With the transformation of China's development mode and energy structure, "double control" of energy consumption and clean and centralized alternative heating by burning coal have become an inevitable trend. The study focuses on efficiency evaluation of clean heating, a dynamic and systematic problem, which involves technical, financial, economic and social evaluation. At present, the evaluation of heating mode generally focuses on the economic and technical perspectives, which, to a certain degree, cannot reflect the deep problems of economy, society, environment and resources. Taking Xi'an as an example, this paper evaluates the air source heat pump, gas-fired boiler and the multi-energy complementary heating scheme based on shallow geothermal energy. By adopting the method of systematic evaluation, based on the DPSIR model, we determined the factor indexes of each subsystem in the evaluation model, constructed the comprehensive performance evaluation index system of clean energy heating, and calculated the single-level and comprehensive evaluation values of each subsystem of clean energy heating by using the grey relational degree model of AHP-POS, and analyzed the relationship and interaction mechanism of the influencing factors.
Based on detailed and accurate statistical data of the government and enterprises, this paper studied the spatial flow pattern and optimization of Sinopec's first distribution of refined oil of Jiangsu province. In this study, we used the methods of Geographical Network Analysis and Linear Programming to calculate the unit oil transportation cost, combined with the optimized scenario construction and the comparative analysis of distribution pattern of refined oil. Then, we systematically analyzed the spatial flow pattern and optimized configuration of first distribution of refined oil, and attempted to explore its geographical network structure in theory, in the perspectives of allocation benefits and spatial structure. The results show that: (1) The cost under the optimization scenario is reduced by about 30% compared with the actual situation in 2017, indicating that the primary distribution benefit of Sinopec Jiangsu refined oil is not fully optimized. (2) Theoretically, according to the principle of "nearby allocation" of refined oil, different refining enterprises distribute the refined oil with lower unit oil transportation cost within their respective optimization scenario boundaries. (3) In fact, due to the differences in refining capacity of refineries, imperfect product oil transportation channels and different distribution center oil depots, there are relatively optimized scenario boundaries or large or small actual oil transportation boundaries between different refineries, and there are some distribution center oil depots (mixed oil transportation regions) that simultaneously accept the product oil of different refineries. We hope to further reveal the basic laws of spatial flow of refined oil, and provide decision-making advice from the field of economic geography for the current national market-oriented reform of refined oil and the preparation of national pipeline company.
De-coal process has been not only the significant energy transition path, but also the key result of that. After more than 20 years of efforts, coal consumption in Beijing has been effectively controlled. This study systematically analyzed the dynamic changes of coal consumption in Beijing from 1995 to 2017 and used the LMDI method to decompose the changes in coal consumption from 2005 to 2017. The results showed that: (1) Coal consumption began to decline in 2005, reaching 3.5 million tce in 2017 or a decrease of 84%, which means that the effect of de-coal process was remarkable. (2) In terms of driving factors, except the economic scale effect, the other three drivers had negative effects on the growth of coal consumption. In the early stage of de-coal process, economic structure adjustment played an important role in curbing coal consumption, and the change of energy structure drove the later de-coal process. (3) From the perspective of different sectors, the improvements of energy intensity and energy structure in the sector of electricity and hot water production and supply, and the relocation of metallurgy were the main contributor to the decline of coal consumption in Beijing. (4) Beijing's de-coal process had some reference values for other cities in China, but it cannot be blindly copied because of its own special characteristics.
Energy plays an important role in social and economic development. Household energy consumption behavior has a wide range of connections with regional or global social ecosystems, and has significant spatial and social differences under the influence of culture and geography. China is a country with multi-ethnic groups. The ethnic areas in China have different characteristics in terms of production and lifestyle, climate conditions, cultural traditions, and other aspects and also show certain characteristics in the consumption of living energy. However, the research on the energy geography of ethnic minority groups' households is still on the initial stage and lacks a first-hand data survey. Based on the special geographical characteristics of the Tibetan Plateau, this study focused on the 100 Tu's households in Qinghai province and carried out field investigations. From the perspective of overall investigation and income-based groups, we compared the characteristics of their household energy consumption, calculated the environmental effects, constructed an energy flow model, and visualized the household energy consumption input-out flow. The survey results show that the per capita energy consumption of Tu households is 3473 kgce, and the energy resources are mainly coal, firewood, straw, and cow-dung. By comparison, we found that the energy consumption of low-income households is 3485 kgce, while that of high-income households is 3974 kgce. As income levels rise, the energy consumption structure gradually changes to diversification, and the importance of energy gradually turns from biomass energy to commodity energy. The survey shows that the convenience of household energy access is listed in a discending order of electricity, straw, animal dung, fuelwood, solar energy, coal, gasoline/diesel, and liquefied gas. The per capita greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions of households are 1872.21 kg, of which CO2, N2O, CH4, NOX, SO2 and TSP are 1856.87 kg, 117.10 g, 295.14 g, 254.46 g, 451.87 g and 520.74 g, respectively. In the future, the Tibetan Plateau region should enhance the use of clean energy, and promote the sustainable transformation of regional household energy consumption. The research results are expected to provide scientific support for the clean energy transformation and sustainable development on the Tibetan Plateau.