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Table of Content

    28 November 2019, Volume 34 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources and Strategy
    Target setting of food self-sufficiency level in China: Literature review and policy enlightenment
    XIN Xiang-fei, WANG Ji-min
    2019, 34 (11):  2257-2269.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191101
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (605KB) ( )   Save
    Ensuring the supply of important agricultural products, particularly food, is one of the primary tasks of implementing the strategy of rural revitalization. Setting the goal of food self-sufficiency level is the foundation of food security evaluation and food policy formulation, and this directly affects the strategic direction and implementation path of a nation's food industry development. Based on the review of the existing literatures regarding the goal setting of food self-sufficiency in China, this paper summarizes the relevant concepts of China's food self-sufficiency rate, reviews the evolution of food self-sufficiency policy at the national level, and focuses on the systematic summary of the level, basis and significance of the goal setting of China's food self-sufficiency rate, as well as the causes and effects of its change in recent years. The study results show that the concept of "food" is closer to the essential meaning of food security than the concept of "grain". However, in existing studies, there is no clear or unified judgment regarding the level of self-sufficiency required for food security in China, nor regarding the level of self-sufficiency allowed by resource conditions. This study proposes that the current stage take the carrying capacity of resources and the environment as a hard constraint and stable maintenance of grain production as the red line; replace the former grain self-sufficiency rate target with the total grain self-sufficiency target; and compensate for the gap between domestic supply and demand, by making full use of foreign resources and international markets. Doing so will allow us to more effectively achieve a higher level of unity of domestic food production with ecological environmental protection and food security.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Recreation suitability evaluation of countryside forests in Shanghai and corresponding developing guidance
    ZHANG Kai-xuan, FAN Wen, SHI Jia-ying
    2019, 34 (11):  2270-2280.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191102
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    Recreation functions of city countryside forests are becoming more prominent due to rapid increasing needs of public outdoor recreation. It is significant to evaluate the suitability of countryside forests for promoting their recreation functions. In this study, by using the Delphi method, 10 indicators were chosen to make an evaluation system to assess the recreation suitability of countryside forests, which can be classified into three groups, including recreational resources, recreational facilities, and recreational locations of countryside forests. AHP method was applied to calculate the weight of indicators. By using GIS technology, 64 countryside forests of Shanghai in 2000, 2006 and 2012 were assessed in the recreation suitability. According to the results of evaluation, the recreation suitability was divided into four grades: highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable. The results indicated that the recreational suitability of countryside forests in Shanghai showed an increasing trend from 2000 to 2012, and lower suitability grades of countryside forests were transformed into higher suitability grades. Based on different grades of recreational suitability, guidance of countryside forest are proposed. It is suggested that development of highly suitable countryside forests should be given priority, and moderate suitable ones should be actively developed, marginally suitable ones should be reserved and developed.
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    Multi-functional evaluation of metropolitan suburbs and its spatial difference: A case study of 89 towns in Shanghai
    GU Xiao-kun, TAO Si-yuan, LU Fang-fang, ZHOU Xiao-ping
    2019, 34 (11):  2281-2290.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191103
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2717KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization as well as enhancement of geographic differentiation and diversity of man-earth areal system, functions and regional development orientations in metropolitan suburbs have shown an increasingly strong trend towards diversification. It is one of the keys to draw up the Rural Revitalization policy objectively to evaluate the multi-functional system and then sum up pattern of metropolitan suburbs. The multi-functional evaluation method of metropolitan suburbs was constructed. The multi-source spatial data, statistical data and survey data were used to evaluate the multi-functional values of the 89 towns in Shanghai. The results showed that: (1) There were significant differences in the development of multifunction among 89 towns in Shanghai. The order of mean values is listed as ecological environment function (0.7674) > economic development function (0.6054) > agricultural production function (0.5882) > life guarantee function (0.5238) > leisure culture function (0.2525). (2) The high value areas of the ecological environment were mainly distributed in Chongming Island, Western Qingpu and Southern Fengxian. The high value areas of agricultural production were mainly located in Southern Pudong, Fengxian, Jinshan, Southern Chongming and Qingpu. The high value areas of economic development was mainly located in the vicinity of central city. The low value areas of life security were mainly located in the towns close to the central city and the most remote towns. The high value area of leisure culture was mainly located in Songjiang, Qingpu and Jinshan, which are the most remote from the central city. (3) A total of 89 towns could be divided into 4 types: balanced, mixed, compound and dominant. Among the 8 subdivision patterns, only 10 towns like Pujiang town were multi-functional and presented a highly balanced development pattern, accounting for 11.24%. Thus, the final but main part of this paper envisions the innovative policies and practices in metropolitan suburbs including the diversified rural renewal, homestead regulation, and low efficiency industrial land reduction.
