Table of Content

    28 June 2021, Volume 36 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Foreword to Special Issue on Food Security and Agricultural Opening-up in China for a New Era
    CHEN Yang-fen, WANG Jie-yong
    2021, 36 (6):  1359-1361.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210601
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (428KB) ( )   Save
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Expert Interview
    New patterns of globalization and food security
    CHEN Yang-fen, WANG Jie-yong, ZHANG Feng-rong, LIU Yan-sui, CHENG Sheng-kui, ZHU Jing, SI Wei, FAN Sheng-gen, GU Shan-song, HU Bing-chuan, LI Xian-de, YU Xiao-hua
    2021, 36 (6):  1362-1380.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210602
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1155KB) ( )   Save

    The world is undergoing tremendous changes, and food security is encountering major challenges in China and even the world. In order to systematically study globalization and explore its new patterns, new issues and new paths for food security, we interviewed ten distinguished professors from different fields and discussed hot topics, including the potential for increasing farmland production, agricultural water and soil resources and food production, food waste, international agricultural product trade, stable supply of key agricultural product, global agricultural food system, dual circulation pattern and corporate actions, global food production and consumption, international food security governance, and cutting-edge research on food safety. The result shows that the global agricultural food system has entered an era of complexity and high risk. International food security governance is facing challenges in terms of resources, binding force and action power. We are facing an increasing pressure of import dependent agricultural products to ensure stable supply. It is necessary to deepen supply-side reform and strengthen demand-side management so as to guarantee national food security. New changes have taken place in globalization. This will test China's ability to deepen agricultural opening-up, participate in global food security governance, and achieve national food security. In the face of complex international and domestic situations, for better national food security governance, it is necessary to adhere to system thinking and coordinate domestic and international markets. It is also very important to target the entire industry chain, emphasize risk control, and handle the relationship between the government and the market. Furthermore, researchers need to explore the internal relationships and specific mechanisms between food security and other important issues, such as food systems, ecosystems, high-quality development goals, agricultural opening-up, and new dual-circulation development patterns. This could provide a scientific reference for establishing and improving the national food security strategy of "featuring self-sufficiency based on domestic grain production, guaranteed food production capacity, moderate imports, and technological support" in the New Era.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Trends in Food Security
    Spatial mismatch evolution of global population and food and its influencing factors
    LUO Xiu-li, YANG Ren, XU Qian
    2021, 36 (6):  1381-1397.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210603
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3599KB) ( )   Save

    In this paper, the spatial center of gravity model and spatial mismatch index method was applied to systematically analyze the spatio-temporal pattern, spatial mismatch characteristics, and influencing factors of global population and food in 1990-2017. The results showed that: (1) In the past 30 years, the global population and food has showed a growth trend, but their change characteristics are obviously different in temporal distribution. The per capita food production has obvious spatial differences in the world, and the contradiction between population and food in most countries is serious. (2) On the global scale, there is an obvious spatial mismatch between the center of gravity of population and food, which shows a trend of reverse mismatch in spatial distribution. (3) On the national scale, the regional difference of spatial mismatch between population and food is obvious, showing a spatial pattern of "positive mismatch area - negative mismatch area - positive mismatch area" from south to north. Negative high mismatch regions are stable in countries such as India and Japan, and positive high mismatch regions are stable in countries such as the United States and Canada. (4) The spatial mismatch pattern of population and food on all continents is basically stable, and the countries whose spatial mismatch index changes direction are distributed in Asia, Europe, South America and Africa. (5) The combined effect of natural environment, international environment, agricultural development and social factors has obvious regional differences in the spatial distribution of population and food, thus forming a spatial mismatch pattern between global population and food. It is necessary to accelerate the structural reform of agricultural supply side, enhance agricultural competitiveness and food self-sufficiency rate, reasonably allocate and deal with both domestic and international markets and resources, construct countermeasures to avoid fluctuations and uncertainties in world grain trade, and build a guarantee system for China's agricultural ecological security and food security.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatio-temporal pattern of cereals consumption in countries along the Belt and Road
    ZHANG Chao, YANG Yan-zhao, FENG Zhi-ming, JIA Kun, LANG Ting-ting
    2021, 36 (6):  1398-1412.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210604
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4449KB) ( )   Save

