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    Establishment and application of one map of current situation of territorial spatial planning according to the foundations of natural resources: Taking Qingdao city as an example
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2150-2162.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191011
    Abstract1631)   HTML647)    PDF (4151KB)(3153)      

    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

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    Reducing Food Loss and Food Waste: Some Personal Reflections
    CHENG Sheng-kui, BAI Jun-fei, JIN Zhong-hao, WANG Dong-yang, LIU Gang, GAO Si, BAO Jing-ling, LI Xiao-ting, LI Ran, JIANG Nan-qing, YAN Wen-jing, ZHANG Shi-gang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (4): 529-538.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20170202
    Abstract1018)   HTML535)    PDF (529KB)(1786)      

    Recently, research on food loss and foodwaste and the related environmental impacts has increased globally. Food loss and food waste occur in all aspects of the food supply chain from farm to table. A better understanding of the scales and trends of food loss and food waste is very important for any mitigation strategies. The food waste reflects directly the civilization of a society, and we need to understand the causes and consequences of food waste from multiple perspectives. Addressing food loss and food waste issue requires a wide range of actions from reducing, to promoting a healthy diet culture, learning from international experience, and building intelligent food systems.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)
    Thoughts on unifying the regulation of territorial space use
    LIN Jian, WU Ting, ZHANG Ye-xiao, ZHAO Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2200-2208.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191015
    Abstract1021)   HTML357)    PDF (1014KB)(1696)      

    In recent years, the unification of territorial space use regulations has been upgraded to an unprecedented level of national strategic deployment, which is an extremely important reform task with overall significance. Based on the systematical review on the institutional evolution of territorial space use regulation since 1949, this paper puts an emphasis on summarizing the major features of previous territorial space use regulations in China. In general, we conclude that the key to implement territorial space use regulations is to control the three important aspects which consist of planning, licensing and supervision, to coordinate the utilization of continental space and ocean space and to discriminate the management of construction and non-construction purposes. On the premise of system construction, we propose four suggestions to institution on how to unify the territorial space use regulations: (1) Establishing a unified control line system for territorial space use regulations at the planning level; (2) Building an abundant and effective measure system for territorial space use regulations; (3) Constructing a unified and explicit regulatory system for territorial space use regulations at the supervision level; (4) Improving the legal system to help territorial space use governance at the support level.

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    An analysis of the relationship between water resources and population-economy-society-environment
    LIU Chang-ming, WANG Hong-rui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2003, 18 (5): 635-644.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.05.017
    Abstract729)      PDF (358KB)(1607)      
    Water resources serve as the material base of the existence and development of human beings.It is a huge complicated system involving population,economy,society and environment.Water resources and water cycle are the keys in the system.Based on the summarization of the water resources concept and its attribute of nature,economy and society,this paper discusses the relationships between water resources and water cycle,water-balance structure,population,economy,society and environment in details.The paper also emphasizes the interactions of water cycle and water balance,water resources utilization and evaluation,economic activity,and water resources carrying capacity.Given an example of the Yellow River valley,the paper states that there is a closer relationship between water resources,population,economy,society and environment.The author gives a definite concept and connotation of water resources carrying capacity on the base of summing up the former studies.Summarizing the model system of water resources carrying capacity,the author also points out that it is very essential to use the system to depict the complex relationship between water resources and other four aspects,namely population,economy,society and environment.Considering the problem from the viewpoint of the regional sustainable development and alleviating the benefit conflict of distribution of water resources,we should clarify the following aspects:water demands for ecological environment,including rivers,animals,plants and land;water demands for population and social-economic development;and water environment capacity that can tolerate certain amount of pollutants.So,in order to promote the sustainable development of population,economy,society and environment,it is of great significance to simulate and predict the evolvement of the huge complex system with the combination of remote sensing,GIS and modern math theory,seek a reasonable allocation of water resources carrying capacity,and study the enhanced module of water resources carrying capacity.
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    Cited: CSCD(53)
    Shenyang's practice and optimizing exploration of "Three Control Lines" in territorial spatial planning
    ZHANG Nian-guo, WANG Na, YIN Jian
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2175-2185.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191013
    Abstract1236)   HTML195)    PDF (4011KB)(1558)      

    Before the institutional reform of the State Council, the "Three Control Lines" of ecological protection red line, permanent basic farmland and urban development boundary were delineated by different ministries, which resulted in insufficient coordination and overlapping results, and difficulties in implementing management. After the institutional reform of the State Council, the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for establishing a spatial planning system. It requires that the three control lines be delineated from top to bottom on the basis of the evaluation of the urban capacity of resources and environment and the suitability of territorial spatial development. This paper summarizes the manifestations and causes of contradictions and conflicts in the delimitation of the three control lines in Shenyang as a pilot city, constructs relationships between the three control lines and the three spaces of ecology, agriculture and cities, establishes the management system and adjustment rules, and explains the adjustment and optimization practices within the scope of the city. The study found that it is difficult to distinguish the functions of the three control lines overlapped in space, mainly because permanent basic farmland undertakes the mission of restricting urban spatial spread, and the index can not be adjusted across administrative regions, which results in some permanent basic farmland having to be arranged in cities; different definitions leading to some urban parks are classified as ecological protection redline; some cultivated land in ecological protection redline was previously classified as permanent basic farmland. The paper puts forward the optimization proposals of three control lines under the background of territorial spatial planning: First, we highlight the characteristics of both the policy line and the technical line, and delimit them from top down and bottom up; second, the country needs to carry on the innovation to the basic farmland adjustment policy and system; third, we will establish a hierarchical management mechanism to properly reserve the flexibility of local administrative power.

