Table of Content

    28 October 2020, Volume 35 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    "Double Evaluation" on Land Space Planning: Theory and Practice
    "Double evaluations" for territorial spatial planning: Challenges and responses
    YUE Wen-ze, WU Tong, WANG Tian-yu, XIA Hao-xuan
    2020, 35 (10):  2299-2310.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1735KB) ( )   Save
    In response to the needs of hierarchy, diversity and difference in territorial spatial planning, this paper discusses the basic logic problems, application challenges and responses between resource and environment carrying capacity, territorial development suitability ("double evaluations") and territorial spatial planning. By systematically combing the theoretical development and policy response of "double evaluations", this paper summarizes the research focus and service objectives of "double evaluations" in the three stages of application exploration, connotation expansion and system support, and expounds the evolution process of the logic of capacity and suitability. Several key challenges in the application of the current "double evaluations" are sorted out. First, the logic of the application of "double evaluations" in the delineation of "three types of spatial zones and alert lines" is not yet clear. Second, there is a logical paradox between the current carrying capacity evaluation and future planning decision-making. Third, the "double evaluations" method fails to pass in the territorial spatial planning at different levels. Finally, there are still controversies on the relationship logic between the two evaluations. Therefore, this paper puts forward four suggestions to improve the "double evaluations": deepen the theoretical cognition, expand the evaluation dimensions, establish the transmission mechanism, and clarify the internal relationship, so as to enhance the support of the "double evaluations" to the territorial spatial planning decision-making.
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    Scientific rational orientation and decision-making support orientation: The thinking of "double evaluation" and territorial spatial planning
    YANG Fan, ZONG Li, SHEN Jue-lin, LIU Le-feng
    2020, 35 (10):  2311-2324.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201002
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    "Double evaluation" is the system setting and technical foundation of territorial spatial planning system. Based on the practical cases, this paper gives theoretical reflection on the Trial Guide. The results show that the scientific questions and hypotheses are constructed into the technological and logical paths of "double evaluation". Meanwhile, "double evaluation" exerts its impact by constraint and correction of planning system institutional construction. "Double evaluation" plays an effective role when it combines science and policy, but it is difficult for both sides to be perfect. This kind of problem on technical methodology and data aspects can be interpreted as "add-on dilemma", "decomposition dilemma" and "sorting dilemma". To achieve a reasonable and effective "double evaluation", it is necessary to improve the technical rationality and coupling of the evaluation content. Meanwhile, through the understanding of the difference between scientific research and decision support research, based on full adaptation to decision-making mechanisms and subject objectives, the evaluation method should be optimized according to the hierarchy and arrangement of governmental authorities. The conclusion of this paper is of practical significance to the position optimization and technical logic improvement of "double evaluation".
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    Theoretical thinking and practical scheme of "double evaluations" at provincial level: A case study of Zhejiang province
    XIA Hao-xuan, YUE Wen-ze, WANG Tian-yu, WU Tong, CHEN Yang
    2020, 35 (10):  2325-2338.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201003
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (8688KB) ( )   Save
    The evaluations of resources and environment carrying capacity and territorial space suitability ("double evaluations") play a fundamental role in the new territorial spatial planning system, which is crucial for the scientificity of spatial decision-making and the effectiveness of spatial governance. This paper mainly focuses on the territorial space planning at the provincial level. Through applying "double evaluations" in the provincial territorial spatial planning, we aim to find the scientific support and basic requirements, and to summarize the challenges the evaluation faces both in theory and practice. On this basis, we propose a provincial "double evaluations" program, which includes three-dimensional connotation, one relationship, two scales and four levels. Then this paper explores the carrying capacity, pressure and potential of the resources and environment in Zhejiang province. Based on the logical relationship between carrying capacity and suitability, the provincial "double evaluations" is carried out from the scale of county and grid units. It also supports the formulation of provincial territorial spatial planning in four aspects, which are identification of advantages and weakness, the overall planning of special elements, the arrangement of development sequence and the optimization of spatial patterns. This study attempts to provide a feasible, scientific and practical evaluation framework for "double evaluations" at the provincial level, and to provide evidence for spatial pattern optimization, structural adjustment and index decomposition in territorial spatial planning.