    The countries along the Belt and Road are regarded as the world's important food production and consumption areas, so it is of great significance to carry out the regional food security research. The paper aims to focus on cereals consumption, analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of the cereals consumption quantity and structure of these areas during 1995-2017, and reveal their influencing factors. The results show that: (1) From 1995 to 2017, the total cereals consumption and per capita volume presented an increasing trend and the total cereals accounted for about 55%-59% of the world's total. The per capita consumption increased to 367 kg in 2017, which was 95% of the world level. (2) From 1995 to 2017, the other use and processing consumption increased dramatically, feed and food increased rapidly, but the losses and seed increased slowly, which showed a "Food-based and Feed-assisted" cereals consumption structure that was at the primary stage of cereals consumption. (3) The spatial difference of the total cereals consumption is obvious and the per capita consumption is small. The cereals consumption level is very high in Central and Eastern European countries, but it is generally low in countries with a large population, small island areas, or poor cereals production conditions. (4) The spatial difference in per capita consumption of various types of cereals is not obvious except for the total amount of feed. Nearly half of the countries are still dominated by food, and about one-quarter of the countries have completed the upgrade of the cereals consumption structure that has shifted to a relatively balanced consumption structure. (5) The cumulative contribution rate of population and consumption level is about 43% and 57%. In Central Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia, most countries are jointly affected by consumption level and population. West Asia and the Middle East are significantly affected by population. The cumulative contribution of population and consumption level have large differences in Central and Eastern Europe. The cumulative contribution of food and feed accounted for about 46% and 34%, respectively. South Asia and Southeast Asia were mostly dominated by foods, China-Mongolia-Russia and Central Asia were mostly dominated by feed, and Central and Eastern Europe and Indochina Peninsula were mostly integrated contributors.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Change in grain production in China and its impacts on spatial supply and demand distributions in recent two decades
    LIU Zheng-jia, ZHONG Hui-min, LI Yu-rui, WEN Qi, LIU Xue-qi, JIAN Yu-qing
    2021, 36 (6):  1413-1425.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210605
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3920KB) ( )   Save

    China is feeding roughly 20% of the world's population with less than 9% of the world's cultivated land. The food security at national and regional scales has been a major concern. In this study, we took the province-level area as the research unit and utilized GIS spatial analysis and statistical tools to examine the overall characteristics of grain production changes, the evolution characteristics of regional patterns and the impact of these changes on regional grain supply and demand pattern in China during 1999-2018. The results showed that the total national grain output significantly increased with an annual rate of 1.1 million tons. The total grain output of Northern China showed a significant growth trend, while that of Southern China remained stable. The increment of maize yield played a leading role in these changes. The spatio-temporal yield variations of five major food crops (rice, wheat, maize, beans and tubers) were quite different in the past 20 years at provincial-level scale. The change of grain yield had great influence on regional grain supply and demand pattern. Particularly, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Fujian provinces located in the southeast coastal region had changed from supply-oriented provinces of major grains with rice and wheat into demand-oriented provinces. However, the per capita share of grain was 368.0 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 period(the five-year average during 1999-2003) and 461.5 kg/person in Y 2014-2018 period (the five-year average during 2014-2018) at national-level scale, respectively; and the per capita share of the two major grains was 220.3 kg/person and 247.6 kg/person in Y 1999-2003 and Y 2014-2018 periods, respectively. The change of sown area was the direct reason for the change of grain crop yield at national and regional scales. Nevertheless, the fundamental reason was more attributed to the change of attribution, function and quality, which is driven by land use value. Our study classified the reasons for the decrement of cultivated land into "non-agriculture" "non-grain" "wastage" and "ecology" types. Considering the formation causes of each type, the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable use of regional cultivated land were put forward in order to provide reference for the adjustment of regional grain planting pattern and the transformation of demand-oriented provinces of two major types of grain to self-sufficient provinces.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The grain production space reconstruction in China since the reform and opening up
    ZHANG Qiu-meng, YANG Fang-she, LI Fei
    2021, 36 (6):  1426-1438.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210606
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3157KB) ( )   Save