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    Improvement of the Evaluation Method for Ecosystem Service Value Based on Per Unit Area
    XIE Gao-di, ZHANG Cai-xia, ZHANG Lei-ming, CHEN Wen-hui, LI Shi-mei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2015, 30 (8): 1243-1254.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.08.001
    Abstract3207)   HTML364)    PDF (2813KB)(1538)      
    Ecosystem service value is the base of decision-making for ecological protection, ecological regionalization and ecological compensation, and it appears the dynamic spatio-temporal changes which are closely connected with the variations of ecological structure and function. However, it is still lack of a universal and integrated dynamic evaluation method for ecosystem service value in China. Based on literature survey, expert knowledge, statistical data and remote sensing data, using model simulations and GIS spatial analysis method, this paper modified and developed the method for evaluating the value equivalent factor in unit area, and proposed an integrated method for dynamic evaluation on Chinese terrestrial ecosystem service value. This method can realize the comprehensive and dynamic assessment of ecosystem service value for 11 service types of 14 different types of terrestrial ecosystem at monthly and provincial scales in China. The preliminary application indicated that the total ecosystem service value was 38.1×10 12 yuan in 2010, in which the value from forest ecosystem was the highest, accounting for about 46%, followed by water body and grassland. Among different ecosystem service types, the contribution from regulation function was the highest, especially the values from hydrological regulation and atmospheric regulation which accounted for about 39.3% and 18.0% of total service value, respectively. Moreover, ecosystem service value presented apparent spatio-temporal patterns in China. Spatially, the ecosystem service value decreased from southeast to northwest and the highest value appeared in southeastern and southwestern regions. Temporally, the ecosystem service value for most of the ecosystems attained the peak in July and reached the trough during December and January except desert, barren and glacier ecosystem. Generally, although this established method still needs to be developed and optimized, it is the first to provide a relatively comprehensive approach for the spatio-temporal dynamic evaluation of ecosystem service value in China, which will be helpful to the scientific decision-making on natural capital rating and ecological compensation.
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    Cited: CSCD(279)
    Research on misuses and modification of coupling coordination degree model in China
    WANG Shu-jia, KONG Wei, REN Liang, ZHI Dan-dan, DAI Bin-ting
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 793-810.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210319
    Abstract8788)   HTML241)    PDF (1280KB)(1537)      

    With the deepening understanding of the Scientific Outlook on Development, the coupling coordination degree model has become an effective evaluation and research tool for the regional overall balanced development. However, for this model, there are four types of misuses, including writing errors, coefficients loss, weight misuses and model failures, which have significantly affected the scientific nature of academic research. Therefore, this study firstly clarified the normative formula of the traditional coupling coordination degree model. On the basis of discussing the validity of the traditional model in the field of social science research, this study further proposed a modified model of coupling degree. In addition, the coupling coordination degree model has three reliability issues: the subjectivity of index construction, and the volatility and incomparability of coupling results. Taking the ecological and economic system of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as an example, we proved that the modified coupling coordination degree model has better validity, and the spatial and temporal changes of the research object will affect the reliability of the coupled coordination model.

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    Effects of global climate change on forest ecosystems
    LIU Guo hua, FU Bo jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2001, 16 (1): 71-78.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2001.01.012
    Abstract1823)      PDF (136KB)(1495)      
    Human induced greenhouse effects and their impacts on global climate change and eco environments,especially the responses of forests to global climate change,have aroused interests of many scientists.In this paper,the potential effects of future climate change on forest ecosystem structure,species composition,tree and forest distribution and productivity are discussed systematically.In the meanwhile,the fields that must be further studied are advanced.
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    Cited: CSCD(77)
    Coupling and Coordinating Degrees of Provincial Economy, Resources and Environment in China
    JIANG Lei, BAI Ling, WU Yu-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (5): 788-799.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160512
    Abstract1589)   HTML321)    PDF (4614KB)(1440)      
    For the purpose of transition of economic development pattern, China’s social-economic sustainable development depends on the harmonious development of economy, resources and environment. Coupling and coordinating degrees are designed to measure the interaction and mutual influence of two or more systems. Coupling degree is highly explainable and operational. Hence, it has been widely used in recent years. However, in many empirical studies, coupling degree formula was usually not used correctly. As a consequence, the range of the coupling degree could not be in the interval [0, 1]. One aim of this paper is to discuss and revise the coupling degree formula. A revised coupling degree formula is obtained and extended to n systems. This paper uses the revised coupling degree formula to calculate the coupling and coordinating degrees of three systems of 31 provinces in mainland China after comprehensive evaluation of provincial economic development, resources endowment and eco-environment. Then, it highlights the spatial analysis of the coupling and coordinating degrees in 31 provinces. The main results are the following. During the period of 2003-2014, generally the coupling degree had an increasing trend. Similarly, the coordinating degree grew up over time. From the spatio-temporal perspective, there was little variation in spatial distribution of coupling degrees of 31 provinces. Moreover, there was significant evidence of spatial autocorrelation of provincial coupling degrees of 31 provinces while provincial coordinating degrees of 31 provinces showed random spatial distribution.
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    Discussion on the application framework of big data in territorial spatial planning
    QIN Xiao, ZHEN Feng, LI Ya-qi, CHEN Hao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2134-2149.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191010
    Abstract925)   HTML347)    PDF (3290KB)(1397)      

