Table of Content

    28 October 2019, Volume 34 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Innovation in Territorial Spatial Planning under the Context of Smart Society
    ZHEN Feng, QIN Xiao
    2019, 34 (10):  2037-2039.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191001
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    Theory and Concept
    The change and reconstruction of spatial planning system under the goal of modern national governance
    ZHANG Jing-xiang, XIA Tian-ci
    2019, 34 (10):  2040-2050.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191002
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    From the perspective of intergovernmental relations and government-market relations, this paper, based on the governance theory, analyzes the development process and overall trend of both Western developed countries' and China's spatial planning system under the influence of national governance changes. While spatial planning has become an important institutional reform and reconstruction system for China's ecological civilization construction, this paper hold the opinion that, under the goal of modern national governance, the reconstruction of the future spatial planning system should pay more attention to the following three questions: (1) The multi-attribute nature of "land space" should be fully understood, while the overall balance of spatial planning for multiple objectives should be emphasized; (2) A spatial planning system that corresponds to government affairs should be established; (3) Planning researches and non-statutory planning should be integrated into the spatial planning system to enhance the scientific nature of spatial planning.

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    Geogovernance of national land use based on coupled human and natural systems
    CAO Xiao-shu
    2019, 34 (10):  2051-2059.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191003
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    The geosystem mainly studies the interaction mechanism between human and natural system on the surface of the earth, emphasizing the integration of human-land use relationship, natural and human factors, namely the human-land use coupling systems. Applications of the geosystem in the land space is mainly composed of geodecisions-making, geosimulation and geoengineering, and the interactions among these constitute geogovernance. Land space is the material carrier of the common practice of nature and human, the extent to which human shaped by nature is no less than that of opposite transformation, therefore, geosystem theory with the core of Coupled Human and Natural Systems has become the theoretical basis of land spatial planning and renovation. Based on the coupled human and natural systems, the remodeling of land space is ultimately reflected in various activities of human acting on the natural environment with the form of geogovernance. With the development of reform and opening-up for 40 years, Chinese land space has been basically in a relatively stable pattern and mainly consists of economic zones, poor areas and small towns, which is different from that of developed countries. We are in a state of "three-dimension-transformation coupling", i.e. urbanization, townization and ruralization. Thus, we must attach importance to the studies of strategic areas based on the Belt and Road Initiative, such as the Pan-Third Pole, the South China Sea Rim, and the Northeast Asia-Arctic. According to the theory of Coupled Human and Natural Systems and the value equilibrium of land space, the basic scientific problem of land space remodeling is the evolution and driving mechanisms of Coupled Human and Natural Systems. Land spatial planning can be divided into three types: Development planning, controlling planning and restoration planning. The protection and management of land space includes the whole area renovation with the core of land use, the systematic restoration with the core of ecological civilization, and the comprehensive management with the core of social harmony. The development goal of human activity system is to establish a community of shared future for mankind, correspondingly, that of the natural system is to establish a sustainable system, so the ultimate development goal of Coupled Human and Natural Systems is to form a community of shared destiny with the interaction between human and nature.

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    From informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment: Exploring the ideas of smart territorial spatial planning
    ZHEN Feng, ZHANG Shan-qi, QIN Xiao, XI Guang-liang
    2019, 34 (10):  2060-2072.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191004
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    The Communist Party of China's 19th National Congress Report has clearly set the goal of "smart society" and put forward new requirements for the current development of territorial spatial planning. Nowadays, the empowerment of information technology based on the Internet, big data, cloud computing, etc. is the main driving force and development focus of the current practices of smart territorial spatial planning. How to understand and promote the development of smart society is the foundation of the compilation and implementation of smart territorial spatial planning. This paper emphasizes the importance of human-land relationship and the theory of urban life organism to the planning and governance of territory in a smart society. It points out that the overall conceptualization of smart territorial spatial planning should be transformed from informational empowerment to comprehensive empowerment, which includes technological empowerment and innovative empowerment. The paper constructs a smart territorial spatial planning framework-EPTI-based on the ideas of ecological civilization, people-oriented, technology integration application and institutional innovation, and discusses the paths toward smart compilation and implementation of territorial spatial planning.

