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    Spatial pattern of agro-product geographical indications in China
    LI Yu-rui, BU Chang-li, WANG Peng-yan
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (4): 827-840.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210402
    Abstract182)   HTML8)    PDF (3225KB)(109)      

    Agro-product geographical indications (APGIs) are featured agricultural products with names of local region. Creating APGIs is an important means to develop featured agriculture and promote agricultural supply-side reform, and thus boost agricultural industry development and rural vitalization in the new era. It is of great significance to deeply study the regional differentiation characteristics and socio-economic effects of APGIs. This paper took 2274 APGIs as the main data source, combined with socio-economic data and natural geographic data, discussed the spatial pattern of APGIs in China. The research shows that: (1) Overall there are more APGIs in the east and less AGPIs in the west. It presents a pattern of concentration distribution in the horizontal direction, and shows a decreasing trend with the increase of elevation in the vertical direction. (2) There is a big difference in the number of APGIs between provinces. Shandong province has the most APGIs. The per capita APGIs is high in the provinces inhabited by ethnic groups, and the spatial distribution density is high in the provinces with small area and relatively good natural conditions. In the county-level administrative region, there exists a pattern of "large dispersion and small agglomeration", which is significantly related to the primary industry economic index, but the correlation coefficient is not high. (3) All kinds of APGIs, except tobacco and reptiles, show clustering distribution, among which the clustering effect of melon and fruit crops and aquatic products is the most obvious. (4) Different kinds of products have different geographic adaptation zones. Most APGIs require more than 400 mm precipitation, and at least 1600 ℃ for accumulative temperature above 10 ℃, especially between 3200-6400 ℃. (5) Natural geographical conditions, historical and cultural background, socio-economic development and government behaviors are the main factors influencing the regional differentiation of APGIs.

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    The degree and influencing factors of household food waste in China from the perspective of food conversion: An empirical analysis based on CHNS database
    LI Feng, DING Yuan-yuan, CAI Rong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (4): 811-826.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210401
    Abstract222)   HTML16)    PDF (1148KB)(204)      

    The food supply in China has been adequate and stable for a long time and China has made remarkable achievements in food security which is proved to be true. However, this situation has been challenged by population growth and environmental degradation in recent years. On the one hand, the large population in China is still growing, which makes enormous demands on food supplies. On the other hand, grain production is constrained by resources and the environment, and importing foreign food excessively will squeeze domestic agricultural production. Therefore, the best way to ensure food security in China is to reduce food waste. As an important part of the consumption, households account for a large proportion of food waste production sector, which deserves our attention. What is the current situation of household food waste in China and what factors will affect household food waste in China are worth considering. From the perspective of food conversion, the food waste rate in this paper is defined as the proportion of family food consumption that is not normally converted to body mass index of family members. This paper uses data from China nutrition and health survey (CHNS) and applies stochastic frontier model to estimate household food waste rate from the perspective of food conversion and discusses the impact of heterogeneous family characteristics (such as household size, household structure, household income, storage condition, regional factors, the characteristics of the head of the household and the characteristics of the main female member) on food waste. The result shows that: the average household food waste rate is about 11.28%; such a family is likely to waste more, which has a small size, more children or the elderly, a higher per capita annual income, less-educated head of household, female with higher-education or have jobs, a bad grasp of dietary knowledge, and the family lives in Southern China. Therefore, it is of great importance to encourage the production of small packaging food and small cooking utensils, instruct household members to purchase food according to the actual needs, strengthen the efforts of the government, and raise the awareness of school children and their parents about food security so as to reduce food waste.

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    The "Double Evaluation" under the context of spatial planning: Wicked problems and restricted rationality
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 541-551.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210301
    Abstract592)   HTML25)    PDF (974KB)(153)      

    Resources and environment carrying capacity evaluation and spatial development suitability evaluation (referred to as "Double Evaluation") are considered as scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper analyzes and summarizes the "Double Evaluation" work in current spatial planning. The "Double Evaluation" plays an active role, but it has many problems, including insufficient recognition on the scientific nature and internal mechanisms of resources and environment carrying capacity and spatial development suitability, imperfect evaluation methods and application system, and so on. This paper intends to put forward the realistic needs of spatial planning under the concept of ecological civilization. And it is necessary to improve the scientific logic, technical logic and application logic of "Double Evaluation", so that we can improve the scientificity and practicability of "Double Evaluation". At the same time, it should be recognized that essential problems of spatial planning are wicked problems as "Double Evaluation" can only play a limited rational role. We should solve such problems through communication and cooperation so as to avoid falling into the misunderstanding of technical rationality.