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    Spatial and temporal bias of tourists' perception ofenvironmental quality
    ZHANG Ye-chen, ZHANG Hong-mei, SONG Zi-bin, HONG Xue-ting
    2019, 34 (11):  2291-2304.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191104
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1656KB) ( )   Save
    Environmental quality assessment research is mostly based on objective and professional evaluation, and it is less common to measure the evaluation or perception of environmental quality by residents or tourists. Ordinary people's evaluation may affect their environmental behavior, and thus promote environmental protection. This study investigates the spatial and temporal bias of tourists' perceptions of environmental quality by the environmental quality perceptions of residents, destinations, national spatial scales and current and future time scales in Beijing, Shanghai and Hainan. Some valid questionnaires were collected in Beijing (293), Shanghai (281), and Hainan (296). Data were processed using two-way mixed analysis of variance, one-sample T test, and one-way ANOVA. The study found that: (1) The current environmental quality perception of the surveyed tourists is optimistic bias compared with the whole country, that is, "spatial optimism" (the F value of the two-way mixed variance analysis is 101.09, P value<0.001, f 2=0.20). Compared with the destination, it is pessimistic (P=0.005, difference=-0.079), which means that the environmental quality of the place of residence is not as good as that of the tourism destination. There is a clear optimistic tendency for the future environmental quality perception, that is, "temporal optimism" (the future environment quality of the place of residence, mean=0.51, P<0.001; destination future environmental quality, mean=0.55, P<0.001; national future environmental quality, mean=0.46, P<0.001). (2) Tourists in different provinces and cities have different perceptions of current environmental quality. Compared with objective environmental quality assessment (EQI value), tourists in 8 provinces such as Anhui are relatively optimistic, and tourists from 7 provinces and cities such as Beijing are relatively pessimistic. There are also differences in the degree of optimistic bias in the perception of the future environmental quality of tourists. Tourists in Hebei, Shanxi, Henan, and Shaanxi provinces are more optimistic about the future environmental quality, while those in Guangdong, Guangxi, Beijing and other provinces and cities are less optimistic.
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    Resource Economics
    Research on coupling degree and coupling path between China's carbon emission efficiency and industrial structure upgrade
    ZHOU Di, WANG Xue-qin
    2019, 34 (11):  2305-2316.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191105
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1404KB) ( )   Save
    The study of the coupling relationship and coupling path of carbon emission efficiency and industrial structure upgrade is of great practical significance to the green development of China in the new era and for the construction of a beautiful China. Firstly, the carbon emission efficiency is calculated by the super-efficient SBM model containing undesired output. Then, the coupling degree between the efficiency of regional carbon emission and the industrial structure upgrade is calculated and analyzed by the extended coupling model, and the provinces are divided into multiple layers according to their coupling degrees and coupling characteristics. Finally, the coupling path of the two factors is designed under the framework of dynamic distribution. The research found that: (1) There lies an obvious difference between the spatial and temporal pattern of carbon emission efficiency and high-grade industrial structure level. In terms of their coupling degrees, nearly half of the provinces are between 0.2 and 0.4, which can be considered as moderately and mildly imbalanced recession. Besides, according to the coupling characteristics, nearly half of the provinces belong to the coupling type of "low level coordination" with low development degree and high coordination degree. (2) There is an obvious inconsistency between carbon emission efficiency and the industrial structure upgrade in China from the aspect of reginal dynamic distribution. The former has a severer degree of cure than the latter. Therefore, China should improve the degree of coupling between regional carbon emission efficiency and industrial structure on the basis of mitigating the solidification of interregional carbon emission efficiency. (3) The paper designs the coupling path of carbon emission efficiency and the industrial structure upgrade in China on the basis of the coupling classification diagram, which can not only alleviate the dynamic incoordination of the two factors, but also effectively enhance their coupling degree among regions of China.