    In the new era, the core goal of territorial spatial planning is to meet the people's needs for a better life and also to protect natural resources. As a new type of planning, the method of territorial spatial planning is generally lacking. Based on the endowment of natural resources, scholars use data based on statistics and surveys, as well as methods of statistical analysis, spatial analysis and deduction to evaluate the carrying capacity and suitability of land space at the national and provincial levels, and make a static delimitation of the ecological red line, prime farmland protection line and urban development boundary. However, the existing studies rarely consider the dynamic impact of human activities on the use of land space, and lack the scientific arrangement of ecological space, agricultural space and urban space under the new development trend. This paper introduces the big data which can directly reflect the temporal and spatial changes of human activities. It mainly discusses the direction and specific methodological framework of the application of big data from the four parts of territorial spatial suitability evaluation, ecological spatial planning, agricultural spatial planning and urban spatial planning. Meanwhile, it emphasizes the scientific path of territorial spatial planning compilation under the interaction of "natural space" and "social and economic activities".

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    Carrying capacity reconsidered in spatial planning: Concepts, methods and applications
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2073-2086.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191005
    Abstract1186)   HTML83)    PDF (1810KB)(1311)      

    Resource and environment carrying capacity is the scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper combs the development of the concept, theory and practical application of carrying capacity, and points out the existing problems in research and application, such as concept's obscurity boundary, evaluation biased index calculation, and insufficient research on carrying capacity transmission mechanism. The reform of the spatial planning system and the changes in production modes, lifestyles and development modes in the new era have put forward new demands on spatial planning. It is necessary to explore and innovate the carrying capacity evaluation which is supporting the spatial planning: (1) Further clarify the conceptual connotation of carrying capacity and form a concept set; (2) Study the internal mechanism of carrying capacity and clarify the formation mechanism of carrying capacity; (3) Construct a multi-space scale, multi-evaluation unit's carrying capacity evaluation system to meet the needs of multi-level spatial planning. In practice, it should provide a scientific basis for determining the main indicators and main tasks of spatial planning according to spatial planning and spatial governance changes, supporting new goals of spatial planning, adapting to new modes of spatial governance, and taking new approaches to spatial governance.

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    From informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment: Exploring the ideas of smart territorial spatial planning
    ZHEN Feng, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao, XI Guang-liang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2060-2072.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191004
    Abstract1081)   HTML98)    PDF (2347KB)(1310)      

    The Communist Party of China's 19th National Congress Report has clearly set the goal of "smart society" and put forward new requirements for the current development of territorial spatial planning. Nowadays, the empowerment of information technology based on the Internet, big data, cloud computing, etc. is the main driving force and development focus of the current practices of smart territorial spatial planning. How to understand and promote the development of smart society is the foundation of the compilation and implementation of smart territorial spatial planning. This paper emphasizes the importance of human-land relationship and the theory of urban life organism to the planning and governance of territory in a smart society. It points out that the overall conceptualization of smart territorial spatial planning should be transformed from informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment, which includes technological empowerment and innovative empowerment. The paper constructs a smart territorial spatial planning framework-EPTI-based on the ideas of ecological civilization, people-oriented, technology integration application and institutional innovation, and discusses the paths toward smart compilation and implementation of territorial spatial planning.

