#### Table of Content

28 April 2020, Volume 35 Issue 4
Articles
 Ecological profit and loss accounting in the preparation of natural resources balance sheet ZHANG Jie, LIU Yu-jie, PAN Tao, FENG Zhi-ming, YANG Yan-zhao, GE Quan-sheng 2020, 35 (4):  755-766.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200401 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1117KB) ( )   Ecological profit and loss accounting is an important part of the natural resources balance sheet and it is an extension and supplement to the classification of natural resources. This study combs the general idea of ecological profit and loss accounting, systematically summarizes the ecological profit and loss accounting technology, and takes the Weichang county as an example. Following the principle of accounting for values after the physical quantity, the forest, grassland and wetland ecosystems are selected, the service indicator carries out the accounting of the physical quantity and the value quantity, and calculates the physical quantity parameter and the value quantity parameter of each type of ecosystem based on the existing accounting, so as to make a quick and simple accounting comparison based on the area statistics. The study found that, in 2015, the total value of the ecosystem service function value of Weichang county was 33.899 billion, an increase of 0.04% compared with 2013. The value of ecosystem services functioned from grassland to forest and wetland. The values of forest and grassland ecosystems decreased by 0.06% and 0.22%, respectively, and the value of wetland ecosystem increased by 4.47%. The results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the ecological effects brought by the changes in the quantity and quality of natural resources, and provide a data base for liability accounting in natural resource balance sheets.
 Impact of China's "four modernizations" on water footprint intensity SUN Cai-zhi, ZHANG Can-can, GAO Xiao-wen 2020, 35 (4):  767-778.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200402 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1052KB) ( )   This paper adopts the data of 30 provincial-level regions in China from 2000 to 2016 (in which the data of Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan, and Tibet are not collected), builds the "four- modernization" (industrialization, informatization, urbanization, agricultural modernization) index system, calculates the four-modernization index, and conducts regional four-modernization evaluation. Through the OLS and GMM regression models, the influence of the development of the four modernizations on the water footprint intensity is investigated, and the interaction between the four modernizations is set to identify the interaction between the four indicators. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: Firstly, from the perspective of regional development differences at the level of four modernizations, the level of China's four modernizations generally shows that the eastern region is better than the central region, and the central region is better than the western region. The distribution of water footprint intensity is similar. There may be a correlation between the level of development and the intensity of water footprint. Secondly, the econometric model shows that the improvement of the four modernizations has a positive impact on the improvement of water footprint intensity, but the impact of each modernization is different. Thirdly, the influence of the four-modernization interaction on the water footprint intensity is positive, indicating that the improvement effect of the four-modernization development on the water footprint intensity gradually converges. Therefore, priority is given to raising the level of the four modernizations in the backward areas. The improvement of the level of the four modernizations promotes the reduction of water footprint intensity and can effectively reduce the overall water footprint intensity level in China.
 Evaluation of protection effect of coordinated management of different kinds of nature reserves CHEN Yan, HOU Peng, WANG Yuan, PENG Kai-feng, ZHAI Jun, XU Hai-tao, ZHU Han-shou, SUN Chen-xi 2020, 35 (4):  779-787.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200403 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3139KB) ( )   Ecology reserves are the key regions relating to national ecology security. Diving into different protection regions and taking effective measures play an important role in ecological protection management in China. Evaluation of protection effect of nature reserves and coordinated management of different kinds of nature reserves is of great significance. This paper takes nature reserves and key ecological function regions in Jilin as study reasons, they are prohibited and restricted development areas respectively. This article analyses ecological space, vegetation ecology and water conservation services in different kinds of nature reserves, then evaluates and examines different management effects of these regions resulting from management gradient. According to protection effect of important ecological space, the highest area proportion of important ecological space in Jilin province was observed in nature reserves, and the lowest human disturbance index was found in the study area, which is positively correlated with the strict degree of management and control of ecological protection. However, the proportion of important ecological space area decreased from 1980 to 2015, and the extent of reduction was not positively correlated with strictness of management and control. Secondly, according to protection effect of vegetation ecology, the vegetation coverage gradually decreased from the east to the west, which is consistent with the spatial characteristics that the key ecological function areas and most of forest nature reserves are in the east, and the wetlands are in the west. However, due to the high area proportion of wetlands and water type nature reserves, and most of them are located at grassland and plain in the west, the annual variation of vegetation coverage in nature reserves is larger than that of the key ecological function areas, while the multi-year stability of vegetation coverage is lower than that of the key ecological function areas. Thirdly, in terms of protection effect of water conservation services, the water conservation services capacity in the east and west is higher than that in the middle of Jilin province. This is closely related to the fact that most of forests, grasslands and wetlands of Jilin are located in the east and west, and that the key ecological function zone and most of forest nature reserves are also in these areas. The water conservation capacity and its stability in nature reserves is better than those outside the reserves.
