effect on the yield. Therefore, this could sufficiently achieve the aim of fertilizer reduction with no effect on the yield by improving the management level of farmer's fertilizer use. (2) The land fragmentation has a significant negative impact on chemical fertilizer use efficiency. All other factors being equal, each block of land increase could lead to a fertilizer use efficiency decrease of 0.002. This conclusion is robust to different variable definitions, estimating methods and winsorized sample. In addition, the Shapley value decomposition result shows that land fragmentation is also an important reason for low chemical fertilizer use efficiency of Chinese farmers. On the whole, land fragmentation can conduct 12.15% of farmer's chemical fertilization efficiency variance which is fourth in all the factors only next to village dummy variables, paddy field ratio and food crop planting ratio. Moreover, the contribution of the land fragmentation to chemical fertilizer use efficiency difference is stronger in the western region where the fragmentation is relatively high. (3) The difference in the chemical fertilization efficiency mainly depends on local village characte-ristics and the characteristics of production and management including the management scale, plantation structure, land quality, and whether or not to join the cooperative. However, the explanation of farmer's individual characteristics influenced by collective decision to chemical fertilizer use efficiency is relatively weak.

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    Effect of rotation fallow on labor transfer: A case study in three provinces of Hebei, Gansu and Yunnan
    WANG Pan, YAN Jian-zhong, YANG Liu, WANG Jing-ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2348-2362.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191108
    Abstract346)   HTML6)    PDF (1402KB)(324)      
    In recent years, the unreasonable use of cultivated land in China has caused a series of serious problems. Therefore, the state has put forward an important measure of "Exploring Pilot Program of Farmland Rotation and Fallow System ". Labor force is one of the main factors of agricultural production. Therefore, it is of strategic significance to further promote the national rotation fallow policy, modernization and urbanization to sum up the situation of farmer's rotation fallow land and labor force transfer and grasp the effect of fallow area on labor force transfer. Based on this, this paper uses the relevant survey data of 1542 households in six counties of Hebei, Gansu and Yunnan provinces to analyze the situation of farmer's rotation fallow land and labor transfer, and uses Tobit regression model to quantitatively analyze the impact of fallow area on labor transfer. The results show that: (1) There is a difference between the ratio of fallow households and fallow area per household in the study area, and the order of which is both Gansu > Yunnan > Hebei; (2) 62.97% of the households in the study area have the phenomenon of labor transfer, and the number of labor transfer of fallow households far exceeds that of non-fallow households; (3) The core variable, fallow area, has a significant positive impact on labor transfer; the control variable, the total household population, gender of householder, labor education level, medical expenditure, the distance from residence to highway and average wage per labor force have a significant positive impact on labor transfer, while the dependency ratio has a significant negative impact on labor transfer.
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    The evolution and frontier development of land ecological restoration research
    YI Xing, BAI Cai-quan, LIANG Long-wu, ZHAO Zi-cong, SONG Wei-xuan, ZHANG Yan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 37-52.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200105
    Abstract214)   HTML6)    PDF (3915KB)(321)      

    Ecological restoration of the land is a major measure to promote ecological protection and restoration, serve the construction of ecological civilization and accelerate the development of modernization. It is of great significance to human survival and social progress. This paper uses the bibliometrics and network analysis methods, takes 1196 articles in the Web of Science database as the research object, deeply analyzes the dynamic trends, cooperation and research hotspots of the land ecological restoration research, further discriminates the evolution process and explores the progress of the frontier. The research shows that: (1) The land ecological restoration has been increasingly concerned by academic circles at home and abroad, and the research literature mainly concentrates on the fields of ecology and environment. (2) Scholars and research institutions in developed countries such as the United States have prominent influence in this field. China has shown strong development potential and is a core member of the emerging cooperative group, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has become one of the most influential institutions in the world. (3) The elements of water, soil and population with ecology as the core are the main research objects in this field, and the comprehensive research under the intersection of humanities and natural sciences is the future development trend of this field.

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