    Grain production space reconstruction not only concerns China's food security, but also has a profound impact on regional economic development and ecological protection. From three dimensions of quantity, production potential and spatial pattern, the paper employs GAEZ (Global Agro-Ecological Zones) model, landscape pattern index and gravity center model to discuss the grain production space reconstruction of China from 1980 to 2018. Studies have shown that: (1) In terms of quantity, grain production space gradually decreases from south to north, and the total area remains almost unchanged, but it has frequent internal conversion. The grain production space has been transformed into other land use types, amounting to about 64.58 million hm2, of which the Grain for Green and construction land expansion account for roughly 90%. The other land use types have been converted into grain production space, reaching 66.8 million hm2, of which deforestation and grassland reclamation account for 75%. (2) From production potential, the total amount showed decreasing trends in the past 40 years, while the spatial distribution presents a pattern of "high in the east and low in the west", showing an obvious gradient difference from east to west. The decrease of total production potential of grain production space was mainly caused by the Grain for Green and construction land expansion, resulting in the decrease of grain production space with medium-low, medium and medium-high potential levels; However, its total increase was mainly attributed to the deforestation and grassland reclamation, leading to an increase of grain production space with medium and medium-high potential levels. (3) Due to the aggravation of human activities, the landscape pattern of China's grain production space has undergone significant changes since the 1980s. Its scale gradually decreased, the shape tended to be complex, and the distance gradually became far. Meanwhile, the quantity gravity center has moved southward, but not too far. The gravity center of its production potential has been moving to the northeast, with a distance of 82.74 km. This paper enriches the research setup of land system, and provides the basis for guaranteeing food security and realizing food production space's sustainable and intensive use.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Food Security Potential
    The degree of cultivated land abandonment and its influence on grain yield in main grain producing areas of China
    LI Yu-ling, MA Wen-qiu, JIANG Guang-hui, LI Guang-yong, ZHOU Ding-yang
    2021, 36 (6):  1439-1454.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210607
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1870KB) ( )   Save

    Cultivated land abandonment has a profound impact on China's food security. Taking the main grain producing areas in China as an example and based on the identification of the distribution of abandoned land, this paper measured the spatial distribution pattern of abandoned land, established the mediating effect model of cultivated land abandonment, and explored the influence mechanism of cultivated land abandonment on regional grain yield. The results showed that: (1) The area of abandoned cultivated land in the main grain producing areas of China was 4.0553 million hectares, with a rate of 5.85%; the distribution of abandoned land presented a T-shaped pattern, mainly concentrated in the Northeastern Heilongjiang, Northwestern Jilin and Southern Inner Mongolia. (2) Cultivated land abandonment had a significant negative impact on the grain yield of the main grain producing areas. In 2017, these areas lost a farmland production potential of 13.3915 million tons, and the loss of grain output was as high as 22.656 million tons, accounting for 4.69%; Inner Mongolia was the most affected region. (3) Grain sown area, farmland production potential, and agricultural technology input all played an intermediary role, and their regression coefficients were -0.194, -0.025 and 0.006, respectively. (4) We should follow the trend of urban-rural integration and agricultural-rural development, strengthen the input of modern agricultural production factors and policy support in major grain producing areas, and construct the flexible mechanism of spatial transformation between grain production and cultivated land fallow to ensure food security in China.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Measurement of the scale of food waste and its resources and environmental effects at the consumer segment in China
    WANG Ling-en, NI Xiao-wen, LI Yun-yun, CHENG Sheng-kui
    2021, 36 (6):  1455-1468.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210608
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2115KB) ( )   Save