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    Spatial Pattern Change of the Cultivated Land before and after the Second National Land Survey in China
    TAN Yong-zhong, HE Ju, YUE Wen-ze, ZHANG Liang, WANG Qing-ri
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (2): 186-197.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160263
    Abstract1742)   HTML62)    PDF (6074KB)(1273)      
    The quantity of the cultivated land is related to the food security and the basic national conditions of China as well as many macro decisions, and thus it has received great concerns from home and abroad. The Chinese government attaches great importance to the protection of cultivated land, makes it as a basic national policy, and sets up a Cultivated Land Protection Red Line of 0.12 billion hectare (1.8 billion mu). However, the area of the China’s cultivated land remains a mystery, especially when the Second National Land Survey released in 2013 disclosed an increase of more than 13.33 million hectare (0.2 billion mu) under the background that the area of cultivated land has been declining for decades. In this paper, we carry out comparative analysis on the data of the cultivated land area before and after the Second National Land Survey at different spatial scales from the dimensions of the total area of the cultivated land and the area of different types of cultivated land. The results show that: 1) At the regional scale, the increased 13.33 million hectares (0.2 billion mu) of cultivated land in the Second National Land Survey mainly distribute in the Northeast China, the North China, and the Northwest China, that nearly half of the increase are in the Northeast region. The South China is the only region with cultivated land area reduction. At the provincial scale, the cultivated land area increased in 26 provinces, especially in the three provinces in Northeast China, Xinjiang and the Inner Mongolia. Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Guangdong and Shaanxi had decline of cultivated land area, especially Guangdong and Jiangsu. At the municipal scale, the spatial agglomeration of cultivated land increase is significant. The cities with increase of cultivated land concentrate in the Northeast China, and the cities with reduction of cultivated land concentrate in the Pearl River Delta and the Yangtze River Delta. At the county scale, the spatial agglomeration of cultivated land is obvious. Counties units with cultivated land increase are centralized in the Northeast China, and the counties with reduction of cultivated land concentrate in provinces of Guangdong, Jiangsu and Yunnan. 2) Three types of cultivated land have increased. The dry land increased the most (53%), and the paddy field increased the least (10%). The paddy field and the irrigated land are increasing in the North and decreasing in the South, and the number provinces with increased land and decrease land are almost the same. Both the increase and the decrease of the dry land mainly distributed in the North. The spatial distribution of changes is very concentrate, that most increase occurred in the northeast and most decrease appeared in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain. The center of the cultivated land continues to move northward, which exacerbate the spatial incoordination of water and soil resources and thus do harm to the quality of the cultivated land. In the future, the Chinese government should pay close attention to not only the quantity of cultivated land change, but also the improvement and protection of the quality of the cultivated land. The increased area of the cultivated land in the Second National Land Survey resulted from a variety of reasons. The main reason is that the technology and methods adopted in the Second National Land Survey disclosed the concealed area in the false report of the local government.
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    Cited: CSCD(17)
    Dynamic Assessment and Trend Prediction of Rural Eco-environmental Quality in China
    WANG Xiao-jun, WU Jin-xue, JIANG He-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (5): 864-876.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160555
    Abstract1523)   HTML133)    PDF (1258KB)(1224)      
    Objectively assessing rural eco-environmental quality and predicting its development trend have important theoretical and practical significance for food security, sustainable development of rural economy, and harmonious relationship between economic growth and ecological environment. Based on the framework of PSR model, the paper constructed an evaluating index system to assess the dynamic changes of rural eco-environment during 2000-2015. And the GM grey system theory model was applied to predict the evolution trend of rural eco-environment during the 13rd Five-Year Plan period. The results showed: 1) The quality of rural eco-environment had been falling in the past 15 years. The comprehensive evaluated score of rural eco-environment decreased from 0.669 in 2000 to 0.387 in 2015. The pollutions emission in rural areas was increasing, but the input to environmental protection was low. The continuing growth of Chinese rural economy was at the cost of ecological and environmental deterioration. 2) According to the past growth mode of rural economics, rural eco-environmental quality will continue deteriorating during 2016-2020, far from the expectation of green development during the 13rd Five-Year Plan. We need to change the mode of rural production as soon as possible in order to ease the pressure on rural soil and water imposed by fertilizers and pesticides, and enhance investment in rural environmental protection as much as possible.
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    Cited: CSCD(11)
    An analysis framework for identifying and optimizing ecological-production-living space based on resident behavior
    LIU Chun-fang, WANG Yi-xuan, HE Rui-dong, WANG Chen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2113-2122.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191008
    Abstract940)   HTML76)    PDF (1653KB)(1151)      

    Ecological-production-living space (EPLS) is not only the basic carrier of human economic and social activities, but also the spatial reflection of human spiritual and cultural needs. Identifying the scope, understanding residents' demand, adjusting the supply and coordinating the functions of EPLS, are the core of the content of the territorial space planning, as well as the important premise of realizing the modernization of governance capacity and high-quality development in the new era. Based on the requirement of compiling the current territorial spatial planning, and the theoretical methods of behavioral science and behavioral geography, this paper explores the theoretical relationship between ecological-production-living behavior and ecological-production-living space. According to the principle of "demand analysis and spatial identification-problem diagnosis and goal determination-mechanism and coupling relationship-spatial optimization and policy suggestions", an optimization analysis framework of EPLS based on residents' behavior is constructed. This study combines residents' behavior research with space supply and demand, and provides a theoretical framework and new ideas of "humanization" for land and space planning.