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    Carrying capacity reconsidered in spatial planning: Concepts, methods and applications
    HAO Qing, DENG Ling, FENG Zhi-ming
    2019, 34 (10):  2073-2086.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191005
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    Resource and environment carrying capacity is the scientific basis and developing constraints of spatial planning. This paper combs the development of the concept, theory and practical application of carrying capacity, and points out the existing problems in research and application, such as concept's obscurity boundary, evaluation biased index calculation, and insufficient research on carrying capacity transmission mechanism. The reform of the spatial planning system and the changes in production modes, lifestyles and development modes in the new era have put forward new demands on spatial planning. It is necessary to explore and innovate the carrying capacity evaluation which is supporting the spatial planning: (1) Further clarify the conceptual connotation of carrying capacity and form a concept set; (2) Study the internal mechanism of carrying capacity and clarify the formation mechanism of carrying capacity; (3) Construct a multi-space scale, multi-evaluation unit's carrying capacity evaluation system to meet the needs of multi-level spatial planning. In practice, it should provide a scientific basis for determining the main indicators and main tasks of spatial planning according to spatial planning and spatial governance changes, supporting new goals of spatial planning, adapting to new modes of spatial governance, and taking new approaches to spatial governance.

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    The model of population urbanization in urban land spatial planning based on multi-source data fusion: A case study of Yangzhou city
    ZHU Jie
    2019, 34 (10):  2087-2102.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191006
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    Nowadays, with the increasingly coordinated development of regions, the study of population urbanization also urgently needs to be carried out from a broad regional perspective. Focusing on the three core issues of new urbanization, mamely, people, land, and property, the social, spatial, and economic attributes on population mobility are derived. Based on a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used data methods in urbanization analysis, this paper constructs a new conceptual model for population urbanization in different scales with multi-source data. Using the census and survey data, mobile phone data, and enterprise registration data, the conceptual model is applied to an empirical study of urban dense areas-Yangzhou city and shows strong applicability, based on migration flow analysis, location identification, and enterprise headquarters-branch network analysis methods. The results show that: (1) At the regional level, due to the factors such as the threshold of settlement, family rights, and social security, population mobility is more cautious than capital flows. And it is compliant with the administrative district economy and urban hierarchy system. (2) At the municipal level, because the central city has greater advantages than the villages and towns, in terms of public service facilities and income levels, the urbanization form is mainly manifested in the direct connection between urban and rural areas, while the radiating and absorbing effects of key towns for population and enterprises are not strong. (3) In the era of ecological civilization, places with beautiful scenery, profound history, and rich cultural heritage are the natural soil for new economy. And the new economy has become a powerful engine for new urbanization in the late-developing areas. Yangzhou has a pleasant ecological environment and profound cultural atmosphere, which is the natural advantage and foundation of developing new types of economy. It needs to develop industrial platform, innovative environment, and innovation system to jointly create a comprehensive advantage of new economic development. Empirical research shows that the conceptual model has good applicability. It can identify the main pattern of economic and social linkages scientifically, reveal the intensive communicating area in town cluster region, and play a supporting role in delimiting urban development boundaries and optimizing the spatial pattern of land. Therefore, this model has a strong reference value for the study of regional coordination of territorial spatial plan at city and county level.

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    Methodology and Technology
    Evaluation model of regional resource and environment comprehensive carrying capacity based on the conjugation-wrestling mechanism
    HUANG Xian-jin, SONG Ya-ya
    2019, 34 (10):  2103-2112.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191007
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    The resource and environment carrying capacity is the basis for strategy decision-making of regional development, especially the optimization of spatial development strategy. In recent years, it has played a pivotal role in guiding regional sustainable development, land planning, urbanization, post-disaster reconstruction planning, and industrial planning. At the same time, clarifying the interaction mechanism between regional resource-environment and production-living factors is the basis of the evaluation of resource and environment carrying capacity. Based on PSR model, this paper presents the conjugation-wrestling theoretical mechanism of resources-environment and production-living, which divides the carrying capacity into four pairs of interaction forces, i.e., support-sensitive point, recovery-fragile point, destruction-critical point and development-equilibrium point. Then it presents DENS model including four dimensions, namely development, environment and disaster, natural resource and ecology, and social welfare.