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    Optimal partitions and control of territorial space in karst mountainous areas of Yunnan province
    ZHAO Xiao-qing, LI Si-nan, PU Jun-wei, TAN Shu-cheng, CHEN Jun-xu
    2020, 35 (10):  2339-2357.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201004
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    The coordinated development of territorial space is the premise of regional sustainable development. How to optimize the territorial space structure and build a reasonable control model has become one of the important issues that need to be urgently solved. This study took Wenshan city in Yunnan province, a typical karst mountainous area, as an example. It explored the optimization method of territorial space based on the "dual evaluations" and the amendment rules of conflict areas to optimize the territorial space partitions and propose control models for territorial space partitions and rocky desertification partitions. The results showed that: (1) The territorial space of karst mountainous areas in Yunnan province could be divided into 6 types, namely, urban development boundary area, urban reserved area, permanent basic farmland area, general agricultural area, ecological protection red line area, and general ecological area. Among them, the ecological protection red line area had the largest area, while the urban development boundary area had the smallest area. (2) The urban development boundary area and the urban reserved area were mainly distributed in the east and southeast; the permanent basic farmland area and the general agricultural area were mainly distributed in the north and south; the general ecological area was in the northwest and southwest; and the ecological protection red line area was in the west, south, east, and northeast, and the east and northeast parts of the study area were mainly rocky desertification areas. (3) According to the development potential and trend of each territorial space type, the control measures and models for territorial space partitions were proposed. For the areas of mild, moderate and severe rocky desertification, the paths and methods of development and protection in rocky desertification partitions were proposed for urban space, agricultural space, and ecological space. The results of this research can provide decision support for the reasonable development of territorial space and the control of rocky desertification in karst areas, and the methods and ideas of this research can provide references for territorial spatial optimization and control.
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    Evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity from the perspective of resource cross-regional mobility: A dynamic evaluation framework and practice
    ZHANG Shu-hai, RUAN Duan-bin
    2020, 35 (10):  2358-2370.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201005
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    The resources and environment carrying capacity is an important basis for measuring the resource conditions of a region and guiding the spatial distribution of land. In the current evaluation research of resources and environment carrying capacity, we are faced with problems such as the unclear dynamic mechanism of the carrying capacity and the insufficient dynamic evaluation of the resource elements. In order to objectively and accurately evaluate the resources and environment carrying capacity of small and medium-sized county units under the requirements of high-quality development, this article, from an open system perspective, reflects the spatial and temporal dynamic properties of carrying capacity and explores the coupling mechanism between the four subsystems of resources, environment, socio-economy, and population. Then it discusses the impact of resource flow on the carrying scale and carrying quality of resource inflow and outflow areas. Based on the exploration of the dynamic carrying mechanism of resources and environment carrying capacity, a theoretical framework for the dynamic evaluation of resources and environment carrying capacity at the county scale is constructed. Finally, the framework is applied to Wuqing district of Tianjin to test its applicability. Empirical research results show that, compared with static evaluation, the dynamic carrying capacity evaluation results are closer to the real situation of local resources, environment and socio-economic level, which, to a certain extent, can support the decision-making of territorial spatial planning at the local level and the optimization of resource space at the regional level.
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    Evaluation method and application for resources-environment carrying capacity towards sustainable urban ecosystem management: A case study of Yantai city
    WANG Jing, YUAN Xin-yi, CHEN Ye, FANG Ying, ZHAI Tian-lin, SONG Zi-qiu
    2020, 35 (10):  2371-2384.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201006
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    Scientific cognition and evaluation on resources-environment carrying capacity is the basis and prerequisite for territorial spatial planning. From the perspective of sustainable urban ecosystem management, the evaluation framework and theoretical model for resources-environment carrying capacity and indices of "potential" (RECCp) and "realistic" (RECC) resources-environment carrying capacity were proposed. Taking Yantai city as an example, we use the trade-off coefficient method to discuss the relationship between RECCp and RECC. Results showed that the RECCp was overall high while RECC was medium in Yantai city. There were significant regional differences between districts (counties). The shortage of water resources and environmental pollution were bottlenecks that would restrict the sustainable development of urban ecosystem in the future. The impacts of human activities on RECC in areas with low supply of ecosystem services were more obvious than those in areas with high supply. The impacts of human activities on RECCp were significant in urban fringe areas. This research could enrich the theoretical methods for evaluation of resources-environment carrying capacity and provide decision-making support for land use optimization.
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    "Double evaluations" of karst area from the perspective of ecological civilization: A case study of Ningyuan in ecologically sensitive area
    LI Long, WU Da-fang, LIU Yan-yan, TENG Li, WU Zhi-feng, FENG Zhao-hua
    2020, 35 (10):  2385-2400.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201007
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4086KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this paper is to simplify the "double evaluations" mechanism and evaluation process, build an index system with karst characteristics from the perspective of ecological civilization to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the local resource background, and depict the characteristics of the spatial pattern more accurately. The evaluation index system was constructed from three perspectives including ecology, agriculture and construction. And we integrated the "barrel short board effect", weighted linear summation and multi-factor spatial overlap analysis to calculate the suitability degree of different functions in Ningyuan. The results show that the importance of ecological protection in the study area is relatively high, and the characteristics of spatial agglomeration and differentiation are obvious. The suitability of agricultural production is generally low. The areas suitable for production mainly take the central dividing line of the city as the axis belt, which shows a symmetrical distribution pattern on the east and west sides. On the whole, the suitability of construction and development is low, and the distribution pattern is remarkable. The pattern of land development and protection of "three-ring belts radiating" is obvious, and the construction-agriculture-ecological space is distributed in concentric circles. Areas of multiple, double, single and inappropriate spaces are 36672.67 hm2, 32276.11 hm2, 181022 hm2 and 175.46 hm2, accounting for 14.66%, 12.90%, 72.37% and 0.07%, respectively. The conclusion is that Ningyuan has good natural conditions, but it still needs to strengthen the protection of ecological space in the south and north to meet the requirements of ecological civilization construction. There are some conflicts between agricultural production and ecological protection space, so it is necessary to rationally optimize the structure and distribution of agricultural production to ensure the "double security" of regional food and ecology. There is less space suitable for construction and development, so we need to use land resources intensively, adjust and change the mode of development properly, and coordinate the relationship between "three living spaces". Double- and multi-suitable land for ecological construction is the key goal of the future development and protection pattern. This will give us a better understanding of the base of land space, and improve the scientificity and operability, which can provide reference and scientific support for the "double evaluations" work in ecologically fragile and sensitive areas, such as Southwest China.
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    Demarcation technology of urban development boundary based on evaluation of carrying capacity of resources environment and suitability of land space development: A case study of the central city of Xiangtan county
    XIANG Guang-xin, FU Jin-hao, ZENG Li-ting, JIANG Xing-xiang, ZENG Yi
    2020, 35 (10):  2401-2414.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201008
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    To construct the model of "Ecology-Agriculture-Construction Comprehensive Planning" for delimitation techniques of urban development boundary, this paper calculates the proposed scale of county construction and development under spatial constraints based on "Short Board Theory", evaluates the suitability of land space development by calculating the comprehensive score according to the index weight, determines the land plot planning function and identifies construction priority areas in accordance with the principle of ecological priority and cultivated land protection priority. Then on these bases, the urban development boundary shall be delimited according to the urban construction conditions, laws and regulations, social and economic development, urban and rural coordinated development and other factors, with the priority areas as the base map and the scale of urban construction land as the basis. Through the empirical research on the central area of Xiangtan county, the urban development boundary of 4500 hectares has been determined. Compared with the scale boundary of the land-use master plan and the spatial growth boundary of the central district of the urban master plan, the technical model fully considers the restrictive effects of ecological environment, land resources, water resources, natural disasters and other factors on construction and development. The ecologically important or sensitive areas in the urban development boundary have been reduced from 3.49%, 12.46% to 0. The proportion of cultivated land occupied by new construction has been reduced from 53.26%, 50.94% to 21.02%, without occupying permanent basic farmland and ecological forests. The average annual growth rate of new construction land has been reduced by 45.65%, which is divided into or radiated into the concentrated area of village distribution. There are some problems in the traditional methods, such as determining the scale of construction land in the light of the development needs without considering the constraints of resources and environment on urban development, and ignoring the multiple suitability of land, etc. The research result shows that the technical model proposed in this paper makes up for the above shortcomings, so as to realize the priority of ecology and farmland protection, and promote conservation and intensive land use and urban-rural coordinated development. In addition, it can play a positive role in optimizing the layout of land space development, utilization and protection, and boosting green and high-quality development.
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    Territorial space baseline control from the perspective of ecological civilization: "Double evaluation" and monitoring-evaluation-warning
    ZHONG Zhen-tao, ZHANG Hong-hui, HONG Liang, LIU Geng, LUO Wei-ling
    2020, 35 (10):  2415-2427.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201009
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (6109KB) ( )   Save
    The national spatial planning system in the new era of ecological civilization has put forward targeted requirements for the baseline control of territorial space. Both of "double evaluation" and monitoring-evaluation-warning of national spatial planning are the embodiment of baseline thinking. In this paper, the inner relationship between "double evaluation" and monitoring-evaluation-warning of national spatial planning was studied based on the "one map" implementation supervision information system ("one map system") of national spatial planning. The path of territorial space control and governance is constructed (1) to study the role and status of "double evaluation" and monitoring-evaluation-warning of national spatial planning in the territorial space baseline control. The connection and interaction between the two are reflected through the construction of "one map system", which builds a linkage between the two for supporting the whole process of territorial space baseline control and governance. (2) It is found that the work of "double evaluation" focuses on the analysis of natural resources endowment and the identification of the current situation of territorial space, while monitoring-evaluation-warning is dynamic and continuous, which focuses on the long-term dynamic monitoring and timely early warning of various spatial elements. Both of them constitute two stages of baseline control. The former is the basis and the latter is the path and means for baseline control. (3) The practice of national spatial planning of Pingdingshan in Henan province confirmed that "one map system" is helpful as well as necessary for supporting "double evaluation" and monitoring-evaluation-warning. On the one hand, the scientificity of the planning compilation could be improved under the support of "double evaluation". On the other hand, the process of planning implementation could also be effectively regulated by sophisticated monitoring-evaluation-warning system. (4) Both of "double evaluation" and monitoring-evaluation-warning are important tools for territorial space baseline control in the new era of ecological civilization. It is necessary to strengthen the organic combination of the two based on the "one map system".
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    Regular Articles
    Study on the spatial characteristics and intensity factors of "three-line conflict" in Jiangxi province
    YI Dan, ZHAO Xiao-min, GUO Xi, HAN Yi, JIANG Ye-feng, LAI Xia-hua, HUANG Xin-yi
    2020, 35 (10):  2428-2443.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201010
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    Delimiting three lines (permanent basic farmland protection zones, urban growth boundaries and ecological protection redlines) scientifically is conducive to rational arrangement of land space resources and identifying the "three-line conflict" intensity factors can deepen the understanding of the national space planning. This study took the provincial spatial planning pilot area-Jiangxi province as an example, recognized the regional difference of "three-line conflict" by defining the "three-line conflict intensity", revealed its spatial characteristics by using spatial autocorrelation analysis, and analyzed the influencing factors of different types of conflict intensity by applying geographically weighted regression model (GWR). The results showed that the conflict areas of town-ecology, town-agriculture, ecology-agriculture and town-ecology-agriculture were 4305.791 km2, 2892.894 km2, 1845.341 km2 and 159.444 km2, respectively. There is obvious spatial clustering in the conflicts of town-ecology, town-agriculture, ecology-agriculture and town-ecology-agriculture. The main influencing factor of town-ecology conflict is the intensity of fixed assets investment, and the leading factor of town-agriculture conflict is the proportion of suitable area of construction land. The ecology-agriculture conflict is most affected by the topographic index, and the town-ecology-agriculture conflict is mainly affected by urbanization rate and the distance from river. The research results can provide reference for the rational layout of the "three lines" and the optimization of land structure.
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    Spatial differentiation of agricultural regional function in Beijing and its influencing factors
    LIU Yu, JIANG Zhi, WANG Hao-sen
    2020, 35 (10):  2444-2459.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201011
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    Under the background of rapid urbanization, agricultural development in Beijing has shrunk sharply and the marginalization of agriculture is becoming more and more obvious. Recently, Beijing puts forward the development model of reducing quantity and improving quality, to meet the needs of the people and improve the quality of the ecological environment. In this context, the regional function of agriculture should focus on the production of high-quality farm products, the ecological protection, the high-end leisure and entertainment supply and the popularization of agricultural science and technology, as well as the promotion of urban and rural integration, etc. By using the data of 184 streets and towns, the research calculates the regional function of agriculture in Beijing. Results show that the spatial differentiation of agricultural regional function in Beijing is closely related to the structure of urban spatial development, which is generally shown an increasing trend from the core area of urban-rural fringe to the extended area to the far suburbs, and the declining trend of agricultural regional function in the extended area of urban-rural fringe is significant, which makes the city gradually lose the constraints of spatial development. The basic functions of agricultural products supply, ecological protection and employment placement in the far suburbs are strong and industrial integration, new business type and other modern functions are at a low level. Therefore, there is still great room for improvement of agricultural regional functions. The result of basic regression and quantile regression shows that, the land factors are the key factors that affect the regional function of the agricultural region in Beijing, and the location factor determines the scale of the agricultural land and the house price factor obviously inhibit the agricultural regional function in areas with the lowest score by accelerating the circulation of agricultural land. The non-agricultural industry has the function of promoting and not squeezing the regional function of agriculture. In the future, Beijing should focus on the regional function of agriculture, protect the agricultural land and fully tap the new urban agricultural support space, promote the organic integration of the agriculture into the modern economic system of the city so as to stimulate the new potential of agriculture; and optimize the method for realizing the regional function of agriculture.
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    Orginal Article
    "Birds of a feather flock together":China's rural spatial poverty trap and its identification
    LUO Xiang, LI Chong-ming, WAN Qing, ZHANG Zuo
    2020, 35 (10):  2460-2472.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201012
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    Examining the poverty trap and its causes is the basis for understanding the mechanism of poverty reduction and governance. Current research no longer confines rural poverty to "insufficient capital formation", but emphasizes the importance of spatial factors. Based on the panel data at the county level, this paper identifies the rural poverty trap in China from two dimensions of aggregation and persistence. This study shows that the spatial pattern of poverty in rural China remained almost unchanged during 2006-2016, and the spatial distribution of poverty is not synchronized with economic growth. The distribution of poverty-stricken counties is mainly related to terrain conditions (slope, elevation). Further research also finds that rural poverty in China is persistent. There is a low level equilibrium of income in poverty-stricken counties, and there is a "club convergence" between poverty-stricken and non-poverty-stricken counties. This study reveals the relationship between spatial externalities and rural poverty, which provides support for the correct assessment of economic development and poverty alleviation, and the rational formulation of regional anti-poverty targeting mechanism.
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    Regular Articles
    Spatial variation characteristics and influencing factors of homestay inn price: A case study of Enshi, Hubei
    HU Xiao-fang, LI Xiao-ya, ZHAO Hong-min, DENG Lei, WANG Tian-yu, YANG Shuo, LI Jing-wang
    2020, 35 (10):  2473-2483.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201013
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    Compared to traditional hotels, the price of homestay inn has unique spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors. This research, taking the homestay inn price of Enshi Tujia & Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Hubei province as an example, used data crawling to abtain the homestay inn data from tujia.com to make an interpolation analysis with the aid of ArcGIS 10.5. Then it summarized the spatial distribution characteristics of the homestay inn prices in the study area. Meanwhile, Hedonic price model is built by using SPSS to analyze the influencing factors of homestay inn price in Enshi. Research results indicated that: (1) The cluster effect of the homestay inn price is obvious. It forms three relatively high price areas featured by "one high and two low values". (2) Consumers focus on experience and integration when they choose homestay inn. The internal environment of homestay inn has the most striking influence on the homestay inn price. (3) Provincial highways and scenic spots have significant influence on the homestay inn price, while national highways have a small impact. (4) Pricing of homestay inn varies between different operators. The individual landlords who manage homestay inn ask for higher price. The results provide reference for the location, pricing, accommodation space layout and tourism experience services of homestay inn.
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    Energy utilization of pig breeding waste at the acquaintance society and atomized society in rural areas: Game analysis, simulation analysis and reality testing
    HE Ke, ZHANG Jun-biao
    2020, 35 (10):  2484-2498.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201014
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    On the background of the acquaintance society and atomized society in rural areas, this paper employed game theory and simulation to analyze the contradiction between individual rationality and collective rationality among pig farmers in the process of energy utilization of pig breeding waste. By considering the "local consensus" to change the constraints of the traditional evolutionary game, this paper presented a theoretical and logical framework for understanding the cooperative participation of large-scale pig farmers' behaviors. On this basis, with the survey data of large-scale pig farmers in Hubei province, this paper employed econometric research methods to empirically verify the differences of pig farmers' participation in biogas production from pig manure at the acquaintance society and atomized society and to analyze the role of local consensus in pig farmers' activities of biogas production. Results from the theoretical analysis, game and simulation analysis as well as empirical analysis all show that there are differences in pig farmers' behaviors in energy utilization of pig breeding waste at both acquaintance society and atomized society in rural areas. At the acquaintance society, the social reputation reward, status reward, social reputation punishment and status punishment brought by "local consensus" are not only alternatives of "social currency" compensation but also informal restraints to avoid opportunistic behaviors. And they are not only economic material incentives, laws and regulations, but also the internal mechanisms to maintain collective action in rural areas, which play an important role in the governance and protection of rural ecological environment. At the atomized society, due to the decline of human relations and etiquette mechanisms, the "local consensus" has almost disappeared. After a long period of comparison, learning and imitation, rational and self-interested pig farmers tend to become strict opportunists. Consequently, the reciprocal collective action of energy utilization of pig breeding waste is difficult. Therefore, this paper suggests that, with strengthening the formal system construction of laws, regulations, policies and guidelines, we should promote the construction of "local consensus" and improve the rural ecological environment governance system which integrates autonomy, law and morality.
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    Analysis of influencing factors of rice planting area evolution in Dongting Lake Area during 1987-2017
    MI Sheng-yuan, TAN Xue-lan, TAN Jie-yang, JIANG Ling-xiao, WANG Zhen-kai
    2020, 35 (10):  2499-2510.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201015
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    It is of great significance to study the spatial and temporal evolution and driving mechanism of multi-cropping rice area to ensure Chinese grain production and security. The Nich index and geo-detector model were used to explore the spatial and temporal dynamics and main influencing factors of one-cropping rice and double-cropping rice planting in Dongting Lake Area from 1987 to 2017. The results show that: (1) In the past 30 years, the proportion of one cropping rice in the hilly area was greater than that in the central plain, and the overall trend was increasing; with a tendency to decrease first and then increase in Wuling district, Yuanjiang city and other places from 2007 to 2017. (2) From 1987 to 2002, the relative development rates of the area of one-cropping rice and double-cropping rice showed a high gradient pattern in the west and low in the east. From 2002 to 2017, one-cropping rice showed a high-low-high banding pattern, while double-cropping rice showed a pattern of high in the north and low in the south. (3) The results of geo-detector models in 1987 and 2017 showed that the effect of effective irrigation area, industrial workers, agricultural workers, and the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery exerted influence on rice area. This research results provide a basis for optimizing the adjustment of rice planting structure.
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    Spatial and temporal patterns of NPP and its response to climate change in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 2000 to 2015
    CHEN Shu-ting, GUO Bing, YANG Fei, HAN Bao-min, FAN Ye-wen, YANG Xiao, HE Tian-li, LIU Yue, YANG Wen-na
    2020, 35 (10):  2511-2527.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201016
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    The Qinghai-Tibet (QT) Plateau is considered as the "natural laboratory" of climate change in China and even in the world. Under the background of global change, the vegetation ecosystem of the QT has undergone profound changes. In this study, the spatian and temporal patterns and its driving mechanisms of NPP in the QT Plateau from 2000 to 2015 were analyzed and discussed by using gravity center and correlation coefficient models. Then, the relative effects of climate change and human activity on the process of NPP changes was quantitatively distinguished. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2015, the annual mean NPP in the QT Plateau showed a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. In terms of interannual changes, the annual mean NPP showed a fluctuating upward trend in the study period, with a sharp rise in 2005 and a high fluctuation during 2005-2015. (2) The increased area of NPP in the QT Plateau (change rate >10%) was mainly concentrated in the Three-River Source Region, the northern Hengduan Mountains, the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin and the central and eastern parts of Naqu county, while the decreased area of NPP (change rate <-10%) was mainly distributed in the upper reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin and the Ali Plateau. (3) During the 16 years, the gravity center of NPP in the QT Plateau moved eastward, indicating that the increment and growth rate of NPP in the eastern part is greater than that in the western part. (4) The correlation between vegetation NPP and climate factors in the study area is significant. The regions with significant correlation between NPP and precipitation are mainly located in the central and the southeastern parts of the QT Plateau and the middle and lower reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin. The regions with significant correlation between vegetation NPP and temperature are mainly located in Southern Tibet, Northern Hengduan Mountains, Central and Northern QT Plateau. (5) The relative effects of climate change and human activity on the process of NPP change in the plateau have significant spatial and temporal differences with a distribution pattern of "Four Lines and Five Regions". The research results can provide theoretical and methodological supports for revealing the response mechanism of regional ecosystems to global change in the QT Plateau.
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    Study on surface water and groundwater interaction of Shaliu River Basin in Qinghai Lake in different periods
    LEI Yi-zhen, CAO Sheng-kui, CAO Guang-chao, YANG Yu-fan, LAN Yao, JI Yu-tong, LI Hua-fei
    2020, 35 (10):  2528-2538.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201017
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    Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope technology is an effective method to study the surface water-groundwater interaction. Based on the hydrogen and oxygen isotope component (δD and δ18O) of precipitation, river water and groundwater collected in the Shaliu River Basin of Qinghai Lake during ablation period, rainy period and freezing period in 2018, the paper aims to clarify the spatio-temporal differences between δD and δ18O values of surface water and groundwater under the influence of precipitation. We use the two-component method to reveal and ensure the interaction between surface water and groundwater of alpine steppe zone and alpine meadow zone in three periods. Results show that, the impact of precipitation on surface water and groundwater is different in space and time. Stable isotopic response of surface water and groundwater to precipitation on the time is the strongest in ablation period and the weakest in freezing period. And the stable isotopic response of surface water and groundwater to precipitation in alpine meadow zone is stronger than that in alpine steppe zone. In alpine meadow and alpine steppe zones of ablation period and alpine steppe zone of freezing period, surface water recharges groundwater, and the ratio is 80.65%, 93.36% and 89.44%, respectively. In alpine meadow and alpine steppe zones of ablation period and alpine meadow zone of freezing period, groundwater recharges surface water, and the ratio is 44.50%, 74.85% and 88.58%, respectively. Thus, this study provides a scientific basis for the optimization, allocation and management of water resources.
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    Occurrence types and impact analysis of active fires in the major countries of Southeast Asia during the 2015 strong El Nino
    LI Wen-jun, XIAO Chi-wei, FENG Zhi-ming, LI Peng, QI Yue-ji
    2020, 35 (10):  2539-2552.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201018
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    The strong El Nino in 2015 caused droughts, little rainfall and intensified active fires in Southeast Asia (SEA). To our knowledge, the spatio-temporal characteristics, occurrence types and intensity of active fires as well as their impacts on population and socio-economy have not been fully analyzed. In this paper, we used the active fire data (point in Shapefile format) derived from Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Version 1 (V1) provided by the NASA's Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS), the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM, 30 m, V2), Global Land Cover products (30 m, 2015), and Gridded Population of the World (GPW, 1 km, V4, 2015). On this basis, GIS-based monthly, topographical, and land-cover category analyses of VIIRS active fires were comprehensively applied to determine the major occurrence types of active fires at national scale, followed by impact evaluation of active fires on national population density in the major counties of Southeast Asia (excluding Brunei, East Timor, and Singapore). The results showed that: (1) The active fire frequency in SEA reached 81.40×105 in 2015, with Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and Insular Southeast Asia (ISEA) accounting for 69.60% and 30.40%, respectively. Active fires in MSEA and ISEA mainly occurred in the periods of February to April and August to October, respectively. There were huge differences in the occurrence frequency and timing of active fires. (2) The topographical features of active fires were quite different in MSEA. Specifically, active fires in Myanmar and Vietnam were distributed at the elevations below 25 m, while those in Laos (85-105 m and 140-200 m), Thailand (5-15 m and 70-110 m) and Cambodia (5-15 m and 70-110 m) showed consistently a bimodal pattern. The ISEA's active fires were primarily distributed in the plains below 60 m. Additionally, over 35% of the occurrence frequency of active fires was mainly observed in the slope range of 5-15. (3) The frequency proportion of active fires in forests and farmland in SEA was estimated to be 76%. Among them, the figures in forests increased from 52.00% in Cambodia to 74.27% in Laos, while those in farmland increased from 13.18% in Laos to 42.68% in Thailand. (4) Combining the comprehensive features of active fires in occurrence timing, elevation, slope and land cover types, national occurrence types of active fires could be discriminated in two aspects, namely upland swidden agriculture and open burning of crop residues in the plain area. (5) With the increment of population density, the occurrence frequency of active fires first increased and then decreased to a stable level in SEA, and active fires mostly concentrated in the sparsely populated countryside and natural forests. Specifically, over 10% of the occurrence frequency of active fires were located in the areas with the population density ranging from 72 to 91 p/km2 in Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam, while more than 30% of the active fire counts were found in Malaysia, Laos, Cambodia, and Indonesia, where the population density was below 20 p/km2.
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    Establishment of comprehensive drought monitoring model based on downscaling TRMM and MODIS data
    YU Hao-zhe, LI Li-juan, LI Jiu-yi
    2020, 35 (10):  2553-2568.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20201019
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    The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is one of the main producing areas of high-quality winter wheat in China, but drought disasters frequently occur in this region under the influence of global warming. Accurate monitoring of drought in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region can not only provide scientific guidance for regional agricultural production, but also play an important strategic role in guaranteeing national food security. Therefore, in this study, drought-causing factors such as precipitation, vegetation growth, soil moisture gain and loss were considered comprehensively. Firstly, the GWR (Geographical Weighted Regression) model was used to downscale TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) 3B43 data, and the Precipitation Condition Index (PCI) with a 1-km resolution was obtained. Combining MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data, the Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) were obtained. Finally, a comprehensive drought index (CDI) was constructed based on the multiple regression model to achieve spatial and temporal monitoring and evaluation. The results show that: (1) The annual and monthly data of the 1-km spatial resolution TRMM based on the GWR model and proportion coefficient method have been greatly improved in spatial resolution compared with the original TRMM data, and the accuracy of the data has also passed the test, which shows that the downscaling analysis improves the description ability of TRMM data to the spatial and temporal characteristics of precipitation in the study area. (2) The results of the monitoring model are basically consistent with the drought process. The correlation coefficient (R value) between CDI and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) was 0.45-0.85, and the correlation coefficient between CDI and drought area of crops ranged from -0.81 to -0.86, and all of them passed the very significant test of P<0.01, and the R value was greater than 0.6 between the CDI and standardized unit yield of crop (P<0.05), which indicated that the comprehensive drought monitoring model constructed by this research was applicable in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
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