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    Measurement and Sensitivity Analysis of Unbalance Degree of Land Development: From the Perspective of Farmland Development Restriction
    CAO Rui-fen, ZHANG An-lu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (5): 715-726.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160532
    Abstract949)   HTML553)    PDF (4398KB)(1136)      
    With the unbalanced development opportunities of farmland as research object, we constructed model to measure unbalanced land development from the perspective of land structure and financial rights and responsibility of land respectively. After giving weights to the two aspects based on their contribution to the unbalance degree of economic development, we calculated the comprehensive unbalance degree of land development with method of weighted summation. Then, by employing provincial panel data in China during 2009-2013, an empirical analysis was made to explore the spatial and temporal differences of the unbalance degree of land development. The results showed that the overall unbalance degree of land development in China was high, which was 1.156, but it decreased year by year, from 1.235 in 2009 to 1.083 in 2013 with average annual decrease rate of 3.07%; at provincial level, the regional difference of the unbalance degree was significant, and the unbalance degree showed growth trend from the eastern coastal developed regions to central regions, and then to southwest, northeast and northwest regions. Among which, Shanghai got the lowest unbalance degree of land development which was only 0.178, while Heilongjiang got the highest unbalance degree of up to 3.148. Besides, we analyzed the sensitivity of unbalance degree to fiscal transfer payment, so as to provide a theoretical basis for reform of fiscal transfer payment. The results show that fiscal transfer payment system helps decrease the unbalance degree of land development, and the sensitivities of unbalanced degree to fiscal transfer payment were different significantly in different areas. The study attempts to quantify the unbalance degree of land development, which may lay a theoretical foundation for relieving the unbalanced land development and balancing the regional development.
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    Introduction to the Special Issue on Innovation in Territorial Spatial Planning under the Context of Smart Society
    ZHEN Feng, QIN Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2037-2039.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191001
    Abstract893)   HTML244)    PDF (470KB)(1135)      
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    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2013, 28 (9): 1649-1650.  
    Abstract522)      PDF (314KB)(1134)      
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    Thinking for the transformation of land consolidation and ecological restoration in the new era
    WANG Jun, YING Ling-xiao, ZHONG Li-na
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (1): 26-36.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200104
    Abstract784)   HTML114)    PDF (907KB)(1085)      

    As the national land space and ecosystems are affected by global change nowadays, ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning must be the positive responses of China in the new era. Great achievements have been made in the restorations of ecological space and ecosystems through projects for land consolidation and ecological restoration. However, the degradation of some regional ecosystems still exists, and the interference of unreasonable traditional human activities has not been completely eliminated in China. Meanwhile, China faces a large number of challenges in the economic and social developments of the new era. The transformation and improvement of land consolidation and ecological restoration therefore become the inevitable requirement. Through introducing the concepts, connotations of land consolidation, ecological restoration and relationships between them in the new era, this paper suggested that the transformation should be determined by the variations and complexities of regional ecological and environmental issues, the new requirements of ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning. We also indicated the four shortcomings of land consolidation and ecological restoration at present, including working perception, theoretical basis, technological system, and institutional construction. Specifically in recent practices, the integrated and comprehensive concepts are lagging behind, the key theoretical systems are deficient, the technological supports are instable, and the related institutions are insufficient. Therefore, we proposed the strategies for the corresponding transformation, which mainly included: (1) intensifying the systematic thinking and concept to promote the implementation of land consolidation and ecological restoration on a regional basis; (2) upgrading the theoretical system to stimulate the new motivation for land consolidation and ecological restoration; (3) enhancing the technical support to improve the effectiveness of land consolidation and ecological restoration works; (4) improving the institution construction to reinforce the support foundation for land consolidation and ecological restoration implementations.

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    Geogovernance of national land use based on coupled human and natural systems
    CAO Xiao-shu
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2051-2059.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191003
    Abstract1811)   HTML78)    PDF (882KB)(1069)      

    The geosystem mainly studies the interaction mechanism between human and natural system on the surface of the earth, emphasizing the integration of human-land use relationship, natural and human factors, namely the human-land use coupling systems. Applications of the geosystem in the land space is mainly composed of geodecisions-making, geosimulation and geoengineering, and the interactions among these constitute geogovernance. Land space is the material carrier of the common practice of nature and human, the extent to which human shaped by nature is no less than that of opposite transformation, therefore, geosystem theory with the core of Coupled Human and Natural Systems has become the theoretical basis of land spatial planning and renovation. Based on the coupled human and natural systems, the remodeling of land space is ultimately reflected in various activities of human acting on the natural environment with the form of geogovernance. With the development of reform and opening-up for 40 years, Chinese land space has been basically in a relatively stable pattern and mainly consists of economic zones, poor areas and small towns, which is different from that of developed countries. We are in a state of "three-dimension-transformation coupling", i.e. urbanization, townization and ruralization. Thus, we must attach importance to the studies of strategic areas based on the Belt and Road Initiative, such as the Pan-Third Pole, the South China Sea Rim, and the Northeast Asia-Arctic. According to the theory of Coupled Human and Natural Systems and the value equilibrium of land space, the basic scientific problem of land space remodeling is the evolution and driving mechanisms of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Land spatial planning can be divided into three types: Development planning, controlling planning and restoration planning. The protection and management of land space includes the whole area renovation with the core of land use, the systematic restoration with the core of ecological civilization, and the comprehensive management with the core of social harmony. The development goal of human activity system is to establish a community of shared future for mankind, correspondingly, that of the natural system is to establish a sustainable system, so the ultimate development goal of Coupled Human and Natural Systems is to form a community of shared destiny with the interaction between human and nature.