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    Research on individual food waste behavior from the perspective of North-South differences: Take the dining situation of students in university canteens as an example
    QIAN Long, LI Feng, QIAN Zhuang, WANG Ling-en
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (3): 552-566.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210302
    Abstract433)   HTML17)    PDF (695KB)(77)      

    Eating habits has always been considered as an important factor in food waste. This paper takes 29 universities, all in different provincial-level regions, as study cases to explore the factors that affect students' wasting behavior. Based on a questionnaire survey of 9192 college students, this paper focuses on the impact of North-South differences on individual food waste behavior, and attempts to answer: Southerners and Northerners, who are more likely to waste food, who waste more food? The results show that compared with the northern native college students, the probability of food waste in the students of the southern region is higher, and the food waste and food waste rate of the students of the southern origins in the college cafeteria are higher than those of the northern students. In order to verify whether the difference in diet patterns between the "rice" model in the south and the "wheat" model in the north is the main reason for the above phenomenon, this paper confirms that the difference between the north and the south diet patterns is the key reason for the fact that the southerners waste more food than the northerners through the mediation effect model. This paper further matches the individual's North-South origin and the North-South position of the colleges and universities. Based on the mode of "Southern students studying in the South", we found that the "Southern tudents going to school in the North" mode has a lower probability of food waste, waste amount and food waste rate. However, under the "Northern students going to school in the South" mode, individuals did not have a low probability of food waste, the weight of waste and food waste rate. Therefore, this paper confirms that the southerners are more wasteful of food than the northerners. And it is proved that the mainstream diet pattern in the north and the south is the leading driving force to the difference in waste.

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    Urban agglomeration and industrial transformation and development in the Yellow River Basin
    DENG Xiang-zheng, YANG Kai-zhong, SHAN Jing-jing, DONG Suo-cheng, ZHANG Wen-ge, GUO Rong-xing, TAN Ming-hong, ZHAO Peng-jun, LI Yu, MIAO Chang-hong, CUI Yao-ping
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 273-289.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210201
    Abstract472)   HTML20)    PDF (1885KB)(210)      

    Ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin is one of the major national strategies, in which urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development are the intrinsic requirements and fundamental guarantees. Thus, revealing the path of the river basin scale urban agglomeration development and industrial transformation and upgrading is of great significance to guide the high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. Therefore, this paper brings together scholars from the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Institute for Eco-civilization, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Capital University of Economics and Business, Peking University and Henan University, to discuss key issues on urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development in the Yellow River Basin from the perspectives of ecological protection, resource allocation, dynamic evolution, spatial structure, and integration and regulation. This paper aims to serve the major national stragety of ecological protection and high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin. The core views are as follows, regulating the relationship among water resources, urban agglomeration and industrial development is the key to promoting the coordination of industrial transformation and urban transformation, and the synchronized advances of economic transformation and social transformation;the analysis of the complex coupling and dynamic evolution mechanism of river basin ecological protection and high-quality development is of great significance for achieving high-quality development of the basin; it is an effective way to promote the high-quality development of the basin to reveal the evolution mechanism of typical urban agglomeration and industrial space and to construct the spatial integration target and mode of urban agglomeration and industrial transformation development; under the background of increasing uncertainty of trade caused by globalization and energy revolution, complex relationship between social economy and ecological environment, and the construction of a new development pattern of "dual circulation", the basin urgently needs a more comprehensive integrated regulation mechanism.

