Table of Content

    28 August 2019, Volume 34 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Comprehensive Discussion
    Analysis of basic national conditions of China's tourism industry
    XI Jian-chao, LIU Meng-hao
    2019, 34 (8):  1569-1580.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190801
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    China's tourism industry has been fully integrated into the national strategic system when it comes to the era of "mass tourism". It is not enough to realize tourism from the perspective of industrial development. Tourism industry should be reconsidered on the level of basic national condition and strategy. The research based on the "three bodies" theory in tourism as well as the restriction of holiday pattern, constructed an analysis framework, under which the tourism conditions of China was analyzed: China's tourism is the "super tourism" of a "super country" and the peculiar "great nation effect" of China as a consequence. In order to fully release the comprehensive value of tourism industry, optimization on holiday pattern and enough supply of recreation space is required. The analysis of China's tourism national conditions provides a basic perspective for understanding the development of China's current tourism industry, which not only has a reference value for China's socio-economic development and national tourism strategy, but also has great influence on promoting the development of China's tourism geography discipline. For the development of the discipline, the research objects of China's tourism geography should be expanded from traditional scenic spots and destinations to the selection and optimization of national recreation space. In this process, it is necassary to reposition the components, structure, characteristics, evolution process and mechanism, policy system design and supporting safeguard measures of "tourism regional system" in different spatial dimensions, improve the research content, research methods, research paradigms and related disciplines of tourism geography in the new era, and then comprehensively expand tourism in the field of geographical research, and enhance its academic value and social impact.

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    Resource Economics
    Evolution and optimization of spatial structure of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration from the perspective of coordination
    FAN Qing-yu, YANG Shan
    2019, 34 (8):  1581-1592.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190802
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    Taking urban agglomeration as the main object to optimize the spatial layout of urbanization is an important part of constructing the national land spatial planning system, and the essence of spatial optimization is to promote the coordinated development of large, medium and small cities within the urban agglomeration. Based on the measurement of urbanization coordination level of 26 cities in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration from 2001 to 2016, this paper analyses and identifies the urban coordination relationship by using the methods of social network and multi-dimensional-scaling, and explores its internal evolution mechanism. The results show that: (1) With the improvement of the urbanization coordination level of the cities in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, the internal space of the urban agglomeration is obviously changed. The high coordination cities gradually show a Z-shaped distribution with Shanghai as the core, and the low coordination cities were stably distributed in the expanded area of the urban agglomeration. (2) According to the correlation strength of the coordination level of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration, the cohesive subgroups were divided. The values of weighted average centrality and the contact density of the cohesive subgroups of the urbanization coordination relationship increased, and the polarization effect of Shanghai was more obvious. (3) The coordination structure of the urban agglomeration was identified from two dimensions of space and time. The Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration has transformed from the "circle layer" structure centered on the provincial capital cities under the influence of spatial distance into the structure of "core-periphery" under the influence of temporal distance. (4) The evolution of spatial structure of the urban agglomeration was influenced by the change of coordination level of population, land and economy urbanization. Compared with population and economy urbanization, land urbanization has a significant role in promoting the level of urban coordination. The optimizing policies of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration were proposed from the perspective of coordination after analyses of its spatial structure. This is conducive to the realization of the integration of urban agglomeration and the efficient use of space resources under the conditions of China's existing resource and environmental carrying capacity.