    Food waste and its resulting resources and environmental problems are closely related to global food security, while reducing food waste is gradually considered as Plan B for it. As the main part of food waste at the consumption segment, food waste generated by consumer is the main source of food loss and waste. In this study, the direct weighing method was adopted to obtain first-hand data of food waste of residents in typical areas of China (Beijing, Shanghai, Sichuan, Shandong, Henan and Tibet), and for the first time, the total scale of food waste of residents' consumption and its resource and environmental effects were measured on a national scale. The results show that: (1) In 2018, a total of 34 million tons (67.33 g/d per capita) of food was wasted at the consumer segment in China. Grain waste accounted for the largest proportion (35.44%), followed by vegetables (34.83%) and meat (15.38%). (2) In 2018, food waste occupied 63 million hm2 of ecological footprint in China, and the per capita ecological footprint was 448 m2. Based on 1.5 hm2 of ecological footprint per capita in China, the ecological niche of 42 million people was encroached. Aquatic products (39.28%) and meat (34.22%) accounted for the largest ecological footprint of food waste, amounting to 24.56 million hm2 and 21.40 million hm2, respectively. The research results are helpful to promote the reduction of food waste at the consumption segment, and have important reference value and significance for alleviating the environmental impact and resource consumption pressure of food waste and improving global food security.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Dietary structure upgrade of China's residents, international trade and food security
    XIN Liang-jie
    2021, 36 (6):  1469-1480.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210609
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2119KB) ( )   Save

    At present, Chinese residents' dietary consumption structure is upgrading, changing from a subsistence type to a comprehensive well-off type and from traditional home cooking to modern convenience. Changes in the structure and level of dietary consumption will affect China's future food consumption. Judged from the development law of food consumption of residents in Taiwan, China, the overall gap between the current level and the stable state under the affluent level of Chinese residents' dietary consumption is about 53%, and the gap of animal food consumption is more than doubles. In the past, Chinese residents mainly used grains and vegetables as their main food. Now, they increase consumption of high value-added foods such as animal foods and fruits. China's nominal self-sufficiency rate of grain dropped to 85% in 2018, and that of soybean dropped to 15% at the same time. The self-sufficiency rate of virtual farmland was only 72.6%. Then, China needs to import not only a large amount of protein feed, but also a considerable amount of energy feed. It is concluded that it is difficult to maintain the demand for agricultural products only relying on China's local agricultural production resources. China should rely on domestic production and the international market to ensure food security. To protect the ecological environment, China should import more animal products, especially beef and lamb, appropriately liberalize the import volume of food products, self-produced fruits, and vegetables.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Analysis of fertilizer-use optimization under the joint framework of economic rationality and environmental sustainability: Evidence from wheat farmers in Handan, Hebei rovince
    QIAN Chen, LI Fan, LI Xian-de, HAO Jing-hui
    2021, 36 (6):  1481-1493.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210610
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1464KB) ( )   Save

    China has faced severe challenges from the tight balance of food security and the pollution caused by the excessive use of agricultural fertilizers. How to optimize the fertilizer uses to ensure national food security and agricultural environmental sustainability has become a great concern. The purpose of this paper is to explore ways to optimize the application of chemical fertilizer under the joint framework of economic rationality and environmental sustainability in major grain-producing areas. Using the survey data from 1026 wheat-growing farmers in Handan, Hebei province, we build a quantitative model of small holders' use of chemical fertilizers to analyze the obstacles in achieving economic rationality and environmental sustainability simultaneously. The results show that farmers' expectation of chemical fertilizer's output elasticity in the sampling region is significantly higher than the actual elasticity, indicating that, generally speaking, the farmers overestimated the effect of fertilizer on improving grain production, thus using more fertilizers. Meanwhile, the current price of chemical fertilizer in the study area is about half of the optimal price estimated in the analysis, indicating that the cost of chemical fertilizers is relatively low compared with other agricultural inputs, e.g., labor, thus farmers tend to be more dependent on chemical fertilizers in pursuing higher yield. Hence, taking into account the national food security and agricultural environment sustainability, our results suggest that: (1) It is necessary to correct farmers' cognitive bias towards the (in-)effectiveness of fertilizer use to promote scientific fertilization; (2) Fertilizer market structure and the relative price between synthetic and organic fertilizers should be more differentiated through the supply-side reform, so as to fundamentally mitigate fertilizer 'overuse' in China.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial and temporal variations of grain consumption coefficient of pig in China
    LIU Xiao-yu, XIN Liang-jie
    2021, 36 (6):  1494-1504.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210611
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1446KB) ( )   Save