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    Systematically promoting the construction of natural ecological protection and governance capacity: Experts comments on Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035)
    GUAN Feng-jun, LIU Lian-he, LIU Jian-wei, FU Ying, WANG Ling-yun, WANG Feng, LI Yong, YU Xing-di, CHE Na, XIAO Ying
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2021, 36 (2): 290-299.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210202
    Abstract354)   HTML8)    PDF (1013KB)(91)      

    Master Plan for Major Projects of National Important Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (2021-2035) (hereinafter referred to as The Plan) is the first comprehensive plan involving ecosystem protection and restoration after the 19th National Congress of the CPC (2017), which plays a significant strategic and guiding role in undertaking related tasks. The promulgation of The Plan, accomplished by the Chinese government departments concerned, is a successful beginning for jointly arranging major projects in natural resources across departments, disciplines and regions. Recently, some critical contents relating to The Plan, such as the opportunities and challenges of implementation, were discussed by seven experts from Consulting and Research Center of the Ministry of Natural Resources. The key opinions are as follows. In order to work efficiently guided by The Plan, its four main characteristics need to be especially concerned, including systematic and continued deployment; strategic and coordinating policies; objectives-problems dual oriented tasks; and scientific and specific methods. Meanwhile, it is necessary to deal with three kinds of crucial relationships about aims and assignments properly, which are ecosystem protection and utilization, ecosystem restoration and ecological compensation, ecosystem protection and controls on territory use. Besides, seven valued aspects are still worthy to be deeply pondered and some suggestions are proposed, including: establishing diversified financing mechanism, clarifying responsibility of different entities carrying on ecological protection and restoration, formulating related systematic technical standards, strengthening databases and information platforms, optimizing territory use control regulation to adapt to the major projects of The Plan, coordinating ecological protection and natural resources especially energy resources exploitation, reinforcing early basic and comprehensive investigation and later strict surveillance as well. In addition, it is requisite to monitor and evaluate the executive conditions of The Plan and other supporting policies, so as to adjust and improve The Plan in time, which is beneficial to fulfill tasks and achieve goals.

