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Table of Content

    28 September 2019, Volume 34 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    National Park and Protected Areas
    Tourism or recreation? Rethink the expression of the public use in Chinese national parks
    ZHANG Chao-zhi, CAO Jing-yin, LUO Yi-lin
    2019, 34 (9):  1797-1806.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190901
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (674KB) ( )   Save
    The National Park System pilot practiced in China has arose numerous discussion about the policy and the practice of national park management in China's context, however, tourism becomes one of the most controversial topics in national parks establishment, whether it is possible to develop tourism in national park, or what kind of "tourism" could be approved in national park, or we should use the term "tourism" or "recreation" in national park context. Based on the analysis of the connotation of "tourism" and "recreation", combined with the corresponding expressions in international national parks, this article discusses "recreation" and "tourism" in national parks within the context of China. The findings indicate that "recreation" is the other side of tourism. "Recreation" is appropriate for the functional positioning and planning of parks which reflects the public welfare goals of national parks. However, in the specific operation and management of national parks, it is more appropriate to use the term "ecotourism". When we talk about the contradiction between tourism and national parks, the use of "tourism development" is more in line with the facts.
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    Construction of national protected areas system: A reflection on the Western-based criteria and exploration of a Chinese approach
    SONG Feng, DAI Ying, SHI Yan-hui, WANG Bo
    2019, 34 (9):  1807-1819.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190902
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    Learning and borrowing Western experience and criteria played an important role in the establishment of China's modern protected area system. However, at present, after the system took shape, some insufficiency in the international standards have been exposed. For example, they lack a systematic framework for understanding the value of cultural landscapes. Under the favourable circumstances of the recent institutional reform, it is timely to reflect on the tradition of borrowing the Western-based international criteria. This paper first compares the establishment process of the international conservation system with that of China and argues that China was not able to participate in the design and criteria-formulation in the earlier stages, which led to the under-representation of its development phase and the characteristics of the cultural landscape of its protected areas. Secondly, the cultural landscape characteristics of Chinese protected areas are analysed from the perspective of the overlapping geographical distribution of population and the protected areas. It is then pointed out that there has been a distinction between the traditional Chinese concept (syncretism between people and their living environment) and that of the West (the opposition between nature and culture). Thirdly, this paper addresses the dual challenges of conservation and development that Chinese protected areas have been faced with. It challenges the rationality of applying the criteria formulated on the protected areas in a specific population and development context to others in a totally different context. Finally, a more critical view is suggested when we learn from the experience of other countries and deal with the international criteria. It is necessary to take full consideration of the comparability of the human-land relationship and to realise the political implication of international conservation careers as provided by international agreement systems. Meanwhile, it is time to devote more efforts to explore a Chinese approach of sustainable and peaceful development based on the cultural landscape characteristics and developing pressures on Chinese protected areas, which will contribute to a wider range of countries and regions that are faced with similar dual challenges of conservation and development.
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    From biocenosis to ecosystem: The theory trend of conserving ecosystem integrity in national parks
    WEI Yu, LEI Guang-chun
    2019, 34 (9):  1820-1832.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190903
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    The nature conservation has entered a new stage of integratively managing human-nature harmonized ecosystems. It has become a consensus to break through the elementary thinking and systematically conserve ecosystem integrity from perspectives of ecological characters, ecosystem health and self-organization ability of ecosystems. After experiencing long-term fragmented management across different sectors, China began to emphasize unified management for ecosystem integrity in the process of establishing a national park system. This study argues that the ecosystem integrity of national park does not only mean an intact internal natural space, but also matters to the national ecological security and thus should be strategically viewed from spatial layout of natural protected areas. The vision of sustainably maintaining ecosystem integrity can only be realized by taking each national park as a node of an eco-geographical area. These nodes should be bridged with surrounding protected areas, and effectively balance the relationship both between administrative areas and between people and nature. From this point of view, existing researches are still insufficient in guiding the macro-scale conservation of ecosystem integrity and balancing the relationship between people and nature. Problems also exist in piloting national park systems, such as the lack of managerial technology, the restrictions imposed by administrative boundaries on national park boundaries, the failure to build ecosystem integrity networks with national parks as the core, and the insufficient consideration given to different human-land relations. It is recommended to view the ecosystem at a macro scale and take into account the relations between national parks and surrounding areas, between different administrative regions, and also between human and nature within national parks. This is the best approach for achieving the long-term goal of ecosystem integrity.