    The production and consumption of pig feed grain have gradually become the primary factor affecting China's food security. The grain consumption coefficient, which is easily influenced by the natural environment and economic conditions, is the core of reasonable estimation of feed grain demand. Therefore, it is important to clarify the spatial and temporal variation characteristics. Accordingly, taking pigs as an example, we measured the spatial and temporal variations of the grain consumption coefficient and the possible causes of different feeding scales in different provinces from 2000 to 2018. The conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The grain consumption coefficients of a backyard, small-scale, and the average value of all the scales showed an increasing trend while those of the medium and large scales showed a decreasing and then an increasing trend. (2) The gap between the grain consumption coefficients of different scales was narrowed gradually with the decreasing percentage of concentrated feed costs. (3) The grain conversion efficiency and time efficiency of a large scale were higher than those of other scales. (4) Except for backyard feeding, the grain consumption coefficients of other scales were higher in northern China and lower in southern China while those of the central region of China were higher than the eastern and western regions. The high grain conversion coefficient of consumption in northern China may be due to the fact that pigs need more energy to protect themselves from cold and need to consume more feed, while the differences in southern China may be related to the breed and feed type composition of the pigs. In addition, in order to improve efficiency and save food, it is significant to promote the large-scale pig feeding pattern, to standardize, intensify, mechanize and automate the construction of pig rearing, and to improve the efficiency of pig breeding. Large-scale farming should be distributed in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hebei, Shandong, and Henan, and over-farming is not recommended in the northeast region as well as Hubei and Hunan. Provinces in the central region, such as Sichuan, Shaanxi, Guizhou, and Hunan, are appropriate for backyard pig farming. To improve feed utilization efficiency, it is advisable to promote large-scale pig breeding.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    International Cooperation on Food Security
    Market integration and virtual flow of resources under the background of international food trade: Evidence from China-Pakistan rice market
    YU Xiao-hua, LIU Chang, ZHANG Guo-zheng
    2021, 36 (6):  1505-1520.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210612
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1545KB) ( )   Save

    Trade liberalization and regional economic integration will not only lead to market integration and efficiency improvement through comparative advantages, but also produce transaction of "virtual resources", such as "virtual water" and "virtual land". Based on the time series model, and the food trade and prices data covering China and Pakistan, this paper first examines the degree of food market integration of the two countries. Secondly, we calculate the net flow of virtual water and virtual land resources accompanied by the rice trade, and analyze changes in resource efficiency. The results showed that: (1) The rice market between China and Pakistan has been highly integrated, but the price of rice in Pakistan is more fluctuant than that in China, and the price elasticity of rice in Pakistan is 1.097 with respect to that of China. This means that if rice price in China increases by 10%, the one in Pakistan will increase by 10.97%. Since the launch of the Belt and Road Initiative, rice price in Pakistan has fallen by 7.8%, which increases the welfare of the poor. (2) After 1988, China had net imports of 3.54 million tons of rice from Pakistan in total, equivalent to 520000 hectares of domestic cultivated land, or 964000 hectares of agricultural land in Pakistan, 3.44 billion tons of domestic water or 10.17 billion tons of water in Pakistan. The empirical results indicate a great difference in the utilization efficiency of land and water resources between China and Pakistan. Although the utilization efficiency of nature resources has been converging after the implementation of the B&R Initiative and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Project, the converging speed is not high enough. China should continue to promote the technology spillover to Pakistan and other B&R Initiative countries, help them overcome difficulties in raising low resources utilization efficiency, and increase the yield of rice to finally achieve the convergence of resource utilization efficiency. In global viewpoint, this not only ensures food security, but also saves natural resources, which is in line with the core goal of B&R Initiative: to make full use of comparative advantages in cooperating countries, to achieve free flow of factors and win-win cooperation, and finally build a community with a shared future, interests and responsibilities for mankind.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of China's overseas farmland investment projects in Southeast Asia
    HAN Jing, PAN Zi-chun, LU Xin-hai
    2021, 36 (6):  1521-1534.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210613
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2379KB) ( )   Save