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    The superior agricultural space demarcation based on the evaluation of resources and environmental carrying capacity and territorial spatial development suitability at municipality and county levels: Theories, methods and study of two cases
    SU He-fang, CAO Gen-rong, GU Chao-lin, JIN Jia-liang, ZHANG Xiao-ming, YI Hao-lei, ZHENG Yi, FU Qiang
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (8): 1839-1852.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200807
    Abstract269)   HTML13)    PDF (7161KB)(97)      
    China's urbanization has started to rapidly encroach on the most valuable arable land resources and rural settlements, and it has therefore become extremely urgent to protect basic farmland, rural areas and agricultural space. However, for a brand-new round of territorial spatial planning at city and county level, with "the evaluation of resources and environmental carrying capacity and territorial spatial development suitability" which plays a fundamental role in spatial planning, emphasis is only placed on basic farmland and food production in agricultural areas. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to optimize the theoretical and technical scheme of evaluation of "superior agricultural space", in order to serve as a foundation for protecting agricultural space, all agricultural producers and large rural areas. The technical methods employed in this paper are as follows. (1) A total-region and total-factor evaluation of suitability for farming, animal husbandry and fishery production is conducted outside the area of vital importance for ecological protection and the area of the ecological red line, dividing the space into "suitable regions for agricultural production" and "unsuitable regions for agricultural production". (2) Based on the evaluation principles of high stability, large-scale management and land connectivity, a TOPSIS model is constructed in order to further evaluate and demarcate suitable regions for producing grain and other important agricultural products and for producing special local agricultural products. (3) Based on the aforementioned points, superior agricultural space is identified by a multi-factor comprehensive evaluation procedure, taking characteristic and important rural areas and large agricultural infrastructure into consideration. The two cases in Shenyang and Wenzhou are adopted as examples for the study in order to demonstrate the validity, feasibility and practicability of our method. It is also proven that the evaluation and delineation of the superior agricultural space can assist the development and protection of territorial space at city and county level.
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    Reform logic of territorial space use regulation and the response path of land spatial planning
    ZHANG Xiao-ling, LYU Xiao
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1261-1272.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200601
    Abstract1334)   HTML19)    PDF (1061KB)(190)      
    Under the macro background of improving the system of ecological civilization, to promote the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity, the paper systematically combs the origin, implementation characteristics, effectiveness and shortcomings of land use regulation system, focuses on analyses of the reform logic of the transformation from land use regulation to territorial space use regulation and its specific requirements for territorial spatial planning, so as to provide reference for improving the territorial spatial planning system. The results show that: (1) The land use regulation system emphasizes the protection of cultivated land, and establishes a complete control chain of land use classification - land use planning - land use plan - approval and supervision with the newly added construction land as the main control object. The land use regulation system has achieved good results in protecting cultivated land, ensuring food security, forcing the conservation and intensive use of land and improving the awareness of using land in accordance with laws and regulations. But there are still some deficiencies, such as incomplete coverage, too rigid regulation, and weak regulation of ecological land. (2) The construction of ecological civilization is the logical starting point of territorial space use regulation. And territorial space use regulation is transforming from single land type protection to space overall planning, from land use type regulation to space management and control, from index transmission to the combination of index and zoning, from bottom line restriction to both constraint and guidance, to build a whole process and diversified regulatory rule system and improve the spatial transmission mechanism of territorial space use regulation, and then realize the unified control of all elements of territorial space. (3) In the face of the needs of the era of territorial space use regulation, the reform of territorial spatial planning should make positive responses in the aspects of systematic and integrated control index system, zoning system covering the whole region and linking up the upper and lower planning, flexible mechanism of planning implementation combining bottom line constraint and incentive guidance, and "whole chain" management mechanism, and then realize the coordinated management and control of different levels of territorial spatial planning and territorial space use regulation.
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    New-type urbanization, well-being of residents, and the response of land spatial planning
    CHEN Ming-xing, ZHOU Yuan, TANG Qing, LIU Ye
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (6): 1273-1287.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200602
    Abstract1439)   HTML22)    PDF (1996KB)(215)      
    The urbanization of China has entered the middle and late stage, and the connotation of the people-centered urbanization needs to be further enriched and refined. The land spatial planning is the key to the practice of the new-type urbanization and ecological civilization construction. This paper proposes that the improvement of well-being of residents is the core of the people-centered urbanization. It sorts out relevant domestic and foreign studies on the connotation of well-being, summarizes the subjective and objective measure index systems and methods of well-being, and examines the factors influencing well-being and happiness of residents. In this study, we draw on the experience of foreign spatial planning and take the improvement of the well-being of urban and rural residents as one of the guiding principles for the compilation of land spatial planning. In the process of the practice of land spatial planning, it is necessary to focus on public health, disaster risk assessment system and construction of urban resilience, optimization of "production-living-ecological" spaces, community living spatial planning, fine-scale management, and big data and intelligent decision-making system. Urbanization is the indispensable important component of national spatial planning, and the establishment of national spatial planning promotes the high-quality development of new-type urbanization and the well-being of urban-rural residents. So, we should show great concern on urban scale hierarchy structure, the pattern of population flow network, peri-urbanization and local urbanization, basic allocation and equalization of public service of urban and rural areas, the impacts of climate change and urban disaster risk management, and the basic research of the new-type urbanization, such as the evolution of man-land relationship in the rapid urbanization.
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    Improvement of human sustainable development index and international comparison
    BI Ming-li, XIE Gao-di, YAO Cui-you
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (5): 1017-1029.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200501
    Abstract1145)   HTML21)    PDF (5248KB)(233)      

    It is an inevitable requirement to modify human development index (HDI) with greenness and fairness indicators. Using ecological footprint, this paper tried to construct the human-ecological sustainable development index (HEDI) based on panel data of 28 countries from 1990 to 2014, and analyzed the contribution of sub-indicators to HEDI with the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition approach. Fairness was adjusted to construct a comprehensive human-ecological sustainable development index (cHEDI) that could fully reflect the degree of economy, society, ecology and equal development comprehensively. We analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of HEDI and cHEDI with the index in 28 countries around the world. The results show that developed countries with high biomass surplus are highly sustainable, ranking higher than other countries. One of the main factors affecting sustainable development is high carbon emissions in these countries. Besides the high carbon emissions, the shortage of biomass resources is another unsustainable reason in the developed countries with biomass deficit, which maintain development by transferring assets from other countries. Unfairness leads to a decline in comprehensive sustainability in the United States. From 1990 to 2014, income and education in developing countries increased rapidly, but ecological consumption and Gini coefficient continued to rise, and the inhibitory effect gradually expanded to increase the unsustainability of development. The sustainability index of the United States and developing countries is greatly affected by the Gini coefficient. The United Arab Emirates ranked last in the world, with the least sustainable development mode. Although its income ranked first in the world, biomass and energy consumption was very high, and the Gini coefficient far exceeded that of other countries. The development of the least developed countries mainly came from contribution of health, education and low ecological consumption. Barren natural assets limited their further development. Different countries have different shortcomings in human sustainable development. The sub-divisions were highly correlated, hence to achieve the high level of human sustainable development requires better balance between society, economy, greenness, and fairness.