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    The effect of the stability of land transfer contract on the fertilization intensity and environmental efficiency of the farmer who tranfers in land
    LI Bo-wei
    2019, 34 (11):  2317-2332.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191106
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (774KB) ( )   Save
    The research purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of land transfer contract stability on fertilization intensity and environmental efficiency of the farmer who tranfers in land, and the theoretical analysis result is tested empirically by using survey data of 414 big grain farmers from Anhui province. The research methods are concluded of DEA-SBM model, Multiple Regression model and Tobit model. Main results are shown as follows. (1) The marginal effects of land tenancy on the fertilization intensity of wheat, rice and maize planted by big grain farmers are -0.5551, -0.4313 and -1.0832, respectively, and the results pass the statistical test at the significance level of 5%, 10% and 5%, respectively. The marginal effects of land rent on the fertilization intensity of wheat, rice and maize planted by big grain farmers are 0.0071, 0.0073 and 0.0235, respectively, and the results pass the T test at the significance level of 10%, 10% and 1%, respectively. (2) Average environmental efficiency of wheat, rice and maize cultivated by big grain farmers are 0.54, 0.58 and 0.59, respectively, which shows that there is a serious environmental efficiency loss. The results of Tobit model show that the regression coefficients of land tenancy on the environmental efficiency of wheat, rice and maize planted by big grain farmers are 0.0122, 0.0209 and 0.0139, respectively, and the results all pass the T test at 5% significance level; The regression coefficients of land rent on the environmental efficiency of wheat, rice and maize planted by big grain farmers are -0.0156, -0.038 and -0.0239, respectively. Moreover the results pass the T test at the significance level of 5%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Main conclusion of this paper is that improving land transfer contract stability can help reduce fertilization intensity of the farmer who transfers in land, which can further increase environmental efficiency of farmland scale management. Moreover, risk preference of farmer and land scale expanding can help to reduce the fertilization intensity and improve the environmental efficiency of the farmer who transfers in land, while, the asymmetric information of the fertilizer market is not conducive to reduce the fertilization intensity and improve the environmental efficiency of the farmer who transfers in land; farmers tend to increase fertilization intensity on fertile land, making the fertile land has a lower environmental efficiency.
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    Impact of different rural land consolidation modes on cultivated land production value and ecological value based on an empirical analysis of some farmers in Tianmen and Qianjiang
    XIE Jin-hua, YANG Gang-qiao, WANG Jian, XU Yu-guang
    2019, 34 (11):  2333-2347.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191107
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (716KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this research is to explore influencing mechanism of different rural land consolidation (RLC) projects on the cultivated land production value and ecological value based on the theories of cultivated land production value and ecological value and its evaluation method. Using the survey data of some farmers in the cities of Tianmen and Qianjiang of Hubei province, the DID model and OLS model are employed to conduct this research. The results show that: (1) The RLC projects have brought great promotion effect on the production value of cultivated land. Moreover, the promotion effect of the new agricultural management subject leading mode is better than that of the government leading mode. (2) Although there is no significant difference in the improvement effect on the ecological value of cultivated land between the two modes of rural land consolidation, the RLC projects have notable positive effect on the ecological value of cultivated land. (3) The improvement of cultivated land production value helps to increase the ecological value of cultivated land. In conclusion, it is suggested that we not only need to increase investment in the rural land comprehensive consolidation, but also should highlight ecological consolidation in the rural land comprehensive consolidation, and innovate the implementation mode of rural land consolidation.
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    Effect of rotation fallow on labor transfer: A case study in three provinces of Hebei, Gansu and Yunnan
    WANG Pan, YAN Jian-zhong, YANG Liu, WANG Jing-ying
    2019, 34 (11):  2348-2362.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191108
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1402KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years, the unreasonable use of cultivated land in China has caused a series of serious problems. Therefore, the state has put forward an important measure of "Exploring Pilot Program of Farmland Rotation and Fallow System ". Labor force is one of the main factors of agricultural production. Therefore, it is of strategic significance to further promote the national rotation fallow policy, modernization and urbanization to sum up the situation of farmer's rotation fallow land and labor force transfer and grasp the effect of fallow area on labor force transfer. Based on this, this paper uses the relevant survey data of 1542 households in six counties of Hebei, Gansu and Yunnan provinces to analyze the situation of farmer's rotation fallow land and labor transfer, and uses Tobit regression model to quantitatively analyze the impact of fallow area on labor transfer. The results show that: (1) There is a difference between the ratio of fallow households and fallow area per household in the study area, and the order of which is both Gansu > Yunnan > Hebei; (2) 62.97% of the households in the study area have the phenomenon of labor transfer, and the number of labor transfer of fallow households far exceeds that of non-fallow households; (3) The core variable, fallow area, has a significant positive impact on labor transfer; the control variable, the total household population, gender of householder, labor education level, medical expenditure, the distance from residence to highway and average wage per labor force have a significant positive impact on labor transfer, while the dependency ratio has a significant negative impact on labor transfer.
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    Spatial-temporal change and collaboration/trade-off relationship of "production-living-ecological" functions in county area of Jiangsu province
    LI Xin, FANG Bin, YIN Ru-meng, RONG Hui-fang
    2019, 34 (11):  2363-2377.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191109
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3780KB) ( )   Save
    This paper reveals the spatial-temporal correlation characteristics and coordination/trade-off relationship of the "production-living-ecological" functions in the county of Jiangsu province, which can provide theoretical support for the spatial planning of the county. Based on the theory of "production-living-ecological" spatial superior group and niche situation theory, this paper constructs the function recognition system of land space from three dimensions of production, life and ecology. The spatial autocorrelation and correlation coefficient method were used to quantitatively measure the time effect and coordination/trade-off relationship of the "production-living-ecological" function in Jiangsu province in 1996, 2005 and 2015. The results were obtained as follows: (1) The niche width of "production-living-ecological" functions in Jiangsu was varied, and its spatial distribution had its own characteristics. The specific manifestation was that the niche width of production function had a general increasing trend in the period 1996-2015, but the changing process had the stage characteristic, presenting a pattern of "high in the south high but low in the north", the south bank of the Yangtze River was in strips distribution, and the north bank was multi-aggregated. From 1996 to 2015, the niche breadth of life function was continuously compressed, and the space was attenuated by the concentric circle centered on the municipal area. In the same period, the ecological function niche width increased continuously, the ecological functional niche breadth in space has high value near the mountain and water. (2) From 1996 to 2015, the three functions of production, life and ecology in this province had positive correlation type (HH, LL) clustering obviously, presenting a "group" type distribution with the change of time. On the contrary, negative correlation type (HL, LH) with low agglomeration, showing a "discrete" distribution. (3) Production and life function had spatial synergistic relationship, and production and ecological functions showed a coordination/trade-off fluctuations. The changing trend of life function and ecological function was similar to the production and ecological function with more obvious change, and the coordination/trade-off relationship in different years had obvious differences in different units. Studies have shown that all of the above characteristics were in good agreement with regional economic and social development. In the future, we should gradually change the phenomenon of production function expansion and compression of life and ecological functions, so as to protect the ecological environment and to improve the quality of life oriented coordinated and optimized development path.
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    Resource Ecology
    Dynamic monitoring and early warning of resources and environment carrying capacity in Gansu, China
    CHEN Xiao-yu-jing, WU Yan-hong, XIA Jian-xin
    2019, 34 (11):  2378-2388.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191110
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3545KB) ( )   Save
    The monitoring and early warning index system of RECC in Gansu province was constructed by comprehensively considering the policies issued by different departments of the state. The weights were determined by the comprehensive weighting method based on AHP-entropy weight method, and the warning threshold of each index was discussed and determined by referring to the existing achievements. On the basis of the above methods, the comprehensive index model was used to analyze the carrying capacity of resources and environment in Gansu province and the county administrative units from 2006 to 2016. The results show that: (1) The level of resources and environment carrying capacity of Gansu province in 2006-2016 was between 0.32-0.46, which was in the state of overload warning despite of the overall increasing trend. Spatially, the bearing capacity of Hexi region was high, followed by the southern and southeastern regions, while the central region showed a poor carrying capacity. Moreover, the carrying capacity of resources and environment in ethnic minority areas was lower than that in the core towns; (2) From 2006 to 2016, the resources carrying capacity of Gansu increased steadily, in which the carrying capacity of water resources and energy mines is at a relatively poor level. The carrying capacity in Linxia and Tianshui was in an orange overload state; (3) The level of environment carrying capacity in Gansu fluctuated greatly from 2006 to 2016, showing a "W"-shaped curve, and the environment carrying capacity was seriously overloaded. Spatially, the southern region and Lanzhou had better environment carrying capacity, while the carrying capacity in Hexi and eastern region was lower. The results show the serious resources and environment overload in Gansu province. Although great progress has been made in the ecological civilization construction since the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015), it is still long-term task to ease the pressure and make continuous efforts.
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    Ecological carrying capacity monitoring and security pattern construction in arid areas of Northwest China
    ZHANG Xue-yuan, WEI Wei, XIE Bin-bin, GUO Ze-cheng, ZHOU Jun-ju
    2019, 34 (11):  2389-2402.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191111
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3954KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, ecological function elasticity, resource supply and environmental capacity, social and economic pressure rule of three layers are used to set up a comprehensive evaluation system of ecological carrying capacity. On this basis, the spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) is used in the arid areas of Northwest China covering 2000, 2007, 2012 and 2016 to examine spatial and temporal variations so as to monitor the ecological carrying capacity evaluation, and construct ecological security pattern. The results show that the ecological carrying capacity of the study area is mainly weak bearing, and the area of the weak bearing area is decreasing, while the area of the strong bearing area is increasing. In terms of spatial distribution, the ecological carrying capacity of Hexi region, Northern Xinjiang and Western Inner Mongolia is on the rise, while that of Southern Xinjiang is in the decline. The MCR model was used to extract 51 road-type corridors, river-type corridors and green corridors, with a total length of 7285.43 km, and 71 nodes in important patch area, river wet area and ecological fragile area were extracted. According to the calculation results, the arid areas of Northwest China are divided into 16 ecological security patterns, and the existing security patterns are optimized according to the changes of ecological carrying capacity.
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    Threshold effect analysis of the change of forest vegetation coverage in red soil region under different recovery modes
    ZHANG Jun-ze, CHEN Xi-yun, YUE Hui, FENG Chong
    2019, 34 (11):  2403-2414.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191112
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    The threshold effect of the change of canopy and shrub & grass cover during vegetation restoration often determines the success or failure of ecological restoration. If this effect is ignored, other ecological problems may arise. In order to further promote the restoration of forest ecosystems in China and fill in the relevant research gaps, we study the dynamic characteristics of vegetation coverage of tree layer and shrub & grass layer under natural and artificial restoration patterns in typical red soil regions. Based on the advanced ecological threshold assessment framework, we evaluated the threshold effects between the two coverage indicators for different recovery modes through the linear model and three threshold models (including piecewise regression models, step function models, and general models). The results show that, according to the form of posterior distribution of the ecological threshold, there is a threshold effect between the canopy cover and shrub & grass cover under artificial restoration, but it does not exist in the natural recovery mode. Compared with the accuracy of the evaluation results of each model, the results of the hockey stick (HS) model are more accurate. Using the HS model, the threshold of canopy cover in the current artificial restoration plot is 42.85% (95% confidence interval is 41.57%-44.13%), and the shrub & grass cover is 58.75%. If the threshold is crossed, the coverage of the shrub & grass will begin to decrease. Our results can provide an important scientific basis for the structural improvement of plantation ecosystem in red soil region of China.
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    Effects of biodiversity, dominant species and soil factors on community productivity in Lishan Mountain meadow, Shanxi province
    ZHAO Feng-xia, ZHANG Rui, XU Ming, ZHENG Yun-pu
    2019, 34 (11):  2415-2426.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191113
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    The productivity of natural ecosystem is closely related to many factors, such as biodiversity, functional traits of dominant species and soil property, thus is controlled by multi-variable process. In this paper, the effects of species diversity, functional diversity, functional traits of dominant species and soil factors on community productivity of Lishan Mountain meadow in Shanxi province were studied by using structural equation model. The results showed that species diversity had no effect on productivity (γ=0.10, P=0.69), but the functional traits of dominant species (γ=0.61, P=0.00), functional diversity (γ=0.47, P=0.04) and soil factors (γ=0.34, P=0.02) had a direct impact on productivity, and soil factors had an indirect effect on productivity by the functional traits of the dominant species and functional diversity, with the indirect effect coefficients being 0.35 and 0.27, respectively. The functional traits of dominant species were the best predictors of productivity, followed by functional diversity and soil factors. Therefore, understanding the change of natural ecosystem productivity should be based on the introduction of multiple methods, with emphasis on the functional traits of dominant species.
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    Resource Utilization and Management
    Effects of different level roads on land use and landscape pattern of Manas River Basin
    YU Tao, BAO An-ming, LIU Tie, GUO Hao, ZHENG Guo-xiong, CHEN Tao
    2019, 34 (11):  2427-2439.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191114
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    In order to reveal the processes and mechanisms of roads on land use and landscape pattern changes in arid and semi-arid regions, this paper selects the Manas River Basin as the study area, and selects different level roads in this basin in 1976 as the research object. Based on land use classification data covering 1976 and 2015, the method of buffer analysis, combined with land use dynamics, land use comprehensive indexes and landscape indexes, was used to examine the changes of land use and landscape pattern on the road buffer and buffer gradient of all levels in the past 40 years. The results show that the roads of the Manas River Basin have a significant impact on the land use change in recent 40 years and there is a gradient effect: the farther away from the road, the smaller the disturbance of the roads of all levels; the degree of impact of various grades of roads on the overall land use change show that: highway and national roads > provincial roads and special roads > county roads and township roads. In addition, highways and national roads, provincial roads and special roads, county roads and township roads have the greatest impact on the change of forest land, water area and construction land in the buffer zone. The landscape pattern analysis shows that the landscape fragmentation and heterogeneity have increased in different buffer zones of all levels in the past 40 years, but the landscape spread has decreased; the most intense range of the highways and national roads, provincial roads and special roads, county roads and township roads is 3600 meters, 600 meters and 300 meters, respectively, and the farther away from the road, the more the landscape shape is interfered by the road, and the shape of the landscape is more and more regular. This study could provide a reference for the planning of road networks in arid and semi-arid areas and the reasonable development and allocation of land resources.
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    Spatiotemporal variation of precipitation in China and its impact on surface dry-wet conditions during 1961-2010
    CHEN Jie, LIU Yu-jie, PAN Tao, WU Shao-hong, TAN Qing-hua, GE Quan-sheng, LIU Yan-hua
    2019, 34 (11):  2440-2453.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191115
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    Studying the spatiotemporal variation of precipitation in China under the backgr-ound of climate change and its impact on surface dry-wet conditions is of great significance in revealing the dynamic responses and changes of land surface systems to climate change and disaster prevention and mitigation. Based on measured meteorological data from 1961 to 2010, the spatiotemporal variations of precipitation and surface dry-wet conditions were analyzed. Furthermore, sensitivity and contribution analysis were used to quantify the impact of precipitation on dry-wet conditions. Results showed that the annual precipitation in national scale showed a slight increasing trend over the past 50 years, but the variations of annual precipitation in different temperature zones were significant, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Plateau sub-cold zone and Plateau temperate zone), the northwestern (the west of both Medium temperate zone and Warm temperate zone) and southern regions of China (Subtropical zone and Tropical zone) showed an increasing trend, while the northeastern (Cold temperate zone and the east of Medium temperate zone) and northern regions of China (middle and east of Medium temperate zone and east of Warm temperate zone) showed a decreasing trend. In terms of dry-wet conditions, it varied greatly in different regions, the northern and northeastern regions of China got dried while the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the northwestern and the southern regions got wet. The dry-wet conditions were sensitive to the change of precipitation (mean annual sensitivity coefficient: -1.13). The dry-wet index was negatively correlated with precipitation. In the inland arid regions, precipitation contributed more to the change of dry and wet conditions than that in humid regions, and some of the regions exceeded 60%.
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    Influence of ENSO events on the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of Pearl River
    GUO Zheng-sheng, ZHENG Guo-zhang, CAO Fu-Qiang, ZHAO Pei, XIAO Jie
    2019, 34 (11):  2454-2468.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191116
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    The characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation are influenced by moisture transport path, rainfall amount, temperature, humidity, elevation and so on. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the strongest signals of Global Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere and an important factor influncing the inter-annual climate change. The variation of moisture sources and the ENSO events prominently affect the processes of hydrological cycle and characteristics of precipitation isotope in the East Asian monsoon region. Based on the isotopic values of precipitation and Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) data from four stations of GNIP (Hong Kong, Guangzhou, Guilin, Liuzhou) in the middle and lower reaches of the Pearl River, the spatial distribution and temporal characteristics of δ18O in precipitation were studied under the background of ENSO. The results show that the ENSO event was the main factor which affected the inter-annual variation of stable isotopes in precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Pearl River by impacting the annual distribution of precipitation especially in the rainy season. The slope and intercept of the Meteoric Water Line in normal year were larger than those in El Nino year and smaller than those in La Niña year. La Niña year highlighted the strong characteristics of marine climate. The δ18O in precipitation showed anti-temperature effect. This phenomenon was strengthened in La Niña year and weakened in El Niño year. The position of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in moisture sources, intensity of convective activity and the process of air mass migration largely determined the characteristics of stable isotopes. The scope and strength of ITCZ in La Niña and El Niño years showed the opposite trend. The variation of OLR field had a strong correspondence with the stable isotope characteristics in the study region. There was a significant negative correlation between d-excess and the intensity of ENSO events. The relative humidity characteristic of moisture sources in different ENSO events was the main factor causing the inter-annual difference of the d-excess. This research, focusing on the effect of ENSO events on the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic characteristics of precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Pearl River, was helpful to understand the moisture sources and the changes of precipitation process in China's monsoon region, and to further promote the research on the mechanism of water circulation in monsoon region.
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    Farmer cognition on water-saving irrigation technology analysis in groundwater overmining area of North China: A case study of Guyuan county, Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province
    LUO Wen-zhe, JIANG Yan-ling, WANG Xiu-feng, LIU Hua-xian, CHEN Yuan-sheng
    2019, 34 (11):  2469-2480.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191117
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    At present, North China faces serious groundwater overmining problem. In the action plan of comprehensive control of groundwater overmining in North China, it is clearly proposed to strengthen agricultural water saving, and adjust the structure of agricultural planting. Farmers' cognition of water saving irrigation technology is closely related to water saving effect. This paper takes the survey of 269 farmers in Guyuan county, Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province as a sample, uses structural equation model to explore intrinsic mechanism of farmers' cognition of water saving irrigation technology. Results show that, the path of personal characteristics of farmers, characteristics of household production, characteristics of policy advocacy, farmer cognition of water resources scarcity are 0.186, 0.157, 0.469 and 0.200. respectively. It is indicated that water saving irrigation technology subsidy, technical training and visiting high efficiency water saving demonstration area are effective in improving farmers' cognition of water saving irrigation technology. Therefore, on the basis of reliance on government technical financial support, we should find out the farmers' cognition differences in water saving irrigation techniques, and perfect the publicity system of water saving irrigation technology so as to enhance farmers' enthusiasm to use water saving irrigation technology in North China.
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    The impacts of input data on different simulated results in hydrological modelling
    LIU Jiao, LIU Xiao-hui, LIU Tie, QIAN Bo
    2019, 34 (11):  2481-2490.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191118
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    The high nonlinear relationships among the factors in hydrological processes make it difficult to study the effects of input data on the simulated results. Based on the observed and remote sensing precipitation, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET), eight MIKE SHE models of the Yarkant River Basin were set up. On the premise of statistical hypothesis testing implemented by Analysis of Variables model (ANOVA), different significant effects of input data on simulated outputs were specified. Furthermore, with the snow simulation as a case, the manifestations of input data's impacts were analyzed. Results shows that: compared with model forcing by interpolated station data, the spatial deviations of snow storage were more obvious in the TRMM driving model. In the LST driving model, there was a larger snow coverage in the low-middle mountain region and a lower one in the high mountain region. However, little deviations were found between models forcing by observed and remote sensing PET. Also, the uncertainty of input data concealed in insensitive components can be clarified based on ANOVA's hypotheses testing.
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