    The paper uses the literature data, spatial analysis and grey correlation analysis to examine the spatial distribution and influencing factors of China's overseas farmland investment activities in Southeast Asia. The results show that: (1) China's overseas farmland investment projects are mostly distributed in the Indo-China Peninsula along the border of China. (2) The spatial distribution of China's overseas farmland investment intention projects and contract projects in this region is similar, while that of the production projects is different from the other two types of projects. (3) China's overseas farmland investment is affected by geo-economy, geo-culture, resource conditions, and geo-politics, and the degree of impact decreases in succession. Indicators such as the average annual total import and export value and the average annual stock of China's foreign direct investment have a significant impact on the choices of Chinese investment companies. Southeast Asia is an important area for China's overseas farmland investment, therefore strengthening economic and cultural exchanges with Southeast Asian countries will play an important role in promoting the smooth development of overseas farmland investment activities carried out by Chinese companies.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Quantitative assessment of the impact of China's soybean import tariff adjustment on global water and farmland
    LIU Hang, SHEN Ge, YANG Jing, WU Wen-bin, SUN Jing
    2021, 36 (6):  1535-1544.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210614
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1115KB) ( )   Save

    International food trade is an important factor affecting food security and environmental sustainability. Soybeans are an important food trade commodity, and the import amount of soybeans has been dramatically affected by the international situation. Since China has become the largest soybean importer, quantitative analysis of the impacts of soybean imports in China on global environment is of great significance, which helps us understand food security and global sustainability, and this is particularly true in the context of China-United States trade disputes. To obtain the soybean import volumes of China from its major suppliers (the United States, Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, and Canada), we first adopted the GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model and its database, and built four soybean tariff scenarios. Then, we calculated the amount of water and farmland used per ton of soybeans produced in each country, and studied the amount of total virtual water and virtual farmland produced in the four scenarios. The results show that the total imported soybeans and total virtual farmland remained stable, while the total virtual water varied considerably among four scenarios. The total soybean imports, virtual water, and virtual farmland from each supplier varied greatly, and the United States experienced the strongest decrease. Soybean produced in Brazil consumed the least water, while the United States consumed the least arable land. Soybean import of China could improve water and farmland resource efficiency, relieve environmental pressure, and enhance food security.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research on global grain trade network pattern and its influencing factors
    WANG Jie-yong, DAI Chun, ZHOU Mo-zhu, LIU Zheng-jia
    2021, 36 (6):  1545-1556.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210615
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2090KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the complex network analysis, this paper constructs the global grain trade network of wheat, rice and corn. The study analyzes the overall characteristics and changing trends of the network pattern, and quantitatively evaluates the influencing factors of the network pattern of global grain trade. The result shows that: Firstly, the global food trade network has become a complex, orderly and interdependent network system. The network scale is increasing, and the degree of connectivity and tightness are strengthening continuously. Secondly, the nodes of the global food trade network show the characteristics of disequilibrium structure. And countries with high strength and high node degree play a leading role in the network, showing the characteristics of network structure dominated by exporting countries. Thirdly, economic and social differences, consistency of trade policies, linguistic and cultural proximity have significant effects on food trade networks. Economic and social differences have driven trade networks to become more interconnected and diversified. Consistency in trade policy contributes to a more sustainable and robust trade network. Therefore, it is suggested that China implement a more diversified and multilateralized grain trade policy. China should strengthen and enhance its centrality among nodes of the global food network, fully integrate into the global food trade network, and promote the building of a global community of shared future for food security.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Dynamics of global pork trade networks during 2000-2019 and its implications for China: A complex network analysis
    LI Tian-xiang, LIU Xing-yu, WANG Rong-bo, ZHU Jing
    2021, 36 (6):  1557-1572.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210616
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3353KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the trade data from 2000 to 2019, this paper uses a complex network analysis method to evaluate the dynamics of global pork trade networks and to identify the characteristics of China's pork networks. Moreover, the issue of potential trade partners for China to expand its pork imports in the future has been discussed. The results show that, while the trade links between the countries involved in global pork trade are relatively "scattered" during the past two decades, the core players in the global pork trade networks are relatively fixed. China, as the No.1 pork importing country in the world, has been playing an increasingly important role in the global pork trade networks. As China's pork imports volume grows, North America, Western Europe and South America have been turning into China's main source of imports, and showing a "tripartite" source pattern. To expand its pork imports in the future, China could have a wide range of potential pork trading partners judging from the current global trade networks. On the one hand, China could deepen the trade relations with its traditional pork trade partners, i.e., Germany, Spain, the USA and Brazil. On the other hand, China could seek for new trade partners, for example, expanding pork imports from Italy and Belgium, as well as other neighboring countries such as Thailand and Vietnam.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Food Security Governance
    Analyses of supply-demand balance of agricultural products in China and its policy implication
    ZHANG Yong-xun, LI Xian-de
    2021, 36 (6):  1573-1587.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210617
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (950KB) ( )   Save