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    National attractive territorial area: A national spatial planning strategy reshaping regional patterns
    LI Wei, YANG Cheng-xing, WANG Lu-cang, FENG Bin, QUAN Jin-zong
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (3): 501-512.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200301
    Abstract420)   HTML4)    PDF (1734KB)(264)      
    With the proposal of national spatial planning, China's urban-rural planning system has entered a new period of development, and the traditional national spatial development dominated by production space development has also turned to the new national spatial development, in which ecological, living and production spaces are coordinated. However, how to promote the cognition from the traditional national territorial area based on the concept of "Sansheng spaces" (production, living and ecological space) to the complex national attractive territorial area that enriches cultural context, ecological traits, and life foundation, balance the development priorities of different regions, so as to avoid blindly follow the single development model, are major themes facing both the central and local governments. From the perspective of the combination of history and reality, this paper, on the basis of reviewing the spatial cognitive process and rethinking the practice of spatial planning, clarifies the concept and connotation of "national attractive territorial area", puts forward the focus of "national attractive territorial area" in the national spatial planning system, as well as expounds the role and functionality of the "national attractive territorial area" from the aspects of balanced regional development, flexible management adjustment, spatial element flow, and development goal optimization.
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    Village classification system for rural vitalization strategy: Method and empirical study
    LI Yu-rui, BU Chang-li, CAO Zhi, LIU Xuan-he, LIU Yan-sui
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (2): 243-256.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200201
    Abstract414)   HTML3)    PDF (2022KB)(565)      
    Rural Vitalization Strategy (RVS) is an important measure to promote rural development in China in the new era. Village classification is an important work to promote the effective implementation of the plan for RVS at the village level. It is of great significance to achieve the phased objectives of the national RVS. The National Strategic Planning for Rural Vitalization (2018-2022) puts forward four types of villages: agglomeration and upgrading, suburban integration, characteristic protection, relocation and evacuation, but it does not specify the specific principles and methods for classification. Based on the four types of villages, this study further clarifies their sub-types, and puts forward the corresponding principles and methods for classification. A village classification model is also established, which refines the classification index system of villages from five dimensions: village characteristics, villagers' living conditions, village development and construction, urban-rural links and village functions. Based on the principles, methods and models mentioned above, 102 administrative villages in Yanchi county of Ningxia are classified. Empirical study shows that the principles and methods proposed in this study have practical guiding value for village classification. However, in view of the differences and complexity of village characteristics, some parameters and thresholds need to be set according to the actual situation.
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    Empirical analysis of the influence of natural resources on regional economic growth: Based on the sample of key coal cities in China from 2000 to 2016
    SI Ri-ji-mo-leng, MAO Pei
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (12): 2491-2503.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191201
    Abstract270)   HTML6)    PDF (1345KB)(692)      

    In most resource-based regions, their long-term economic growth is slow during the exploitation of natural resources. How to use resource advantages, get rid of resource bottlenecks, and achieve long-term stable economic development are key issues of the resource-based regions. In view of this, this paper takes the panel data of China's key coal cities from 2000 to 2016 as a sample to explore different ways in which natural resources in resource-based areas affect economic growth. The results show that resource-based regions benefit from the "resource bonus" in the short term. However, due to being prone to resource industry dependence behavior, these regions have a "crowding out effect" on other economic activities and resources and environment, which affects the long-term economic growth rate. At the same time, resource-based regions are likely to exhibit the "extensive growth" characteristics of relying on physical capital investment to achieve economic growth. The conclusions of this paper not only enrich the literature on the impact mechanism of natural resources on economic growth, but also have some practical enlightenment on how to achieve sustainable development in resource-based regions.