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    The evolution and identification of cultural landscape value in protected areas: A case of Mount Tai
    ZHANG Jing-ya, ZHANG Yu-jun
    2019, 34 (9):  1833-1849.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190904
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    Chinese protected areas have double values of ecology and culture. Since cultural landscape is the interface of nature and culture, its value identification would be the important basis for protected area management. This study, taking Mount Tai as a case, using the methods of textual criticism and field investigation with locations of 191 buildings from 3 areas and the scope of the city, analyzes cultural landscape value evolution of Mount Tai from the diachronic perspective. The study found that the process of cultural landscape value evolution within Mount Tai can be divided into five main stages, which are the natural value as Mountain Worship, the political value as divine right monarchy, the religious value as Buddhist and Taoist beliefs, the folk custom value as pilgrimage, sightseeing and dwelling, and the last stage is the comprehensive value as conservation and wise use. This study reveals cultural landscape value evolution rules of Chinese Protected Area. Firstly, the value phases of cultural landscape within famous mountain protected area are changing from natural to cultural to comprehensive, from the emperor to the public, from single to comprehensive, and from separation to integration. Secondly, the form of symbiotic relationship between nature and culture is a continual process where the people and the nature function were together with each other, which was influenced by a range of factors, such as historical period, social culture, and natural esthetics. On the whole, the cultural landscape value in protected area includes four elements, namely, ideas, conditions, behaviors and results in space, and therefore, it has the characteristics of integrity, systematicness and dynamics. At the end of this study, the strategies of cultural landscape value identification in protected area are discussed. The identification strategies should follow the basic principles of overall continuity, authenticity and integrity. The main measures are clarifying the formation and evolution, building the complete value index system and setting up a scientific landscape character assessment. Scientific analysis and identification of cultural landscape value within Chinese protected areas could provide references to the corresponding type of National Park and other protected areas construction.
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    Review and enlightenment of the centennial history of American national park roads and parkways
    YU Qing, HAN Miao
    2019, 34 (9):  1850-1863.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190905
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    National park roads and parkways is an important part of national parks in the United States. The road is integrated with national parks, which is the characteristics and brand image of national parks. National park roads and parkways is not only an important means of transportation in national parks, but also a tourist attraction and destination. For tourists, driving on the national park roads and parkways means visiting the national parks. The development of national park roads and parkways embodies the integration of road engineering and aesthetics, philosophy, recreation, ecology and other disciplines, promotes the transformation of road from a single traffic function to a complex function of recreation, landscape, culture and protection, highlights the gorgeous landscape and imaginative engineering alignment, and also shows how to provide diversified recreational opportunities in protecting priceless natural and cultural resources to achieve a balance between environmental protection and public tourists. This paper makes a thorough analysis of the development process of American national park roads and parkways in the past hundred years from the aspects of concepts, development background, construction idea, development measures, management system, financial support and construction practice, and summarizes the development experience and enlightenment. The conclusion is to grasp the law of national park roads and parkways development in essence. From this point of view, the paper puts forward some suggestions for the development of China's national park roads and parkways. These studies are of great theoretical value and practical significance to the flourishing development of China's national parks, national park roads and parkways, tourist scenic byways and tourist highways.