    Food security is crucial to China's stability, development and international trade order. In this study, provincial-level administrative regions were taken as the basic unit to calculate the soil and water resources demand that can ensure the food self-sufficiency of each province continuously and to evaluate the carrying capacity of water and soil resources in each province. This study calculated the agricultural products for eating and reproducing and unavoidable food loss, without considering the difference of farmland quality in different regions of China. The required data referred to the provincial permanent population, food consumption per capita, data on agricultural products per unit area, and arable land and water resources from statistical yearbooks of China from 2017 to 2019; the arable land and water consumption parameters were obtained from relevant literature. Using ecological footprint and water footprint method, this study results are as follows: The total arable land resource in China is 1.81 times as much as the total demand for arable land, which means that the current arable land resource can fully meet the food production demand of Chinese people. However, there are large differences between provinces. The arable land in provinces or municipalities with a developed economy in coastal China is insufficient. The total available water resources for agriculture are 7.15 times as much as the general agricultural water demand and 1.78 times as much as the agricultural water demand to keep environmental sustainability, respectively. Thus, the available water resources for agriculture can fully meet the agricultural products demand of Chinese people. But the water resource of the North China Plain and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, as the important regions producing agricultural products, is deficit; the provinces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and south of the Yangtze River have more available water resources. The spatial mismatch of water and soil resources restricts the crops production potential. If we do not consider the water demand for environmental pollution purification, the matching state of soil and water resources can meet the need of agricultural products nationwide; however, if we consider that, it is difficult to achieve self-sufficiency in agricultural products. There is a huge food deficit in food demand of 337155 thousand persons. Guided by the theory of sustainable development of resources and environment, China should take the following measures to ensure food security: (1) optimizing the distribution of agricultural production; (2) adjusting agricultural structure; (3) moving industries with highly consumed water and labor-intensity to the regions with rich water resources; (4) promoting technological progress, products import, and international cooperation in agriculture in the future.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Grain production transformation mechanism and the security effects in traditional farming areas: The perspective of rural spatial governance
    GE Da-zhuan, SUN Pan, ZHOU Gui-peng, LU Xiao-xue
    2021, 36 (6):  1588-1601.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210618
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2703KB) ( )   Save