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    Target setting of food self-sufficiency level in China: Literature review and policy enlightenment
    XIN Xiang-fei, WANG Ji-min
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (11): 2257-2269.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191101
    Abstract308)   HTML5)    PDF (605KB)(521)      
    Ensuring the supply of important agricultural products, particularly food, is one of the primary tasks of implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. Setting the goal of food self-sufficiency level is the foundation of food security evaluation and food policy formulation, and this directly affects the strategic direction and implementation path of a nation's food industry development. Based on the review of the existing literatures regarding the goal setting of food self-sufficiency in China, this paper summarizes the relevant concepts of China's food self-sufficiency rate, reviews the evolution of food self-sufficiency policy at the national level, and focuses on the systematic summary of the level, basis and significance of the goal setting of China's food self-sufficiency rate, as well as the causes and effects of its change in recent years. The study results show that the concept of "food" is closer to the essential meaning of food security than the concept of "grain". However, in existing studies, there is no clear or unified judgment regarding the level of self-sufficiency required for food security in China, nor regarding the level of self-sufficiency allowed by resource conditions. This study proposes that the current stage take the carrying capacity of resources and the environment as a hard constraint and stable maintenance of grain production as the red line; replace the former grain self-sufficiency rate target with the total grain self-sufficiency target; and compensate for the gap between domestic supply and demand, by making full use of foreign resources and international markets. Doing so will allow us to more effectively achieve a higher level of unity of domestic food production with ecological environmental protection and food security.
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    Pattern changes of China's agricultural trade and countermeasures for the utilization of overseas agricultural resources
    JIA Pan-na, LIU Ai-min, CHENG Sheng-kui, QIANG Wen-li, WU Liang, LI Peng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (7): 1357-1364.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190701
    Abstract235)   HTML2)    PDF (815KB)(233)      
    In 2017, the net import of virtual farmland of bulk agricultural products in China reached 67.84 million ha and the external dependence was 33.4%, in which Brazil and the United States are the major importing countries. In China, large import of land-intensive agricultural products focused on soybeans ensures a certain degree of food supply. However, implementing the "going- out" strategy of agriculture can fundamentally protect China's food security. Although China's overseas agricultural investment has increased year by year, the enterprises have poor control in overseas agricultural resources and high production risks due to lack of long-term investment strategy guidance. For protecting China's food security, from the strategic perspective of building a community with a shared future for mankind and enhancing global agricultural product supply capacity, China should choose the best overseas investment area to develop international soybean and palm oil and other types of edible oil and fat feedstocks with large import volume and high foreign dependence in priority; encourage the multiple enterprises to join the overseas agricultural resources development; cooperate deeply with the investment destination country through the "order + farmer" model and integrate into the global agricultural trade system.
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    Spatial patterns and their changes of grain production, grain consumption and grain security in the Tibetan Plateau
    DUAN Jian, XU Yong, SUN Xiao-yi
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (4): 673-688.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190401
    Abstract169)   HTML6)    PDF (7253KB)(184)      

    The problem of grain shortages has long plagued the Tibetan Plateau, therefore both the state and the local government are scaling up efforts to achieve grain self-sufficiency and grain security in this region. Meanwhile, many researchers devoted themselves to study the grain security issues to provide rational advices. Here in this paper, we intended to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of grain production and consumption in the Tibetan Plateau and then evaluate the risk status of grain security in 114 counties. First, we revised the standards of per capita grain consumption demand in pasturing area and farming-pastoral region. Then, on this basis, we analyzed the corresponding data of the 114 counties during 1985-2015 by applying the fluctuation coefficient method, classification method, barycenter model and the index model of grain shortages. Analytical results showed that there was a non-uniform geographical distribution of grain production and consumption, moreover, the holistic status of grain security in the Tibetan Plateau was not optimistic. (1) The production of grain increased in fluctuation and the consumption of grain grew steadily, the local grain production could not meet the consumption demand, and the deficit amounts were between 0.21 and 1.22 million tons annually, which accounted for between 8.22% and 40.11% of the grain consumption. The gap between grain production and consumption including tourists increased to 1.33 million tons in 2015. (2) The spatial distributions of grain production and grain consumption in the Tibetan Plateau were imbalanced, the grain yields in Huang-Huang valley and the valley along the?Yarlung?Zangbo?River were higher, while the yields distributed in the central and western parts of the plateau were lower. Affected by population, city, and traffic distribution, the grain consumption was high in the eastern part and low in the western. (3) The spatial patterns of grain security in the Tibetan Plateau in 2015 showed that the higher-risk types involved 42 counties with a population of 2.92 million, and they were widely distributed in western Tibet, northern Tibet, southern Qinghai, Qilian Mountains, as well as in municipal districts of cities of Lhasa and Xining; compared to 1985, the risks of grain security on the midstream and downstream of Yarlung Zangbo River and southeastern Qinghai province were mitigated, while those in western Ngari and northeastern Qinghai were intensified. (4) The tourists increased the risks of grain security in Lhasa, Nyingchi, Shannan, Shigatse, Haidong and Hainan cities, and the negative influence of tourist on Linzhi city was most significant. (5) Production increase alone cannot solve the problem of grain shortage, so it is urgent for the Tibetan Plateau to improve the grain reserves, transportation facilities and expand the grain trade with other regions to achieve regional grain security.