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    Variations of Extreme Meiyu Events and Flood Disasters over the Mid-lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in the Past 300 Years
    ZHENG Jing-yun, SUN Di, LIU Ke-bang, HAO Zhi-xin, ZHANG Xue-zhen, GE Quan-sheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (12): 1971-1983.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161122
    Abstract797)   HTML237)    PDF (8577KB)(1064)      

    The flood disasters caused a great loss of life and property in Yangtze River Basin during June-July of 2016. Meiyu became one of the main causes of flood disasters due to its high frequency, long duration and high intensity. In this study, chronology of extreme Meiyu events since 1736 was derived from Chinese historical documents and the observational data. Furthermore, and the long-term variation characteristics of extreme Meiyu events and relationships between extreme Meiyu and El Niño events were analyzed. The general circulation patterns were diagnosed to explain how El Niño influenced extreme Meiyu. The results show that there were 44 extreme Meiyu events (including 21 mega-Meiyu events) from 1736 to 2016. The most frequent occurrences of extreme Meiyu events were detected during 1901-1920 and 1991-2000. There were 21 mega-Meiyu events over the past 300 years, whose intensities were similar to that in 2016. Closely corresponding relationships was found between extreme Meiyu events and El Niño in this period. For example, 37 of total 44 extreme Meiyu events occurred in the El Niño episodes or their following years, and 16 of total 21 mega-Meiyu events occurred in the El Niño episodes. In the El Niño years, the meridional circulations were intensified over the mid-latitudes. The water vapor transported westerly and northerly to the mainland of China. A great amount of water vapor from south intersected with the cold air from high latitudes in the mid-lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which led to continuous precipitation. Moreover, in the El Niño following years, there was a steady subtropical high system at low latitudes. The transportation path of vapor was northerly, and then the vapor fluxes increased in Yangtze River Basin. It tends to cause extreme Meiyu events under this circulation background.

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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    The change and reconstruction of spatial planning system under the goal of modern national governance
    ZHANG Jing-xiang, XIA Tian-ci
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2040-2050.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191002
    Abstract810)   HTML59)    PDF (1424KB)(1044)      

    From the perspective of intergovernmental relations and government-market relations, this paper, based on the governance theory, analyzes the development process and overall trend of both Western developed countries' and China's spatial planning system under the influence of national governance changes. While spatial planning has become an important institutional reform and reconstruction system for China's ecological civilization construction, this paper hold the opinion that, under the goal of modern national governance, the reconstruction of the future spatial planning system should pay more attention to the following three questions: (1) The multi-attribute nature of "land space" should be fully understood, while the overall balance of spatial planning for multiple objectives should be emphasized; (2) A spatial planning system that corresponds to government affairs should be established; (3) Planning researches and non-statutory planning should be integrated into the spatial planning system to enhance the scientific nature of spatial planning.

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    Ecological assets valuation of the Tibetan Plateau
    XIE Gao-di, LU Chun-xia, LENG Yun-fa, ZHENG Du, LI Shuang-cheng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2003, 18 (2): 189-196.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2003.02.010
    Abstract1865)      PDF (316KB)(1036)      
    Based on a series of1∶1000000maps of natural resources of China,6categories of ecological assets were divided,which included forest,grassland,farmland,wetland,water body and desert.By means of GIS,the1∶4000000Ecological Assets Map of Tibetan Plateau was compiled and the relative data were calculated.According to partial global ecosystem services value evaluation results obtained by Costanza et al.(1997)along with responses of ecological questionnaire s from specialists of China,this paper established the ecosystem services value unit area of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems.We used the ecological assets value table as a basis and also adjusted price value by biomass and then,the ecological assets value of the Tibetan Plateau was estimated.The results indicated that ecosystem services value of Tibetan Plateau is some 9363.9×10 8 yuan annually,accounting for17.68%of annual ecosystem services value of China and0.61%of the world.The value of soil formation and disposition provided by ecosys-tem s is the highest,which occupies19.3%of the total ecosystem services value and then,the value of waste treatment takes up16.8%,water conservation value,16.5%and biodiversity,16%.The forest and the grassland ecosystem s offered the main ecosystem services value,being31.3%and48.3%of the total value provided by different ecosystem types,respectively.
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    Cited: CSCD(1087)
    The "Pig-Raising,Methane-Generating and Fruit-Growing" Eco-Agricultural Pattern of Recycling Economy
    HU Zhen-peng, HU Song-tao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2006, 21 (4): 638-644.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2006.04.018
    Abstract720)      PDF (321KB)(1028)      
    The "Pig-Raising,Methane-Generating and Fruit-Growing" eco-agricultural system is a pattern of recycling economy.The system structure and work mechanism are analyzed and results of scientific experiment are summarized for the development of recycling economy in this paper.The system integrates a series of complex biological and chemical reactive process based on the methane-generating.This leads to simultaneous accomplishment of upgrading structural hierarchy for traditional cultivation pattern,making full use of material in multiple hierarchies,making effective conversion of energy,and bringing economic,social and ecological benefits.Some 103.87 million methanegenerating pits and 250 big methane-generating projects have been constructed in Jiangxi Province.Because firewood gathering has been replaced by methane,more than 6×106 m3 of woods are saved every year,and 74×103 ha of forest has been projected.The residues in methane-generating can be returned to farmland,so that fertilizer use efficiency increased by 20% in contrast to the traditional pattern and the soil quality can be improved,for example the organic materials increased by three times and the dissolve nitrogen increased by more than one times.The "Pig-Raising,Methane-Generating and Fruit-Growing" eco-agricultural system has been widely used in tackling small catchment in a comprehensive way,reducing environmental pollution by area source in rural areas,predicting the pollution-free foods and controlling schistosomiais.The results of the theoretical research and scientific experiment show that development of recycling economy should maintain the direction in the theory and methodology of the system science,take the motive force of science and technology as a guidence and laws and policies as a support.
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    Effect of Urbanization on Spatial and Temporal Variation of Extreme Temperature Events in the Yangtze River Delta
    JIA Yan-qing, ZHANG Bo, ZHANG Yao-zong, TANG Min, MA Bin, WANG Guo-qiang, LIU Xiu-li, LUO Zheng-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2017, 32 (5): 814-828.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160575
    Abstract894)   HTML67)    PDF (8752KB)(1024)      
    The research analyzes the urbanization effect on spatial and temporal trends of indices of extreme temperature using daily maximum and minimum temperature at meteorological stations in big cities, general cities and villages in the Yangtze River Delta region from 1960 to 2014. The results show that the extreme warm indices increased, while the extreme cold indices decreased. There are slight increasing trends of extreme temperature indices. The warm indices increased more distinctly at urban stations than at rural stations, and the cold indices decreased more apparently at urban stations than at rural stations. The tendencies of other extreme value indices have little difference between urban stations and rural stations except for the minimum value of monthly minimum temperature. Urbanization caused significant decreases of ice days (-0.37 d/10 a), frost days (-1.53 d/10 a) and cold days (-1.05 d/10 a) and significant increases of warm days (1.26 d/10 a), the minimum value of monthly minimum temperature (0.15 ℃/10 a) and the maximum value of monthly minimum temperature (0.06 ℃/10 a) in big cities. The urbanization effect on the trends of ice days (-0.29 d/10 a), frost days (-1.27 d/10 a) and the minimum value of monthly minimum temperature (0.12 ℃/10 a) is significant in general cities. The effect of urbanization on extreme temperature indices is evident in the northern Yangtze River Delta, the southern Jiangsu and southeast Zhejiang. The effect of urbanization on the trend of cold days is more significant in winter, and on the trend of warm days (nights) is more significant in summer. The effect of urbanization on the trends of extreme value indices are significant in spring, summer and winter.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Discussions and thoughts of the path to China's rural revitalization in the new era: Notes of the young rural geography scholars
    YANG Ren, WEN Qi, WANG Cheng, DU Guo-ming, LI Bo-hua, QU Yan-bo, LI Hong-bo, XU Jia-wei, HE Yan-hua, MA Li-bang, LI Zhi, QIAO Lu-yin, CAO Zhi, GE Da-zhuan, TU Shuang-shuang, CHEN Yang-fen
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (4): 890-910.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190417
    Abstract1049)   HTML30)    PDF (2070KB)(1020)      