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    Resource Utilizationand Management
    The characteristic of regional differentiation and impact mechanism of architecture style of traditional residence
    WANG De-gen, LYU Qing-yue, WU Yong-fa, FAN Zi-qi
    2019, 34 (9):  1864-1885.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190906
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    The protection of traditional villages and towns is one of the important tasks of new-type urbanization. However, the residential buildings that are tangible cultural heritage and cultural genes are the mainstay of traditional feature in traditional villages and towns, and the traditional villages and towns would have lost the carrier of the inheritance of cultural heritage, if their traditional residential buildings were missing. In this paper, we take the representative architectural landscape characteristic towns and villages as study cases to analyze their regional differentiation of architecture style, and explore the impact mechanism of their regional differentiation of architecture style. The study found that, firstly, there are 12 types of architecture style in Chinese traditional dwellings. The resulting architectural feature areas show that there are obvious differences in spatial distribution between north and south. The northern architectural feature area is divided into two sections with different sizes, and the southern architectural feature area has two "string of pearls" distribution. Secondly, there are obvious regional differentiations in the characteristic of Chinese traditional residential architecture in 5 aspects, namely, settlement environment, spatial layout, modeling style, building materials and detail decoration. Thirdly, from the impact mechanism of architecture style regional differentiation of Chinese traditional residential buildings, the natural environmental factors (including topography, landform, water system, climate, planting material, earth and stone) are the cornerstone of the formation of architecture style regional differentiation of traditional residence. The cultural factors such as the patriarchal ethics, fengshui concept and ethnic culture are the internal impetus of the architecture style regional differentiation of traditional residence. The cultural factors such as population migration, war defense and business economy are the extrapolation forces of architecture style regional differentiation of traditional residence.
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    The change of continental coastline and its development and utilization intensity in the East China Sea
    LI Jia-lin, TIAN Peng, SHAO Shu-yao, WANG Hai-feng, WANG Li-jia, YE Meng-yao, ZHAO Meng-qi, ZHANG Ke-qin, CAI Kai-te, RUAN Ying-chao, SHEN Xing-wen
    2019, 34 (9):  1886-1901.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190907
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    Based on remote sensing images of the six periods from 1990 to 2015 in the coastal zone of the East China Sea, the changes of the continental coastline were analyzed and the intensity of shoreline utilization was evaluated. The results show that: (1) The continental coastline continued to go towards the sea, and the length of the coastline was reduced by 495.91 km. The intensity of shoreline changes was fluctuating. A large amount of natural shorelines in the structure was converted into artificial shorelines, and the proportion of natural shorelines decreased by 14.18%, while that of artificial shorelines increased by 21.94%, and the diversity of shorelines increased rapidly. (2) The average fractal dimension of the coastline showed a downward trend of fluctuation, and the shape developed in a straight and regular direction. The sea-land pattern of the coastal zone was characterized by land reclamation and the land area increased by 2655.01 km2. The coastal zone was significantly affected by human activities such as tidal flat farming, reclamation and port construction. (3) The development and utilization intensity of the coastline was strengthened. The coastline artificialization index increased to 53.88% in 2015. The development and utilization of the subjectivity changed from the single subject model to the formation of the dual subject model, by 2015, the coastline dual entity into bedrock coastline (30.53%) and construction coastline (20.26%). The coastline comprehensive utilization index rose by 32.42%, and the influence of human activities on coastline changes significantly increased.
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    Spatio-temporal distribution of high-level tourist attractions and spatial heterogeneity of its influencing factors in Western Hunan
    MA Xue-feng, YANG Xue
    2019, 34 (9):  1902-1916.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190908
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    Tourist attractions are not only the prerequisites and core carriers of tourism development, but also the most important and fundamental tourism supply. Based on the data of high-level tourist attractions in Western Hunan, this paper introduces the index of development difference of high-level scenic spots, and uses spatial statistical methods such as Standard Deviation Ellipse, nuclear density estimation and global spatial autocorrelation to measure the spatio-temporal distribution of high-level tourist attractions in 2007, 2012 and 2016. And then, it uses traditional ordinary least squares (OLS) model and geographic weighted regression (GWR) model to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of the influencing factors in the high-level tourist attractions of Western Hunan. Results show that: Generally, the spatial distribution of high-level tourist attractions in Western Hunan has a NE-SW trending, and the overall trend is a small counter-clockwise rotation; the spatial pattern of high-level tourist attractions shows the evolution from "three cores and two districts" to "single pole and many points" and then to "blossom all over" driven by dual-core. The spatial positive correlation of the number of high-level tourist attractions is decreasing, and its spatial distribution shows a certain dependence; regional economic development level, government policy support, traffic conditions and tourism resources have significant influence on the spatial distribution of the high-level tourist attractions in Western Hunan, and different influencing factors show a certain spatial difference. The research conclusion provides scientific basis and reference value for deepening the reform of mechanism of tourist attractions in the context of all-for-one tourism.
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    Resource Economics
    Cooperative network and mode of tourism destinations along Hefei-Fuzhou high-speed railway
    LI Lei, LU Lin
    2019, 34 (9):  1917-1932.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190909
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    The opening of high-speed railway brings a significant "time-space compression" effect, which has an important influence on the cooperative relationship and mode of tourism destinations along the route. Taking the Hefei-Fuzhou high-speed railway as an example, this paper studies cooperative network and mode of tourism destinations along the route by using the methods of social network, spatial analysis, descriptive statistics and software of Ucinet, GIS, SPSS, Excel and so on. Main conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) After the opening of the Hefei-Fuzhou high-speed railway, the tourists' cognition degree, the willingness to travel, the willingness to revisit the tourist destinations along the route have increased. The cooperative relation between different tourism destinations has been strengthened, and the cooperative network has formed a remarkable core-edge structure. The cooperative network between tourism destinations along the route is dense, and through the interconnection with other tourism destinations, a "group" of tourism destinations has formed along the route with stronger cooperation and greater influence. (2) The tourism flow between cities along the railway line is relatively large, with stable two-party relationship and tripartite relationship, forming three typical cooperation modes of "tourism core + tourism core", "tourism core + transportation core", "tourism core + transfer center”. The three modes of cooperation present the characteristics of "strong alliance" and bring significant "Matthew effect", "filter effect" and "spillover effect". (3) The opening of high-speed railway provides an important opportunity for the establishment of cooperative relationship between tourism destinations along the route, collaborative development has become an inevitable trend in the future. In view of the current mode of cooperation, we should formulate various development strategies and establish a broader and deeper cooperative relationship between tourism destinations in order to realize the linkage development of tourist destinations. The results has certain enlightenment significance for enriching the research contents of China's high-speed railway tourism, revealing the cooperative network and typical model of tourist destinations along the high-speed railway, exploring the application of social network and spatial analysis methods in the research of cooperative relationship of tourism destinations, and formulating the regional tourism development strategy along the railway line.
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    Impacts of high-speed rail on China's domestic air transportation
    WANG Jiao-e, JING Yue, YANG Hao-ran
    2019, 34 (9):  1933-1944.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190910
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    The construction of high-speed rail in China improves the comprehensive transportation systems significantly, while challenging the development of domestic air transportation at the same time. Based on the timetable data from 2007 to 2014, the overlapping market of HSR and air network is identified from the perspective of direct connection between city pairs. In 2007, the overlappping network only had 21 city pairs with direct flights and high-speed trains, and the number dramatically increased to 277 in 2014. This paper first analyzes the potential influence of HSR development on airlines and its spatial distribution. Then, a random effect regression model is established to measure the ex-post effects of the entry of HSR on air passenger flows of all the 277 city-pairs, among which, 94 city-pairs connected with the three hub cities, and 183 city-pairs connected with other feeder airports in China. The results are as follows: (1) Despite the fact that HSR and air transportation systems in China are developing in parallel, the entry of HSR has caused a modal shift from air transportation. The reduction on air travel demand caused by G trains is more obvious than that of D trains. (2) The air travel demand between inter-cities within the same or nearby provinces decreases sharply. (3) Distance, GDP, and rank of airports are significant positive factors in increasing air travel demand. (4) Due to various flight networks, preference for air transport, and sensitivity to travel time in hub cities, city pairs connected with Beijing, Shanghai or Guangzhou are more competitive for air transportation than for HSR.
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    The spatio-temporal evolution of tourism eco-efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and its interactive response with tourism economy
    WANG Zhao-feng, LIU Qing-fang
    2019, 34 (9):  1945-1961.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190911
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    Tourism eco-efficiency is an important index to measure the coordination degree of regional human-land system and sustainable development level. Firstly, the Super-SBM model of non-expected output is used to measure the tourism eco-efficiency of 11 provincial-level areas in the Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2007 to 2016. Secondly, by means of non-parametric kernel density estimation, standard deviation ellipse and gravity center model, the spatio-temporal evolution trajectory of tourism eco-efficiency in the economic belt is described. Finally, VAR model is applied to explore the interactive response relationship between tourism eco-efficiency and tourism economic development level. The results show that: (1) The tourism eco-efficiency of the Yangtze River Economic Belt is generally in the stage of medium efficiency and tends to increase with time. Specifically, the tourism eco-efficiency in the eastern region fluctuates in an "M" pattern and decreases on the whole, while the tourism eco-efficiency in the central and western regions shows a fluctuated increase. On the provincial level, the tourism eco-efficiency in Shanghai (1.787), Guizhou (1.616), Jiangsu (1.325) and Chongqing (1.051) are in the stage of high efficiency, while that in Zhejiang (0.319), Anhui (0.451), Hubei (0.404), Hunan (0.310) and Yunnan (0.400) are in the stage of low efficiency. (2) During the research period, the tourism eco-efficiency in the Yangtze River Economic Belt presents a trend of "double peaks" from left to right and from high to low as a whole. With the elapse of time, the center of density function moves to the right, and the characteristics of "double peaks" become more and more obvious, basically forming a pattern of "double peaks" and "club convergence" phenomenon of "low concentration and high agglomeration". The growth trend of tourism eco-efficiency is obvious, and the regional differences is gradually narrowed. The overall tourism eco-efficiency shows a movement trend from southeast to northwest in the spatial distribution. (3) The impulse response of the tourism eco-efficiency and the tourism economic development level in the eastern and central regions fluctuated in the early stage and then tended to be stable, while the response of the two in the western region was not significant. At the end of the study, the impulse response of the tourism eco-efficiency and the tourism economic development level in Guizhou shows a significant response. The results of variance decomposition show that the contribution rate of the tourism economic development level to the tourism eco-efficiency in the eastern, central and western regions increases gradually with the development of time, and the contribution rate of the tourism eco-efficiency to the tourism economic development level decreases gradually with the elapse of time.
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    Virtual water consumption and trade of Beijing
    WEI Yi-ran, SHAO Ling, ZHANG Bao-gang, XU Pei-qi, QIN Jing-min
    2019, 34 (9):  1962-1973.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190912
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    As a city suffering from serious water resources shortage, Beijing is in urgent need to improve water use efficiency. Based on the method of multi-scale input-output analysis, this work calculates and analyzes the virtual water consumption and trade of Beijing in 2012, and compares the results to that of 2007. The results indicate that the consumption-based water resources use of Beijing were estimated up to 13.95 billion m3 in 2012, which were 3.89 times larger than the production-based direct water resources use (3.59 billion m3). Compared with 2007, the virtual water consumption (23.7%) grew faster than direct water use (11.8%). For all water resources related to Beijing, only 5% was from local water withdrawal, while more than 3/5 was domestically imported from other Chinese regions and about 35% was imported from foreign countries. Meanwhile, about 1/5 of these water resources was consumed to meet Beijing's local final demand, approximately 3/4 was exported to other domestic regions, and 6% was exported to other countries. Beijing changed from a net domestic virtual water importer in 2007 into a net exporter in 2012, and the net domestically exported virtual water in 2012 was 1.1 times larger than the net import in 2007. On the other hand, Beijing changed from a net international virtual water exporter in 2007 into a net importer in 2012, and the net international virtual water import (19.60 billion m3) was 837.2 times larger than the net export (0.02 billion m3) in 2007. Beijing net imported 10.36 billion m3 virtual water in 2012 (all from international trade), which has successfully avoided the over-withdrawal of local water resources. At the same time, Beijing re-exported plenty of internationally imported virtual water to other Chinese regions, which has contributed a lot to alleviate domestic water shortage pressure. In order to reduce domestic water resources use and improve water use efficiency worldwide, Beijing is suggested to strategically increase the international import of mineral, energy, construction and transportation equipment products under the consideration of energy and mineral resource supply security, and to absorb domestic excess capacity in the future.
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    Resource Ecology
    Analysis of factors influencing the willingness of livestock and poultry farmers to control pollution in coastal areas: A case study of Yancheng, Jiangsu
    XU Xin-yue, YUE Meng-fan, LI Jian-guo, LIU Li-li
    2019, 34 (9):  1974-1986.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190913
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    The prevention and control will of the farmers is the basis for the treatment of the pollutants from livestock and poultry. Defining the key factors of it in the coastal areas and analyzing the formation mechanism of it are important for the formulation of effective policies. The willingness of farmers to control pollution is a subjective perception and is difficult to measure directly. Structural equation indicates potential variables or conceptualizes latent variables by corresponding measurable indices, and allows the existence of errors or residuals between external latent variables and internal latent variables. By combining regression analysis, path analysis, factor analysis and other methods, the equation can clearly analyze the role of independent variables on dependent variables and the interaction of dependent variables. So, this thesis, taking Yancheng city as an example and based on 121 livestock survey questionnaires, uses the structural equation model to analyze the formation mechanism and impact mechanism of farmers' pollution prevention will. The results showed that: (1) In terms of the overall effect, individual characteristics, environmental risk perception, health risk perception and social impact and perception all have a significant positive effect on farmers' willingness of pollution prevention. (2) The individual characteristics have a positive effect on the environmental risk perception and health risk perception, and have a covariant relationship with social impact and perception. At the same time, it indirectly influences farmers' will of pollution prevention and control through these factors. (3) The health risk perception of the farmers is the most important factor of pollution prevention. If the health risk perception increases 1 unit, the farmers' risk of pollution will increase 0.459 units. Among all the observable variables affecting health risk perception, the effect on human health perception was the greatest, being 0.835. The path of "human health perception → health risk perception → farmers' willingness to prevent pollution" can effectively improve regional livestock pollution prevention and control.
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    Impacts of meteorological drought on social-ecological system in rural areas of Yuzhong county in Gansu province
    SHI Yu-zhong, YANG Xin-jun, ZHAO Xue-yan
    2019, 34 (9):  1987-2000.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190914
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    Impacts of drought play a vital role in studies on human-environment relationship in arid and semiarid regions. The assessment on the impacts of drought on social-ecological system in rural areas provides a new thinking for human-environment system sustainability of ecological fragile-poverty zone in Northwest China. The article analyses the impacts of drought on grain yield, economic development and rural household family. Then, it concludes impact mechanism of meteorological drought on social-ecological system in rural areas, applying Standardized Precipitation Index, economic loss of drought model and analysis tool of GIS. The main results include: (1) There is significant positive correlation between drought intensity and grain yield especially in the southern and northern parts of Yuzhong county, where drought intensity is high in 1960-2015. (2) Serious economy loss caused by drought characterized with high frequency and wide distribution occurs in the southern and northern parts of Yuzhong county. (3) Drought causes reduction of agricultural product and economic income obviously, and results in serious food security of rural household families that are engaged just in agriculture activity. (4) Impact mechanism of drought on social-ecological system in rural areas depends on water resource utilization loop, production loop, income and livelihood loop and economy loop.
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    Remote sensing estimation of spring Carex biomass in Changhuchi Lake, a shallow sub-lake of Poyang Lake
    RAO Di-di, YU Xiu-bo, LI Peng, XIA Shao-xia, MENG Zhu-jian, LIU Ying
    2019, 34 (9):  2001-2011.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190915
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    The relationship between community biomass of spring Carex and Sentinel-2 derived vegetation indices (VIs) was analyzed using regression analysis in one of dish-shaped lakes (i.e. Changhuchi) of Poyang Lake. In addition, the effects of elevation, water level, and temperature changes on community biomass were also examined. The results showed that: (1) Among the 10 commonly used VIs, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) is the most appropriate VI for spring Carex biomass estimation of Changhuchi Lake from March 22nd to May 5th. The cubic polynomial parameterized by SAVI was an optimal biomass estimation model with the root mean square error of 73.91 g/m2 and the predicted coincidence of 71.90%. Spatially, the biomass of spring Carex community generally increased from the central part to lakeshore. (2) On March 22nd (normally in the middle of growth) and May 5th (the end of growth), the total aboveground biomass of spring Carex grass was 1.06×105 kg and 3.28×105 kg, respectively, along with the biomass per unit area of 77.56 g/m2 and 208.44 g/m2, respectively. Our estimates were basically in line with the previously reported upper limit of 300 g/m2 in other sub-lakes within Poyang Lake. (3) The growth of spring Carex in Changhuchi Lake is jointly affected by elevation, water level and air temperature. At the end of March, the area below 13.47 m (Yellow Sea Datum) in Changhuchi Lake is generally flooded, hence with dwarf plants and less biomass accumulation. For the regions above 13.47 m, the biomass is also at a low level due to low temperature and short dormancy. As the temperature rises, the biomass of spring Carex in the whole exposed area of Changhuchi Lake gradually accumulates with larger per unit area biomass at the higher elevations.
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    Spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk in the loess hilly-gully region and its precaution partitions: A case study of Mizhi county, Shaanxi province, China
    LIU Di, CHEN Hai, SHI Qin-qin, ZHANG Hang, GENG Tian-wei
    2019, 34 (9):  2012-2025.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190916
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    Ecologically fragile regions such as loess hilly-gully region are highly responsive to global change. Regional development is on an unsustainable track under the background of fragile ecological environment and agricultural activities. The study of ecological risk in this region has become one of the hot spots of geographical and ecological response to ecosystem management. Taking Mizhi county for the study of loess hilly-gully region, land-use maps of this county in 2009 and 2015, a digital elevation model (DEM) and social and economic statistical yearbook of Mizhi county were needed and 253 small watersheds were identified as the auxiliary evaluation units by using ESRI's Hydrological Analysis Tools for ArcGIS 10.2. A comprehensive ecological risk assessment framework for identifying risk probability, habitat sensitivity, and system impairment was established, and multi-source data were integrated through range standardization and entropy weight method at watershed level. The spatio-temporal differentiation of criteria layers and comprehensive ecological risk were analyzed, at the same time, the evolution trend of comprehensive ecological risk was explored through the Standard Deviation Ellipse (SDE) and risk gravity. The risk precaution partitions were simultaneously delineated based on the risk dominant factor and the risk management strategies were formulated. The results were as follows: (1) The spatial distribution pattern of risk probability in Mizhi county was generally high in the middle and east and low in the northwest. The value of risk probability increased from 49.93% to 52.92% during 2009-2015. The habitat sensitivity index was 0.61 in 2009 and 0.60 and 2015, respectively, which was a decrease of 1.6% based on the InVEST model, and the habitat quality improved. The system impairment index was generally higher in the central and western regions while lower in the eastern region (southeast and northeast). The impairment index increased from 0.42 to 0.46 during 2009-2015, which indicated that the degree of impairment caused by ecological risk increased. (2) The spatial distribution pattern of comprehensive ecological risk was high in the middle, while low in the south and north. Between 2009 and 2015, the ecological risk index increased from 0.14 to 0.15, with an increase of 7.14%. The risk gravity of Mizhi county was distributed in Gaoqu township in 2009, and jumped into Yinzhou township in 2015. The main ecological risk evolution was northwest-southeast trending, and kept stable basically. (3) The study area was divided into four types of risk precaution partitions. Risk monitoring zones, ecological recovery zones, monitoring and recovery zones, and natural regulation zones encompassed 7.53%, 6.57%, 23.86% and 62.04% of the study area, respectively. Risk precaution partitions based on risk dominant factors can effectively eliminate risks and promote the sustainable development of regional habitats.
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    Dynamics of Journal of Natural Resources
    The operational practice and experience of Chinese Geographical and Resource Journals cluster Wechat Finance Platform
    HE Chun-e, ZHU Xiao-hua, WU Hao, JIANG Shu-fang, HE Shu-jin
    2019, 34 (9):  2026-2036.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190917
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    With the end of official media era, the traditional paper media was strongly shocked by the prevalence of new media with Wechat Public Account as a representative. Wechat Public Account could improve the academic influence and social visibility by increasing the viscosity of journal and readers. In order to provide guidance and references for other scientific Wechat Finance Platforms, the operational practice and experience of the periodical Wechat Finance Platform will be summed up, and comprehensive effects of Wechat operation on journal development will be stated by taking an example of Geographical Research based on the Wechat Public Account of Chinese Geographical and Resource Journals cluster. The results showed that: (1) Fourteen principles and eleven creative requirements should be followed in order to produce good Wechat. (2) Four points should be paid attention so as to run the cluster scientific Wechat Finance Platform better. Long-term persistence is needed for the production of good Wechat. To realize media convergence and the transition of traditional paper publishing to rich media publishing is the fundamental way out for scientific journals.
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