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    Comprehensive suitability evaluation of spatial development and construction land in the perspective of land-ocean co-ordination:A case study of Liaoning province, China
    JI Xue-peng, HUANG Xian-jin, CHEN Yi, WANG Dan-yang, SONG Ya-ya
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (3): 451-463.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190301
    Abstract421)   HTML9)    PDF (2313KB)(809)      

    Comprehensive suitability evaluation of spatial development and construction land is the scientific basis and guarantee for optimizing spatial development pattern and improve its quality and efficiency. It is of great significance for the implementation of regional coordinated development strategy. In this paper, according to the principles of urban-rural integration and land-ocean co-ordination, we selected Liaoning province as a case, the only both coastal and border province in Northeast China. The suitability evaluation index system was established from 3 dimensions, including natural environment, economy and society, and marine function. To evaluate and analyze the suitability of spatial development and constructive land in this province, we integrated the application of Delphi method, cask theory, linear weighted summation model and multi-factors space overlay analysis. The results show that there exist obvious characteristics of spatial differentiation in the suitability of spatial development and construction land throughout Liaoning. The most and more suitable construction land represent an obvious central peripheral structure, and concentrate along both the Shenyang-Dalian axis and the Binhai axis; the most unsuitable construction land shows a north-south symmetric distribution by the Binhai axis, while the more unsuitable construction land shows an east-west symmetric distribution by the Shenyang-Dalian axis. The construction land areas of most suitability, more suitability, more unsuitability, and most unsuitability are 15504.39 km2, 22645.34 km2, 66833.96 km2, and 68720.99 km2, respectively, and the proportions of land-ocean area are 8.93%, 13.04%, 38.48%, and 39.56%, respectively. The suitability of natural environment plays a fundamental and decisive role in the development and construction of regional land; and the characteristics of agglomeration and dispersion are significantly different at different levels and regions. The suitability of economy and society obviously modifies that of natural environment. The introduction of marine functional zone has greatly expanded the regional land in Liaoning province, but the spatial distribution of marine functional suitability is extremely uneven. And due to the nature of marine functional zone, the space which can be directly developed and constructed is limited, while the space for protection is great. The contradiction between spatial development and ecological environment protection will be still severe for a long time.

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    Impacts of land market on urban-rural integrated development in China
    CHEN Kun-qiu, LONG Hua-lou
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2019, 34 (2): 221-235.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190201
    Abstract324)   HTML3)    PDF (4212KB)(363)      

    The urban-rural integrated development is the key measure to realize rural vitalization and promote new-type urbanization, while the land market is an important channel to realize the flow of urban-rural development elements, also a key link to connect urban-rural development. This paper analyzes the scientific connotation and substantial characteristics of urban-rural integrated development, and then explores the driving mechanism of land market on urban-rural integrated development. Based on these foundation, we quantitatively analyze the evolution law of land market and urban-rural integrated development in 273 cities at prefecture level or above in China. Furthermore, the relationship between land market and urban-rural integrated development was tested based on the panel data model to give a feasible proposal for the integration of urban and rural development from the perspective of land market. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) The urban-rural integrated development is a process of the reconstruction of urban-rural values aiming at removing the obstacles hindering urban-rural development. It helps to promote the free flow and equal exchange of urban-rural elements, and achieve the convergence of returns from urban-rural development elements. The essence is to achieve the overall optimization of urban-rural regional functions through urban-rural integrated development and complementarity. (2) The effect of land market on urban-rural integration is a balance of advantages and disadvantages, and the direction depends on whether the land market is benign. Under the urban-rural dual distribution system and the curtain wall of society, the distorted land market impedes the urban-rural integrated development. (3) From 2005 to 2013, the scale of land market, land market price and land marketization degree increased by 113.66%, 274.09% and 37.07%, respectively, while the level of urban-rural integrated development in 59.34% cities have declined. Steadily developing land market and low level of urban-rural integrated development in China presented stark contrast and obvious spatio-temporal differentiation. (4) Currently, land market is more of a hindrance to urban-rural integrated development, but there is a "low level trap" between land market and urban-rural integrated development. Breaking the suppression inflection point of 88.64%, land market can then play a positive role on promoting urban-rural integration. So, reshaping the healthy value orientation of the land market development, accelerating the land marketization reform and exploring the mechanism of population-land linkage are important parts for follow-up work.