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    An analysis framework for identifying and optimizing ecological-production-living space based on resident behavior
    LIU Chun-fang, WANG Yi-xuan, HE Rui-dong, WANG Chen
    2019, 34 (10):  2113-2122.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191008
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    Ecological-production-living space (EPLS) is not only the basic carrier of human economic and social activities, but also the spatial reflection of human spiritual and cultural needs. Identifying the scope, understanding residents' demand, adjusting the supply and coordinating the functions of EPLS, are the core of the content of the territorial space planning, as well as the important premise of realizing the modernization of governance capacity and high-quality development in the new era. Based on the requirement of compiling the current territorial spatial planning, and the theoretical methods of behavioral science and behavioral geography, this paper explores the theoretical relationship between ecological-production-living behavior and ecological-production-living space. According to the principle of "demand analysis and spatial identification-problem diagnosis and goal determination-mechanism and coupling relationship-spatial optimization and policy suggestions", an optimization analysis framework of EPLS based on residents' behavior is constructed. This study combines residents' behavior research with space supply and demand, and provides a theoretical framework and new ideas of "humanization" for land and space planning.

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    Research on the spatial planning method of metropolitan area under the logical transition of planning
    XU Hai-xian, SUN Zhong-ya, HOU Bing-jie, WEI Sheng
    2019, 34 (10):  2123-2133.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191009
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    At present, China is promoting the modernization of territorial space governance, and the territorial space planning system is also being reconstructed. As a response, the spatial planning of metropolitan area is facing the transformation of political logic oriented by ecological civilization and development logic constrained by resources and environment. Based on the transformation of planning logics, the paper clarifies that the spatial planning of metropolitan area is a special planning with the focus on coordinated development of space as the core in the system of territorial space planning, and puts forward the technical framework of the spatial planning of metropolitan area from the two perspectives, namely, corresponding demand objectives and coordination of local conditions. Based on the above new requirements, the paper considers that the planning should focus on the formulation of conduction and coordination-oriented index system, the optimal allocation and regulation of liquidity factor resources, the planning of spatial pattern of coordinated control and utilization, and the spatial cooperation of cross-border groups. In view of the lack of a unified implementation subject, this paper puts forward the organizational mode of spatial planning compilation in different types of metropolitan areas. Regional cooperation mechanism, dynamic monitoring of the plan, and co-construction of information platform for management, are also proposed. Through the systematic discussion on the spatial planning of metropolitan area, this paper will provide theoretical basis and methodological guidance for the compilation of the forthcoming spatial planning and the modernization of the spatial governance of metropolitan area.

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    Discussion on the application framework of big data in territorial spatial planning
    QIN Xiao, ZHEN Feng, LI Ya-qi, CHEN Hao
    2019, 34 (10):  2134-2149.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191010
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    In the new era, the core goal of territorial spatial planning is to meet the people's needs for a better life and also to protect natural resources. As a new type of planning, the method of territorial spatial planning is generally lacking. Based on the endowment of natural resources, scholars use data based on statistics and surveys, as well as methods of statistical analysis, spatial analysis and deduction to evaluate the carrying capacity and suitability of land space at the national and provincial levels, and make a static delimitation of the ecological red line, prime farmland protection line and urban development boundary. However, the existing studies rarely consider the dynamic impact of human activities on the use of land space, and lack the scientific arrangement of ecological space, agricultural space and urban space under the new development trend. This paper introduces the big data which can directly reflect the temporal and spatial changes of human activities. It mainly discusses the direction and specific methodological framework of the application of big data from the four parts of territorial spatial suitability evaluation, ecological spatial planning, agricultural spatial planning and urban spatial planning. Meanwhile, it emphasizes the scientific path of territorial spatial planning compilation under the interaction of "natural space" and "social and economic activities".

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    Compilation and Practice
    Establishment and application of one map of current situation of territorial spatial planning according to the foundations of natural resources: Taking Qingdao city as an example
    HAN Qing, SUN Zhong-yuan, SUN Cheng-miao, LI Dan, LIU Yi-ping
    2019, 34 (10):  2150-2162.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191011
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    The construction of the territorial spatial planning system has been fully carried out. The clear and detailed status map and data are an important basis for understanding the natural resources, and also an important support for the preparation of territorial spatial planning. However, the current land classification standards, data accuracy and application targets of the current territorial spatial data are not uniform. Based on remote sensing images, geographic conditions and Internet POI data, this paper studies one map of land and space status, synthesizes existing land classification standards and data accuracy, and constructs one map of territorial spatial planning status of Qingdao city. On this basis, the application direction of one map of territorial spatial planning is discussed, including the preliminary delimitation of "Production-Living-Ecological Space" in Qingdao city. The suitability of urban construction, the importance of ecological service function and the suitability of agricultural production were analyzed. The construction of one map of the status of territorial spatial planning plays an important role in defining the resource utilization cap and the environmental quality bottom line, standardizing the territorial spatial planning data, and supporting the preparation and management of territorial spatial planning.

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    Classification, scope and the impact of human activities of ecological space in Tibet Autonomous Region
    WEI Zi-qian, XU Zeng-rang, MAO Shi-ping
    2019, 34 (10):  2163-2174.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191012
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    The delimitation of ecological space is an important basis for the scientific management of territorial space and the maintenance of regional ecological security. Since the beginning of the 21st century, China has undergone an unprecedented rapid urbanization process, and the territorial spatial pattern has changed dramatically. However, during this period, a series of disorderly processes of territorial spatial development have resulted in the squeezing of ecological space and many severe regional ecological problems, such as land desertification, biodiversity reduction, ecosystem degradation, which restricts the realization of the goal of sustainable development. The definition of ecological space is mainly put forward by domestic scholars in recent years, and the corresponding concepts in other countries are ecoregion, ecological land space, and green space etc., and the classification system of ecological space is also not unified. Taking the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) as an example, we explored the classification system, spatial distribution, attribution of the patches, and human activities intensity of ecological space on provincial scale in the study. The results are as follows. (1) The classification system of ecological space can be composed by 3 hierarchal systems. According to various ecosystems and dominant functions, there are 4 land categories in the primary-class system, 13 sub-categories of land in the second-class system and 29 sub-categories of land in the third-class system. And according to the ecological governance intensity from the strictest regulation to the relatively relaxed regulation, ecological space can be divided into I-level, II-level and III-level areas. (2) Guided by the current spatial planning and governance system, the link between the classification system of ecological space and the existing land classification system such as the land cover and land use classification, ecosystem type was built; the spatial distribution of ecological space, and the attribution of the patches within the space was identified. Besides, the key ecosystem services functional area and the main ecological frangible area were also identified and included into the ecological space. The existing land classification system, the ecosystem services functional area and frangible ecosystem, and the various space can be integrated in GIS environment. The total ecological space of TAR is about 1054500 km2, accounting for 87.7% of the total area. (3) Finally, human activities within the ecological space in Tibet were simulated in order to control the human activities intensity of ecological space and to maintain the ecological security.

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    Shenyang's practice and optimizing exploration of "Three Control Lines" in territorial spatial planning
    ZHANG Nian-guo, WANG Na, YIN Jian
    2019, 34 (10):  2175-2185.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191013
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    Before the institutional reform of the State Council, the "Three Control Lines" of ecological protection red line, permanent basic farmland and urban development boundary were delineated by different ministries, which resulted in insufficient coordination and overlapping results, and difficulties in implementing management. After the institutional reform of the State Council, the Ministry of Natural Resources is responsible for establishing a spatial planning system. It requires that the three control lines be delineated from top to bottom on the basis of the evaluation of the urban capacity of resources and environment and the suitability of territorial spatial development. This paper summarizes the manifestations and causes of contradictions and conflicts in the delimitation of the three control lines in Shenyang as a pilot city, constructs relationships between the three control lines and the three spaces of ecology, agriculture and cities, establishes the management system and adjustment rules, and explains the adjustment and optimization practices within the scope of the city. The study found that it is difficult to distinguish the functions of the three control lines overlapped in space, mainly because permanent basic farmland undertakes the mission of restricting urban spatial spread, and the index can not be adjusted across administrative regions, which results in some permanent basic farmland having to be arranged in cities; different definitions leading to some urban parks are classified as ecological protection redline; some cultivated land in ecological protection redline was previously classified as permanent basic farmland. The paper puts forward the optimization proposals of three control lines under the background of territorial spatial planning: First, we highlight the characteristics of both the policy line and the technical line, and delimit them from top down and bottom up; second, the country needs to carry on the innovation to the basic farmland adjustment policy and system; third, we will establish a hierarchical management mechanism to properly reserve the flexibility of local administrative power.

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    Research on smart technology-assisted territorial spatial planning: A case study at city and county level
    KONG Yu, ZHEN Feng, LI Zhao-zhong, FU Xing-xing
    2019, 34 (10):  2186-2199.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191014
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    The emergence and development of the e-society affect the relationship between man and land. Smart technology, as one of the main driving forces and an important support for the rise of the e-society, is changing the mode of protection, development and governance of territorial space. It also puts forward new requirements for the compilation method of territorial spatial planning. At present, the application of smart technology in territorial spatial planning has been explored, and there are many practices at the technical level, but there is a lack of holistic thinking on the application of smart technology in territorial spatial planning. Based on the core concept of "ecological civilization" and "people-oriented", and on the basis of combing the traditional planning and the current application of smart technology, this paper systematically constructs a framework of the whole process of smart technology-assisted territorial spatial planning from four aspects: smart perception and collection, smart analysis and processing, smart evaluation and smart decision-making, so as to adapt to the current territorial spatial planning. To meet the new requirements, it is more reasonable, scientific and wise to assist in territorial spatial planning.

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    Governance and Policy
    Thoughts on unifying the regulation of territorial space use
    LIN Jian, WU Ting, ZHANG Ye-xiao, ZHAO Ye
    2019, 34 (10):  2200-2208.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191015
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    In recent years, the unification of territorial space use regulations has been upgraded to an unprecedented level of national strategic deployment, which is an extremely important reform task with overall significance. Based on the systematical review on the institutional evolution of territorial space use regulation since 1949, this paper puts an emphasis on summarizing the major features of previous territorial space use regulations in China. In general, we conclude that the key to implement territorial space use regulations is to control the three important aspects which consist of planning, licensing and supervision, to coordinate the utilization of continental space and ocean space and to discriminate the management of construction and non-construction purposes. On the premise of system construction, we propose four suggestions to institution on how to unify the territorial space use regulations: (1) Establishing a unified control line system for territorial space use regulations at the planning level; (2) Building an abundant and effective measure system for territorial space use regulations; (3) Constructing a unified and explicit regulatory system for territorial space use regulations at the supervision level; (4) Improving the legal system to help territorial space use governance at the support level.

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    The concept, assessment and control zoning theory and method of waterfront resources: Taking the resources along the Yangtze River as an example
    DUAN Xue-jun, ZOU Hui, CHEN Wei-xiao, MIN Min
    2019, 34 (10):  2209-2222.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191016
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    As an important part of national spaces and resources, the waterfront resource due to its special location at land-water interface is gradually drawing the attention form the society. Because of the importance of Yangtze golden waterway, the waterfront resources along the Yangtze River has the great economic value, and its ecological value is becoming more and more prominent with the implementation of the Yangtze River conservation strategy. Starting from the concept and characteristic of waterfront resources, this paper builds the theoretical framework and indicator system which could evaluate the value of waterfront resources. Then the economic and ecological functional values of waterfront resources along the Yangtze River are assessed, with the exploration about the zoning control strategies and planning suggestions for waterfront resources. Aiming to enrich the natural resources theoretical systems, finally, this study provides assessment and planning references for the Yangtze Economic Belt and other parts of the country.

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    The implementation mechanism of territorial spatial correction in the Yangtze River Economic Belt: Taking Yizheng city and Zhangjiagang city of Jiangsu province as an example
    JIN Zhi-feng, ZHU Feng-wu, YAN Chang-qing, SHEN Chun-zhu, ZHANG Xiao-lei
    2019, 34 (10):  2223-2233.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191017
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    Territorial spatial correction is an important means for the natural resources management departments to implement the "unified exercise of all territorial spatial control responsibilities" and is an important part of the control and governance. Based on the research on Yizheng city and Zhangjiagang city, this paper clarifies the type and cause of territorial space mismatch in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and attempts to construct a implementation mechanism which aims to provide theoretical and practical reference for the construction of the national land use control system in the Yangtze River Economic Belt. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The territorial space mismatch types mainly include: the mismatch due to unreasonable planning, lack of planning, and planning conflicts; the mismatch between urban, agricultural and ecological spaces; the industrial mismatch caused by labor, capital, land mismatch and environmental regulation requirements, the intensity mismatch caused by excessive use or inefficient use of resources. (2) For different types of mismatches, the research attempts to construct a territorial spatial correction mechanism from the following aspects, such as establishing the "three-line" coordination mechanism, building a "full process, multi-agent, multi-path" classification correction mechanism, improving territorial spatial use control system, establishing a comprehensive land improvement and ecological restoration mechanism and dynamic supervision mechanism. The results can provide theoretical and practical reference for the correction of territorial spatial mismatch, the control of land use and the optimization of territorial space in the Yangtze River Economic Belt.

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    Research on the compiling thinking of city and county territorial spatial master planning regulations based on the perspective of human behaviors
    ZHAO Kun, XU Jing-quan, SHEN Chi
    2019, 34 (10):  2234-2243.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191018
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    Since the territorial spatial planning is required to merge multi-planning, unify zoning, and implement baseline regulations by land functions, compilation of spatial regulation is significant for constructing and implementing the strategies and system of spatial regulation. Even though we can unify the zoning of multi-planning through the boundary lines of spatial regulation districts, three issues must be concentrated to coordinate multi-planning regulation and reinforce the binding of territorial spatial master planning regulation to special plans and site plans. First, implement spatial regulations with human behaviors as the objects to improve constraint on negative influences. Second, merge current ordinances into territorial spatial master planning regulations. Third, enhance the guidance and constraint of baseline control model to non-developing and constructing human behaviors. The current researches have studied the definitions and objectives of the territorial spatial planning regulations through legal principles, logics, zoning and policies, and attempted to compile the strategies and systems of the territorial spatial planning regulation as well. Meanwhile, some researches have studied the influence relations among human behaviors, natural resources and territorial space. However, they lack a discussion of the compiling thinking of regulation ordinance from the perspective of human behaviors, which is an indispensable factor supporting the implementation of territorial spatial planning. This research aims at establishing a compiling thinking of the territorial spatial master planning regulation based on the perspective of human behaviors. We coordinate the zoning and regulations between territorial spatial planning regulations and regulation ordinances with human behaviors as carriers, and infer the relevant regulations of territorial spatial master plan according to the impacts caused by human behaviors to ensure the targeted implementation.

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    Construction of ecological security pattern based on coordination between corridors and sources in national territorial space
    HAN Zong-wei, JIAO sheng, HU Liang, YANG Yu-min, CAI Qing, LI Bei, ZHOU Min
    2019, 34 (10):  2244-2256.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20191019
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    Constructing an ecological security pattern with closer ecological connections and less ecological disturbance is an important way to make contributions to the balance between ecological protection and economic development in national territorial planning. This paper aims to establish an ecological security pattern, which should take into account the coordination and protection of sources and corridors in the ecological system in an integrated manner. Taking 33 counties (districts) around Dongting Lake as examples, it puts forward the ecological pattern formed by the ecological essential source areas and natural corridors, and the urbanization pattern formed by economic society source areas and artificial corridors. Then, we reveal the spatial characteristics of the ecological positive points and ecological disturbing points between the ecological pattern and urbanization pattern, and offer artificial and natural countermeasures for the problems in particular areas of the ecological environment. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) There should be 1537 identified ecological corridors in the ecological security pattern and 908 key points urged to be protected, which takes up 0.48% of economic society areas for returning to the ecological core source area, so as to promote the spatial relationship between ecological elements; (2) There are 8800 ecological disturbing points, 1.36% of ecological essential source areas and 12.95% of the length of natural corridors are in disturbance. In order to collaboratively develop the natural and artificial systems, the interference areas should be managed by means of creating buffers, establishing an early-warning system, and so on; (3) Natural corridors of the first to third levels in non-essential patches can be measured as 203.22 km2, 125.67 km2 and 35.59 km2, respectively, which can be defined as protected area of future ecological security pattern separately to meet a continuous increasing demand for ecological protection land. The results can provide a reference for the coordination of ecological land and urban construction land in the national territorial planning system.

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