    The rural revitalization, as a national strategy in the new era, puts forward the requirements and goals of the thriving industry, pleasant living environments, social etiquette and civility, effective governance and prosperity. China is a country with a vast territory, marked by regional differences in resource and economic development levels. What's more, rural areas are complex, diverse, and have many problems. Rural revitalization is a systematic project with comprehensive, complex and regional characteristics. Sixteen young scholars in the field of rural geography across the country have conducted in-depth discussions and reflections on the scientific path of rural revitalization in China. The core points are as follows: (1) In accordance with the law of time-space distribution, we should fully understand the connection between the historical basis of rural development and the practical needs, establish a theoretical and technical system that highlights regional characteristics and has operability, and promote the transformation of rural residential environment, industrial system and governance mode in a classified and orderly manner. (2) Rural revitalization strives for the integration between urban and rural areas to build a compound multi-center network system, which breaks through the village and town systems of traditional linear "central place", and innovate the spatial organization mode of "village cluster". Rural endogenous force, urban radiation force and planning binding force jointly drive rural revitalization. (3) The agriculture has multiple functions such as food safety, social stability, and ecological products. Its development needs to create the whole value chain of agriculture to promote the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries. (4) In energy-rich areas, we should fundamentally solve the problem of unbalanced and inadequate rural development under the premise of ensuring the national energy security demand. In Southwest China, we should take advantage of ecology and human resources to build a modern agricultural industry system, remodel the brand of rural tourism, and build landscape rural homes. In Northeast China, rural revitalization must proceed in an orderly and classified way in the process of synergistic promotion of the "northeast revitalization" strategy. In the Yangtze River Delta region, it is necessary to cognize the evolutionary stages from rural industrialization to rural urbanization, and then to rural characteristics with more and more emphasis on the social, cultural and ecological construction of rural areas, seeking a scientific path of rural revitalization. In Northwest China, we propose to effectively improve the ability of "independent poverty alleviation" in rural areas under the premise of ecological protection, and realize the transformation from "transfusing blood" to "producing blood". In the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, oriented by equalization of basic public services in urban and rural areas, we will promote the development of urban-rural integration and rural revitalization. In resource-oriented areas, rural industries will replace the industrial system formed around resource exploitation with an efficient agricultural system integrating primary, secondary and tertiary industries. In traditional agricultural areas, it is necessary to optimize the coupling pattern between farmland use transformation and rural labor structure change, which is an important means to achieve rural revitalization. In economically developed areas, villages with "mixed" characteristics need to activate the assets and capital attributes of rural land resources, promote the integration and activation of spatial order, and comprehensively explore the modern rural governance mode with the participation of multiple subjects.

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    The Role of Market Mechanisms and Customary Institutions in Rangeland Management: A Case Study in Qinghai Tibetan Plateau
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (10): 1637-1647.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20151201
    Abstract853)   HTML100)    PDF (5786KB)(1014)      
    In recent years, government has promoted rangeland transfer system, a market-based approach to re-aggregate individual grazing land after implementation of Rangeland Household Contact Policy (RHCP) to support larger scale of livestock production. However, there are also pastoral communities who manage their rangelands according to customary institutions. Therefore, the relation between market mechanism and local customary institution in rangeland management needs further analysis. This paper applies the cases of rangeland management in Yuanyi and Chanaihe villages in Qinghai Province to analyze the impacts of different relationship between market mechanism and customary institutions on herder livelihood, livestock production and gap between rich and poor. We find that there is higher level of livestock mortality, lower livestock productivity level and lower rate of livestock production return in Yuanyi Village compared to Chanaihe Village. In addition, compared to Chanaihe Village, lower household income level and higher wealth gap between rich and poor are observed in Yuanyi Village. Based on these findings, the paper concludes that when market is embedded within customary institutions, it is more effective in rangeland management, because the embedded relationship between market and customary institutions better fits to the characteristics of the coupled pastoral social-ecological system. As pastoral communities are integrated into China’s marketization, market mechanism based on clarification of property rights is necessary, but to do so does not need to replace or weaken the community customary institutions in rangeland management system.
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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    The model of population urbanization in urban land spatial planning based on multi-source data fusion: A case study of Yangzhou city
    ZHU Jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (10): 2087-2102.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191006
    Abstract1058)   HTML112)    PDF (6309KB)(1003)      

    Nowadays, with the increasingly coordinated development of regions, the study of population urbanization also urgently needs to be carried out from a broad regional perspective. Focusing on the three core issues of new urbanization, mamely, people, land, and property, the social, spatial, and economic attributes on population mobility are derived. Based on a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used data methods in urbanization analysis, this paper constructs a new conceptual model for population urbanization in different scales with multi-source data. Using the census and survey data, mobile phone data, and enterprise registration data, the conceptual model is applied to an empirical study of urban dense areas-Yangzhou city and shows strong applicability, based on migration flow analysis, location identification, and enterprise headquarters-branch network analysis methods. The results show that: (1) At the regional level, due to the factors such as the threshold of settlement, family rights, and social security, population mobility is more cautious than capital flows. And it is compliant with the administrative district economy and urban hierarchy system. (2) At the municipal level, because the central city has greater advantages than the villages and towns, in terms of public service facilities and income levels, the urbanization form is mainly manifested in the direct connection between urban and rural areas, while the radiating and absorbing effects of key towns for population and enterprises are not strong. (3) In the era of ecological civilization, places with beautiful scenery, profound history, and rich cultural heritage are the natural soil for new economy. And the new economy has become a powerful engine for new urbanization in the late-developing areas. Yangzhou has a pleasant ecological environment and profound cultural atmosphere, which is the natural advantage and foundation of developing new types of economy. It needs to develop industrial platform, innovative environment, and innovation system to jointly create a comprehensive advantage of new economic development. Empirical research shows that the conceptual model has good applicability. It can identify the main pattern of economic and social linkages scientifically, reveal the intensive communicating area in town cluster region, and play a supporting role in delimiting urban development boundaries and optimizing the spatial pattern of land. Therefore, this model has a strong reference value for the study of regional coordination of territorial spatial plan at city and county level.

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    The Regional and Structural Equilibrium Analysis of Grey Water Footprint in China Based on Gini Coefficient
    SUN Cai-zhi, BAI Tian-jiao, HAN Qin
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2016, 31 (12): 2047-2059.   DOI: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160091
    Abstract906)   HTML99)    PDF (4296KB)(993)      

    Based on calculating grey water footprint in 31 provinces of China’s mainland from 1997 to 2013, we select the population and GDP as indicators, and use the Gini coefficient to study the spatial and structural equilibrium of the grey water footprint of China during 1998-2013 in this paper. The results suggest that: 1) In terms of regional equilibrium, the economic grey water footprint is worse compared with the population grey water footprint, being close to the warning line (0.4) for a long time, and the proportionality of the eastern regions in the economic grey water footprint is relatively low while the proportionality of the western regions in the population grey water footprint is relatively low. 2) In respect to structural equilibrium, the Gini coefficient of economic grey water footprint has been raised to 0.583 0, that is to say, the proportionality has reached the “big gap” range, and the Gini coefficients of both agriculture and industry are fluctuating in the vicinity of 0.4 in these years, and in the meanwhile the equilibrium of the economic grey water footprint of the life declined significantly in recent years. 3) From the marginal effect point of view, the overall equilibrium can be improved by reducing the grey water footprint of the heavily polluted regions in the central and western regions and the agricultural grey water footprint of each province, and the equity of China’s water environment can be promoted effectively. At last, aiming at the specific problems of the grey water footprint balance in China, we put forward suggestions to reduce the grey water footprint and improve the equity of the water environment in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(10)