The evolution and identification of cultural landscape value in protected areas: A case of Mount Tai
2019, 34 (9):
Chinese protected areas have double values of ecology and culture. Since cultural landscape is the interface of nature and culture, its value identification would be the important basis for protected area management. This study, taking Mount Tai as a case, using the methods of textual criticism and field investigation with locations of 191 buildings from 3 areas and the scope of the city, analyzes cultural landscape value evolution of Mount Tai from the diachronic perspective. The study found that the process of cultural landscape value evolution within Mount Tai can be divided into five main stages, which are the natural value as Mountain Worship, the political value as divine right monarchy, the religious value as Buddhist and Taoist beliefs, the folk custom value as pilgrimage, sightseeing and dwelling, and the last stage is the comprehensive value as conservation and wise use. This study reveals cultural landscape value evolution rules of Chinese Protected Area. Firstly, the value phases of cultural landscape within famous mountain protected area are changing from natural to cultural to comprehensive, from the emperor to the public, from single to comprehensive, and from separation to integration. Secondly, the form of symbiotic relationship between nature and culture is a continual process where the people and the nature function were together with each other, which was influenced by a range of factors, such as historical period, social culture, and natural esthetics. On the whole, the cultural landscape value in protected area includes four elements, namely, ideas, conditions, behaviors and results in space, and therefore, it has the characteristics of integrity, systematicness and dynamics. At the end of this study, the strategies of cultural landscape value identification in protected area are discussed. The identification strategies should follow the basic principles of overall continuity, authenticity and integrity. The main measures are clarifying the formation and evolution, building the complete value index system and setting up a scientific landscape character assessment. Scientific analysis and identification of cultural landscape value within Chinese protected areas could provide references to the corresponding type of National Park and other protected areas construction.
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