    During the transformation period of China, the unreasonable use of rural space has become a major hidden threat to food security. Therefore, the comprehensive governance of rural space has become an important driving force to promote the orderly transformation of grain production. A systematic analysis of the transformation mechanism of grain production guided by rural spatial governance and its security effects is beneficial for the improvement of the theoretical analysis of food security. Taking the internal mechanism of the transformation of grain production guided by rural spatial governance as a breakthrough, this paper conducts an empirical study in combination with typical cases of traditional farming area, and discusses the interactive relationship between rural spatial governance and food security. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Unreasonable use of rural space is a factor that restricts the efficient operation of grain production. (2) Rural space "matter-ownership-organization" governance, through changing the software and hardware foundation needed for grain production, can achieve the purpose of optimizing the transformation of grain production, and promote the grain production towards a large-scale, high efficiency, green and fair transformation. (3) The spatial governance of Xiangbu village has significantly improved the conditions of grain production and effectively promoted the coordination and interaction between food security and rural transformation. (4) The modernization of rural spatial governance capacity is an important means to promote the modernization of the ability to ensure food security. The comprehensive governance of "matter-ownership-organization" in traditional agricultural areas can ensure food security during the transformation period, and is favourable to the implementation of the strategy of "storing food in land", which is of practical significance.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Models and optimal path of grain industrialization based on the perspective of network organization
    DENG Qing-qing, LI Er-ling
    2021, 36 (6):  1602-1615.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210619
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1255KB) ( )   Save

    In the context of deteriorating global food security as well as the large population and scarce land resources in China, it is of great significance to explore grain industrialization. From the perspective of network organization, this study analyzes the models and optimal path of grain industrialization in China. Results show that the development of grain industrialization is a networked growth process and presents different forms of network organization. This study identifies grain industrialization into four modes, namely, state-regulated multinational company organization mode, locally-driven leading enterprise driving mode, government-led social multi-subject participation mode and market-oriented private enterprise driving mode, based on the ability of different network subjects to control and participate in the network, combined with the financing form of industrialization process and the spatial scale of its foothold or service, which correspond to the global-regional-local network organizations between market organizations and hierarchical organizations in the form of industrial organizations such as multinational corporations, local leading enterprises, industrial complexes, industrial parks and industrial clusters. Furthermore, it is suggested that we should improve the network subjects, upgrade the network structure, optimize the network carriers and strengthen the network governance to guide the high-quality development of grain industrialization.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    China's food security situation and strategy under the background of opening-up
    CHEN Yang-fen, WANG Jie-yong
    2021, 36 (6):  1616-1630.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20210620
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1344KB) ( )   Save

    Geopolitical competition between China and the United States has been intensifying, and uncertain events such as COVID-19 and extreme weather and climate occur frequently. The national strategy, which relies on two types of resources and two markets to ensure national food security, is facing challenges. Based on statistical data and literature viewpoints, this paper focuses on the main problems facing China's food security in the context of opening-up and how to ensure China's food security. The results show that: (1) China has made remarkable achievements in improving domestic food security, but with huge economic and resource environmental costs of food supply, and the increasing risks of stable food supply and access. The government is exploring practical ways for the achievement of food security in the era of globalization. (2) Agricultural opening-up can affect food supply, access, utilization and stability. The current opening-up has promoted the country's food supply, but it has not yet achieved stable and competitive food security. Agricultural opening-up still has a broad foundation for mutual benefit and win-win effect, while it is also facing greater uncertainty, which tests China's ability to deal with the challenges of globalization in food sector. (3) National food security governance is very important to food security. This paper recommends that we should adopt a self-sufficiency strategy with production capacity highlighted, a food security strategy for the entire industry chain to enrich the content of food, and a higher level of agricultural opening-up strategy, which will help to achieve the goal of national food security.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics