At present, the economic transformation of resource-based cities is still a major issue in urban development in China. Based on the core connotation of the economic transformation of resource-based cities, using the ideas and methods of the balanced scorecard and key performance indicators, this paper summarizes the characteristics of economic transformation performance of resource-based cities, and then establishes a new evolution method called "the five-dimensional evaluation method" consisting of "resource dependence, economic level, ecological efficiency, social welfare, innovation driver", selects a few key parameters that can accurately reflect the key processes and results of economic transformation as the evaluation indexes, uses the measurement models such as decoupling analysis, super-efficiency data envelopment analysis, regression analysis, coupling degree model, entropy weight method and canonical correlation analysis, so as to make the results of performance evaluation consistent with the real mechanism of economic transformation. In this paper, seven typical coal cities in Northeast China are taken as cases, and the five-dimensional evaluation method is used to evaluate the performance of economic transformation in these cities since 2003. The results show that, from the perspective of transformation effect, seven cities have initially achieved the transformation of economic growth driving force, among which Liaoyuan has relatively good performance in the development of the secondary industry, and Liaoyuan and Fuxin have relatively good performance in the industrial succession; from the perspective of transformation quality, seven cities have significantly improved the eco-efficiency, among which Liaoyuan, Fuxin and Shuangyashan have improved the relative level of economic development. Empirical test shows that the economic transformation of seven cities does not have enough effect on improving the economic support for social welfare; from the perspective of the degree of realization of the ultimate goal, the level of science and technology and innovation in the seven cities is seriously insufficient, the economic growth slows down, and the ultimate goal of economic transformation is not achieved.