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    Cited: CSCD(16)
    Research progress of sustainable cities and its implications for national territory spatial plan
    ZHU Xiao-dan, YE Chao, LI Si-meng
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2120-2133.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200907
    Abstract262)   HTML7)    PDF (2070KB)(159)      
    Sustainable cities are the focus of attention in many areas. The advent of the intelligent era and the evolution of the network society have promoted the study of the relationship between technology and sustainable development. Sustainable cities need innovative research methods and contents. The domestic academic circles have not paid enough attention to the forefront of sustainable cities. The national territory spatial plan also needs to draw on and integrate the relevant theories of sustainable cities. With the help of CiteSpace software, this article systematically reviews the current research situations and development trend of sustainable cities. The paper analyzes its evolution and research hotspots, and finds that the research on sustainable cities has mainly experienced four stages: germination, rise, growth and diffusion. International sustainable cities research mainly focuses on three aspects: climate change, urban governance and smart cities. The research changes from "sustainable" to "smart sustainable". Big data-assisted urban planning has become a trend, and the co-governance of diverse community stakeholders has gradually increased. However, the research and practice of smart sustainable cities in China are insufficient, the evaluation index system of sustainable cities is not perfect, the international experience is lacking, and the research on joint urban-rural governance is insufficient. The combination of the new sustainable cities research framework and the territorial development plan will be the key to future research. The practice of sustainable cities in China is not just for cities, but for urban-rural co-governance, which is also a concentrated manifestation of sustainability in terms of time, space and society. In the evaluation index system of sustainable cities, rural development indicators should be considered. And the issues of rural intelligence, environmental compatibility and technology compatibility in the national territory spatial plan are also important aspects of sustainable cities. Sustainable cities should focus on the coordinated development of nature, society and technology, not only to protect the environment and natural resources, but also to reform the urban and rural governance model and system. The national territory spatial plan is an important foundation for China to achieve sustainable cities. Starting from the proposition of "urban-rural China", urban-rural co-governance is the focus of China's sustainable urban development and research, and is also the main content of the national territorial development planning. Only through the reform of the combination of multi-dimensional systems can the concept of sustainable cities be implemented, and the integration of urban and rural areas can be achieved with the help of intelligent technology. In the future, China's sustainable cities research and practice will become a focus.
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    Reflections and prospect on food education in China:Eat good or eat right?
    ZHU Qiang, LI Feng, LIU Xiao-jie
    JOURNAL OF NATURAL RESOURCES    2020, 35 (9): 2134-2148.   DOI: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200908
    Abstract145)   HTML3)    PDF (2208KB)(110)      
    Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, the urban and rural structure has changed significantly, and the living of residents has changed greatly. The current food life of Chinese residents is facing the problems of nutritional structure imbalance, food safety, food and food diversity and externalization tendency. At the same time, the food culture is affected, the food waste is serious and so on. Based on the above present situation and problem, the food education is becoming more and more important in China. The food education action can help promote the improvement of the diet structure of residents, get a better understanding of food supply chains and food safety, and enrich traditional food culture. Through literature analysis and field research, the paper conducts studies on the food education action at home and abroad, and examines the important role of food education in China. On this basis, we should strengthen the cross-sector cooperation between governments at all levels, integrate multi-body resources, convey the idea of food education, arrange the curriculum of deep farming in the compus, and encourage the advice of life-long food education.
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