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    Comprehensive level of the green development of industry in Guangdong province and spatial econometric analysis of the influencing factors
    ZHANG Guo-jun, DENG Mao-ying, YAO Yang-yang, LI Xiong-ying
    2019, 34 (8):  1593-1605.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190803
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    The green development of industry is of great significance to the construction of industrial system that is efficient, low-cost, green and circular development, and to the realization of sustainable economic development. This paper constructs the comprehensive evaluation index system of the green development of industry in Guangdong province from three dimensions of industrial green growth, resource and environmental carrying capacity and government policy support, using the entropy method, measures the comprehensive levels of Guangdong province and its respective cities from 2005 to 2015, and uses the exploratory spatial data analysis method to analyze the spatial correlation characteristics of the green development of industry of the cities in Guangdong province, on the basis of the spatial error model, discusses the influencing factors of industry ecology in Guangdong province. The results show that: (1) On the whole, the comprehensive level of the green development of industry in Guangdong province presents a sustainable growth trend. (2) From the perspective of spatial distribution, the overall spatial pattern of the Pearl River Delta presents a structure of "Core-edge", with the Pearl River Delta as the core and the peripheral areas of the Pearl River Delta as the edge. (3) From the perspective of spatial evolution, the spatial differences of the green development of industry in the cities of Guangdong province are slightly enlarged from 2005 to 2015, but the overall pattern remains relatively stable. (4) From the perspective of spatial correlation characteristics, the agglomeration pattern of the spatial distribution of the green development of industry in the cities of Guangdong province is stable. The cities in the Pearl River Delta present high-high agglomeration phenomenon, while some cities in the eastern and mountainous areas of the peripheral areas present low-low agglomeration phenomenon. (5) Globalization, marketization, residents' income level, government regulation, as well as science and technology level all have a significant influence on the green development of industry in Guangdong province, while the influence of urbanization is not significant.

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    The spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of landscape fragmentation in Fenhe River Basin
    FU Yang-jun, SHI Xue-yi, HE Juan
    2019, 34 (8):  1606-1619.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190804
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    There is fragmented land and fragile ecological environment in the loess hilly and gully region. With the rapid population growth and socio-economic development in recent years, the degree of fragmentation has been further aggravated. Therefore, based on the interpretation data of remote sensing images in 1990, 2000 and 2015, this paper uses Fragstats 4.2 to obtain the best analysis scale combined with the standard method and moving window method. On this basis, the spatial differentiation characteristics of each landscape index are explored; The spatial and temporal evolution process of watershed landscape fragmentation is revealed; The spatial autoregressive model is used to analyze the impact factors contributing to landscape fragmentation. The results show that with the change of grain size and extent, some landscape indices show a regularity to certain degree. The 90 m grid size and 900 m square window size are the best analysis scales in the Fenhe River Basin; patch density, contagion, effective grid size, and Shannon's diversity index have a spatial agglomeration effect in the three periods, and the spatial agglomeration type distribution has strong similarity. From 1990 to 2015, the spatial pattern of landscape fragmentation in the study area has obviously changed; the slope, elevation and distance from the construction land are the main factors affecting landscape fragmentation of river basin during the three periods. The research results can provide reference for landscape fragmentation analysis in Northwest China, and provide basis for future regional landscape pattern optimization and effective land management.

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    Coupling relationship and its response mechanism between smart development and environmental quality in Chinese resource-based cities
    ZHOU Hong-hao, CHEN Xiao-hong
    2019, 34 (8):  1620-1632.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190805
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    Taking 111 prefecture-level resource-based cities in China from 2003 to 2015 as objects, this paper employed the dynamic principal components analysis to discuss the measurement of smart development and environmental quality and used coupling coordination model and panel VAR model to measure the coupling relationship and its interactive response mechanism between smart development and environmental quality in different types of Chinese resource-based cities. The results show that: (1) The smart development in Chinese resource-based cities has relatively low level, and the differences in its regional areas have been weakened. The environmental quality needs to be improved and its regional differences has widened in fluctuations. (2) The coupling and coordination relationship between smart development and environmental quality needs to be improved. The order of coordination from high to low is growth type, recession type, regeneration type and maturity type. (3) There are self-enhancement effects and inertial development trends in response mechanism between smart development and environmental quality in different types of Chinese resource-based cities. Besides, the smart development in Chinese resource-based cities has a significant negative effect on the environmental quality after a positive effect. And that, the smart development has a significant positive enhancement effect on the environmental quality in mature type of resource-based cities. However, the environmental quality in recession type of resource-based cities has a significant positive effect on the smart development after a negative effect and the smart development in regeneration type of resource-based cities has a significant positive effect on the environmental quality after a negative effect. In the next 15 years, the smart development in regeneration and maturity types of resource-based cities will improve environmental quality. Finally, this paper proposes different strategies and suggestions for transformation progress in different types of Chinese resource-based cities.

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    Resource Ecology
    Scale of human thermal sensation using seasonal anchor method: A Chinese case study
    YU Dan-dan, LI Shan
    2019, 34 (8):  1633-1653.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190806
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    Climatic comfort or human thermal comfort has a far-reaching impact on human settlements and human activities. A number of thermal indexes are widely applied in the fields of architectural design, urban planning, human health, and tourism development. As an indispensable and critical part of climatic comfort assessment, scale of thermal sensation not only greatly affects the validity of a thermal index, but also makes the comparison among different thermal indexes possible. At present, a few traditional scales of thermal sensation are generally used for the climatic comfort assessment in different regions without any localized adjustment. Alternatively, experimental investigation and questionnaire survey are adopted to formulate the scale of thermal sensation for a certain area. Therefore, a new approach named "seasonal anchor method" is proposed in this paper, which includes 4 steps --"grading, naming, anchoring, and projecting". Furthermore, based on the long term daily meteorological data (from 1981 to 2010) from 814 national basic meteorological observing stations throughout China, a case study is carried out. In this study, a 7-level scale of thermal sensation, which includes "torrid, hot, warm, neutral, cool, cold, and frozen", is proposed. Meanwhile, the threshold values of each level of thermal sensation for THI (temperature and humidity indexes) and WEI (wind effect index), which can be adopted as a national standard, are generated. Finally, climate-comfortable period and climate-uncomfortable period in China are evaluated, which brings us some meaningful discoveries.

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    Study on the wetland leading service function of Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration based on the ecosystem service value
    LI Zhuo, JIANG Wei-guo, WANG Wen-jie, LYU Jin-xia, DENG Yue
    2019, 34 (8):  1654-1665.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190807
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    Wetland is one of the three major ecosystems of the Earth, which plays an important role in climate regulation, water supply and environmental purification. Based on the land ecological remote sensing interpretation data and socio-economic data from 1990 to 2015, this research quantitatively studied the change of ecosystem service value of different wetland types and different functions in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) Urban Agglomeration and each city by modifying the ecosystem service equivalent value, and the wetland function was orientated by calculating the internal and external contribution rates of the wetland value. The results showed that: (1) The ecosystem service value of wetland in Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration showed a trend of rising first and then wavily descending. The wetland value in 2015 increased by 2.93×109 yuan compared with 1990, mainly due to the increase of the value of river canals, reservoirs and ponds, as well as the increase of hydrological regulation value and water supply value. (2) Among the 13 cities in the Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration, Tianjin had the highest ecosystem services value, and wetland value in the eastern coastal regions had increased. Inland cities in the south not only had a small wetland area, but their value had also declined year by year. (3) Hydrological regulation, water supply and environmental purification were the dominant functions of most urban wetlands in the urban agglomeration, while river canals, reservoirs and flood land were the main types of wetlands that provided service functions. The reduction and increase of ecosystem services value were closely related to human activities. Therefore, understanding the changing trend of wetland value and clarifying the functional orientation of wetland can not only enhance people's awareness of wetland ecological protection, but also provide scientific basis for the protection, restoration and sustainable use of wetland in the Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration in the future.

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    Remote sensing monitoring of advancing glaciers in the Bukatage Mountains from 1973 to 2018
    GAO Yong-peng, YAO Xiao-jun, LIU Shi-yin, QI Miao-miao, DUAN Hong-yu, LIU Juan, ZHANG Da-hong
    2019, 34 (8):  1666-1681.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190808
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    Glacier surging is a performance of glacial dynamic instabilities, which affects about 1% of glaciers worldwide. Glacier surge refers to the periodically rapid movement of glacier in a short period of time (2-3 a). Compared with the monitoring of ice crevasse change in glacier ablation area and the elevation change of glacier surface, the advance of glacier terminal is the most obvious feature to identify the surging glacier from remote sensing image. Based on 208 Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI remote sensing images from 1973 to 2018, advancing glaciers at different periods in the Bukatage Mountains are recognized. Meanwhile, we have explored the factors affecting the advance of glacier with the combination of meteorological data and established the variational mode of surge glacier terminal on the basis of the existing research for surging glaciers to lay a foundation for the study of the mechanism of glacier surging in this region and provide the basis for the Chinese Advancing Glacier Dataset. The results showed that: (1) There were 7 advancing glaciers in the Bukatage Mountains range from 1973 to 2018, among which 3 glaciers were in the state of fluctuating retreat and 2 glaciers in the state of advancing and fluctuating stability. We inferred that Monuomaha Glacier and the 5Y542H0020 Glacier belonged to surging glaciers, whose fronts were in an active phase. (2) There were 25 advance events for these 7 advancing glaciers in the past 45 years. The frequency of each glacier advance was more than or equal to 2 times and the time of advance was focused on the 2000s (7 times) and the 1970s (6 times). Additionally, glacier advance occurred in each month, so these advancing glaciers probably belonged to Svalbard glacier. There was no obvious pattern of the glacier advance in the Bukatage Mountains. The time interval between two advances of most glaciers was 10 years. (3) The terminals of advancing glaciers in the Kunlun Mountains exerted different changing patterns because of the geographical location, glacier velocity, glacier morphology and etc. The glacial stage lasted 5 years and was longer compared with other areas of China. These 7 advancing glaciers are shown as the modes of terminal change of the "repeated type" in the Bukatage Mountains range. It was hard to solely explain the trigger mechanism that is so complex in the Kunlun Mountains.

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    Climate regionalization and temporal evolution of meteorological drought in Northeast China based on spatial clustering
    LI Ming, WANG Gui-wen, CHAI Xu-rong, HU Wei-xia, ZHANG Lian-zhi
    2019, 34 (8):  1682-1693.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190809
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    In the past 50 years, an increasing number of drought events have greatly affected the production and life of the people in Northeast China (NEC). The climatic conditions and sensitivities vary greatly in NEC due to complex terrain, large geographical range across latitudes and longitudes and different weather system effects. So, NEC is used to explore traditional geographical boundaries for meteorological drought research. In the paper, climate regionalization is performed by spatial hierarchical cluster approach based on the gridded dataset of monthly precipitation and temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°×0.5° in China from 1961 to 2016. Then, standardized precipitation index is employed to explore the temporal evolution of drought events, and wavelet method is used to detect drought periodicity in each sub-climatic region of NEC. The results show that: (1) Spatially, NEC can be divided into eight sub-climatic regions, namely, semi-arid agro-pastoral areas in the West Liaohe Plain, humid agro-forestry areas in the eastern mountainous areas of Jilin and Liaoning provinces, semi-arid pastoral areas in Hulun Buir Plateau, semi-humid and semi-arid agro-pastoral areas in central Northeast China, humid agro-forestry areas in the eastern mountainous areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces, humid forestry areas in the north of Da Hinggan, humid and semi-humid agro-forestry areas in Hulun Buir Plateau and Heihe, and humid agricultural areas in Sanjiang Plain. (2) There are obvious differences for the temporal evolution of drought events in different sub-climatic regions, but three obvious drought periods, namely, late 1960s, late 1970s to early 1980s, and late 1990s to 2000s, can be found in each sub-region. The frequency and impact of droughts in NEC were the largest between 2000 and 2010, especially in the central and western parts of the study region. (3) There are significant drought periods of 11 years and 3-8 years in the eight sub-climatic regions of NEC, and the first main cycles of drought variation are not completely consistent. It is a very important step to divide a region into homogeneous sub-regions based on one or more climatic variables in climate studies. Therefore, the results of this paper have practical significance for identifying the drivers of climate variability specific to each sub-climatic region, establishing drought monitoring programs for climate homogeneous regions and managing water resources.

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    Identification of wetland damage degree and analysis of its driving forces in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration
    PENG Kai-feng, JIANG Wei-guo, DENG Yue
    2019, 34 (8):  1694-1707.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190810
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    Based on the land use data of five periods during 1995-2015 and water body data of continuous time series, this paper examines the degree of wetland damage in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration and its corresponding characteristics of water body change, and then further analyzes the driving mechanism of wetland damage by logistic model. The results are as follows: (1) From 1995 to 2015, the wetland area in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration increased slightly and then decreased, and the wetland area decreased by 665.15 km2 during this period. Wetland damage areas were mainly distributed in Wuhan, Huangpi, and Xiantao, which was caused by construction land and dryland encroach wetland. Wetland restoration areas were mainly located in cities of Xiantao and Wuhan, which was caused by the transformation of paddy fields to functional wetland. (2) In the past 20 years, the characteristics of wetland change are similar to those of corresponding water decrease or increase. The area of water body in damaged wetland area decreased while that in restored wetland area increased. (3) Logistic regression result shows that construction land, precipitation and GDP are the main factors affecting the risk of wetland degradation, and human activities are the main forces influencing wetland damage.

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    Analysis on influencing factors of manure pollution treatment in scale pig breeding: Based on the perspective of willingness-to-behavior transformation
    ZHAO Jun-wei, JIANG Hao, CHEN Yong-fu, YIN Chang-bin
    2019, 34 (8):  1708-1719.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190811
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    In order to promote farmers' active participation in pollution control, based on the perspective of willingness-to-behavior transformation, we used the survey data of pig-scale farmers in 25 counties of Jilin and Liaoning provinces to group the sample data (no willingness or behavior, willingness without behavior, willingness to have behavior). And then, the influencing factors of pig manure disposal behavior in large-scale farming were comprehensively analyzed by using disordered multi-classification Logistic regression model from three dimensions of "willingness or no willingness", "behavior with or without" and "willingness to transform behavior". The results showed that there was a great difference between the willingness and behavior of manure management among farmers, and the inconsistency rate of willingness and behavior was 26.8%. The factors influencing the farmers' willingness to transform the manure disposal behavior are mainly related to the scale of farming, the area of manure disposal area, the net income of farming, the surrounding public opinion, the technology of manure disposal, the economic conditions of manure disposal, the training of manure disposal, government subsidies and government supervision, and have a significant role in promoting the willingness to be transformed into behavior. However, the cultivation years have become an obstacle to the conversion of farmers' willingness to behavior transformation.

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    Resource Evaluation
    The vulnerability assessment and driving mechanism analysis of China's food security system
    YAO Cheng-sheng, YIN Wei, LI Zheng-tong
    2019, 34 (8):  1720-1734.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190812
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    China has attained lots of achievements in maintaining its food security in the past two decades. However, the food security system of China is still faced with great challenges and has its typical vulnerability characteristics. From the perspective of food security system, using the VSD (vulnerability acoping siagram) analysis framework, the evaluation index system of food security vulnerability in China was constructed in three dimensions of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Based on the statistical data in China from 1991 to 2015, we used the method of principal component analysis to examine the changing characteristics of exposure index, sensitivity index and adaptive capacity index, and revealed the overall trend of food security system vulnerability and its driving factors. The results showed that: (1) The development of exposure index can be divided into rapid decrease stage (1991-2000) and slow decrease stage (2001-2015), and its annual average decline value is 0.121; the development of sensitivity index can be divided into rapid increase stage (1991-2003) and relatively steady stage (2004-2015), while the adaptive capacity index shows a continuous increasing trend during the period of 1991 to 2015, and its annual average increase value is 0.117. (2) The index of food security system vulnerability in China is overall on the decrease, which means that the state of food security in China has been greatly improved. And the changing process of the food security system vulnerability can be divided into three stages of 1991-1999, 2000-2003 and 2003-2015, the first and second stages happened in the age of lower food security level of merely eradicating hunger, and the second decrease stage was in the age of higher food security level of eating more diversified food. (3) The four factors which induced to the change of food security vulnerability in China are per capita GDP, urbanization rate, annual per capita disposable income of urban households (ACDIUH), and annual per capita disposable income of rural households (ACDIRH). In the second stage (2000-2015), the driving effect of the four factors was much smaller than that of the first stage (1991-1999), and the leading driving factor in the first stage was ACDIRH, while in the second stage, the leading driving factors were per capita GDP and ACDIUH. At last, some suggestions are proposed to lower China's food security vulnerability, such as to promote economic growth, increase urban and rural residents' income to eradicate poverty and propel new urbanization.

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    The evaluation of households' livelihood capital and their livelihood strategies in the tourist area: A case study in Hailuogou Scenic Area
    LIU Jun, ZHANG Heng-jin, JIN Meng-meng, LI Ning-xin
    2019, 34 (8):  1735-1747.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190813
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    Sustainable development of tourist destinations needs to focus on the sustainable livelihood of local residents. Based on the theory of sustainable livelihood, this paper takes Hailuogou Scenic Area as an example to analyze the livelihood capital, spatial distribution characteristics of local households and the main factors affecting the traditional and labor-oriented households' livelihood strategies. Firstly, through the household surveys and interviews, farmers in Hailuogou scenic spot are divided into six types according to their income sources and the direction of their main labor input. Secondly, according to the framework of livelihood capital evaluation and index weight, the sustainable livelihood conditions of local households are quantitatively analyzed. Then, with the multiple logistic regression model, the study identifies the main factors that affect the households' choice of high-level livelihood strategies and reveals the spatial distribution characteristics of different types of households. The results show that among the six livelihood strategies chosen by rural households in Hailuogou Scenic Area, balanced-income and tourism-oriented households have the highest level of sustainable livelihood. On the contrary, traditional and labor-oriented households, who are facing many livelihood risks, have the lowest level of livelihood capital. Besides, local households with different livelihood strategies are clustered and distributed spatially. Financial capital is the significant factor affecting the traditional and labor-oriented households' choice of balanced-income strategy, while material capital and social capital have a significant positive effect on the two types of low-level livelihood farmers' choice of tourism-oriented livelihood strategy. In addition, the elevation of rural residential areas, the distance from tourist attractions and roads also have an important impact on farmers' choice of strategies, which means that the lower the elevation of the residential area, the more likely the farmers will choose the balanced-income and tourism-oriented strategies. Similarly, the closer to the core tourist attractions and highways, the more likely local households are to choose two kinds of high-level livelihood strategies.

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    Vegetation cover change and ecological effect assessment in the Loess Plateau of Southwest Shanxi province based on remote sensing image
    ZHANG Wen-qiang, SUN Cong-jian, LI Xin-gong
    2019, 34 (8):  1748-1758.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190814
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    Soil erosion and ecological degradation are serious problems for the Loess Plateau, which have seriously restricted economic development. Based on TM and OLI data, the FVC and RSEI in the Loess Plateau of Southwest Shanxi were estimated in this paper, and the effects of vegetation and ecological restoration were quantitatively analyzed. The results show that: (1) The index of FVC increased from 42.69% in 2002 to 47.67% in 2017, and the index of RSEI increased from 45% in 2002 to 52.5% in 2017, indicating a significant improvement of the ecological quality in the study area. (2) The ecological environment in most parts of the study area has been improved. Ecological degradation occurred in the Zhihe River Basin, Fenhe River Valley and Qinhe River Basin. (3) Due to the large-scale planting of winter wheat in the Fenhe River Valley, the index of FVC has been improved to some extent, but the index of RSEI has not been significantly improved. The variation trend of FVC and RSEI in other areas is basically consistent.

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    Water resources carrying capacity evaluation of the Yellow River Basin based on EFAST weight algorithm
    ZHANG Ning-ning, SU Xiao-ling, ZHOU Yun-zhe, NIU Ji-ping
    2019, 34 (8):  1759-1770.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190815
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    Quantitative evaluation of water resources carrying capacity can provide a basis for effective regulation of water resources, improvement of water resources carrying capacity and elimination of water resources overload areas. Based on the new connotation of water resources carrying capacity, an evaluation index system for water resources carrying capacity was constructed which considered four aspects of water quantity, water quality, watershed and water flow. In traditional research of water resources carrying capacity, there existed many uncertain factors and coupling relationships between indicators. In order to address this issue, this paper calculated the weights using EFAST method, which considers the coupling relationship between indicators. The connection entropy model that can overcome the uncertainty of evaluation was carried out to evaluate comprehensive water resources carrying capacity. By taking the Yellow River Basin as an example, the weights of the carrying capacity indices were calculated using EFAST method and weight entropy method respectively and made a comparison between the two methods. Finally, the water resources carrying capacity of 61 cities in this basin in 2015 was comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that: EFAST method was more reasonable than entropy weight method in identifying important indicators. Cities whose water resources carrying capacity were at grade I (very high), grade II (higher), grade III (medium), grade IV (lower) and grade V (very low) levels accounted for 0%, 4.9%, 18.1%, 63.9% and 13.1% respectively of the number of cities in the Yellow River Basin. The cities of grades IV and V were distributed in provinces except Qinghai.

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    Variation of streamflow and its drivers in Xin'an River Basin
    HUANG Rong, ZHANG Jian-mei, LIN Yi-xue, BU Tian-hui, WANG Xin, XUE Zi-yue, LI Yan-zhong, MA Xie-yao, YU Zhi-guo, BAI Peng
    2019, 34 (8):  1771-1781.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190816
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    Investigation to the variation of streamflow and its drivers in Xin'an River Basin under changing environment will be beneficial for understanding the geographical heterogeneity of water cycle processes in response to climate change and human activities. Using observed discharge at hydrological stations, meteorological data and remote sensing vegetation index (NDVI), the impact of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and vegetation change on runoff in the upper reaches of Xin'an River were analyzed. Results show that: (1) The changing point of streamflow occurred in 1999. From 2000 to 2015, the runoff depth decreased by 281 mm compared with 1983-1999, and the relative change rate was 20.8%, especially significant in the early 21st century. (2) After the changing point, the parameter n increased by 52.5%, and the influence of vegetation change on runoff was significantly enhanced. Streamflow is also more sensitive to precipitation than to ET0. (3) Climate change is the dominant factor for the decrease of runoff, followed by vegetation change. The change of climate and vegetation led to a decrease of runoff by -145.37 and 140.96 mm, respectively, with contribution rates of 50.77% and 49.23%, respectively. After 2000, The NDVI increasing trend reached a very significant level (P<0.001), and the contribution of vegetation change to runoff exceeded precipitation and ET0 individually. However, the long-term research on eco-hydrology effects of vegetation change needs to be further strengthened.

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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Food and nutrition security: A literature review and prospects for research
    SUN Qian, LI Xiao-yun, YANG Zhi-hai, ZHANG Xiao-jiao
    2019, 34 (8):  1782-1796.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20190817
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    Global food security has aroused great concerns in developing areas. In most developing countries, triple burdens of hunger, under-nutrition (inadequate intake of macro- and micronutrients), and over-nourishment (in the form of overweight and obesity malnutrition) coexist. There is a long way to achieve the dual goals of food security and nutrition security. By tracing 95 literatures, this paper aims to figure out the concept development and evolution of food security and nutrition security, and put forward the research priorities of future food and nutrition security. The article explores the evolution of the concept of food security and nutrition security and narrates the evolutionary characteristics, and finds that the concept of food security evolves from adequate supply of cereals to all foods, then to foods quality and nutritional security and sustainable development, with the dimensions of food security extending from a single availability dimension to multiple dimensions of availability, accessibility, utilization, stability, and sustainability. Subsequently, we review the research on food and nutrition demand analysis and forecasting, the capacity of food production, and import impacts; furthermore, we review the impact of income, market, urbanization and farmers' agricultural production on food consumption and nutrition security at the family and individual levels. To achieve the goal of the balanced development of nutrition for urban and rural residents, the paper provides an outlook for future food and nutrition research and brings out four important fields deeply touched to extend study scope and depth for food and nutrition security research in China. This review work reveals that it is of great significance to conduct research on agricultural production diversity, crop planting structure adjustment and crop nutrition enhancement, the impacts of urbanization and market development, and the vulnerable residents' welfare on the nutrition enhancement.

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