 Evaluation and analysis on suitability of development and utilization of the bank line resources in the middle reaches of Yangtze River XIAO Pan, PENG Ke, ZHAO Xing-yue-zi, WANG Xin-feng, LIANG Chuan, CHENG Gang 2020, 35 (4):  788-798.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200404 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3059KB) ( )   Waterfront resources in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River are abundant, with quite high value of development and utilization. This paper establishes, based on sufficient analysis on characteristics of waterfront resources and geological environmental conditions in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the evaluation model for construction appropriateness of major projects such as port and wharf, river-crossing bridge and river-crossing tunnel etc. in the perspective of geology; classifies various project types into four levels i.e. appropriate for development, relatively appropriate for development, generally appropriate for development, and non-priority development by analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and conducts zoning evaluation. According to the results, the port terminal in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River is dominated by non-priority development areas, with a length of 931.47 km, accounting for 46.71% of the total length of the coastline; cross-river tunnels and cross-river bridges are mainly suitable for development and generally suitable for development areas, with the lengths being 1550.75 km and 1224.18 km, respectively, or 77.77% and 61.39% of the total length of the coastline. Finally, we put forward suggestions and rectification measures according to characteristics of each project level, so as to privide a theoretical basis for construction and deployment of major projects in terms of geology, promote the scientifically reasonable development and utilization as well as the effective protection of waterfront resources in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, and further facilitate the development of Yangtze River Economic Zone and national spatial planning, and protect the sustainable and sound development of Yangtze River.
 Spatio-temporal evolution and driving factors of land marketization in the Yellow River Basin since 2000 SONG Yang, ZHU Dao-lin, ZHANG Li-xin, ZHANG Hui 2020, 35 (4):  799-813.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200405 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3146KB) ( )   From the perspective of transaction structure, this paper measured the degree of the marketization of primary land market in 104 cities above the prefecture level of the Yellow River Basin from 2000 to 2016, and analyzed its spatio-temporal pattern evolution by spatial statistical model such as the Global Moran's I and G*i index. Grey correlation analysis model was used to explore the main influencing factors of the spatial-temporal evolution of land marketization level in the study area. The results of this study showed that, from 2000 to 2016, the land marketization level of the Yellow River Basin continued to rise at first and then decreased constantly, presenting a pattern "high level in the east, but low level in the west", which showed significant periodic differences. The land marketization of the whole Yellow River Basin had significant spatial autocorrelation. After accelerated expansion, the hotspots area of land marketization centered on downstream major cities shrank slowly. Several factors, such as the level of economic development, upgrading of industrial structure, investment in fixed assets, government revenue and expenditure ratio, foreign direct investment, and location conditions, influenced the evolution of the spatial-temporal pattern of the land marketization level in the river basin. However, due to the impact of social and economic development of China, the influence degree of various factors significantly changed in different years.
 Optimization of ecological security pattern in the source area of Fenhe River Basin based on ecosystem services HE Juan, SHI Xue-yi, FU Yang-jun 2020, 35 (4):  814-825.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200406 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4961KB) ( )   The optimization of the ecological security pattern is an important spatial way to ensure regional ecological security, maintain ecosystem stability and enhance ecosystem service. Taking the source area of Fenhe River Basin as an example, this paper quantitatively evaluated ecosystem services including water production, habitat quality and soil conservation, and used hot spot analysis to identify important ecological sources. Considering the complex mechanism of rivers in ecosystems, this paper established two ecological security patterns, and on this basis, put forward a comprehensive ecological security pattern. The results showed that there were 19 ecological sources in the source area of Fenhe River Basin, accounting for 16.59% of the total study area. Three ecological security patterns established 33, 42 and 43 potential ecological corridors respectively. The network structure evaluation results showed that three patterns could generate a closed ecological network. The total length of the optimized ecological corridor is 565.957 km, and comprehensive ecological security pattern had higher network closure, node connection rate and network connectivity, and the cost was relatively low. In addition, 35 ecological breakpoints were identified, and key areas for ecological protection and restoration construction were determined. This pattern can provide spatial guidance for regional ecological protection and restoration planning.
 Assessing the effects of the Green for Grain Program on ecosystem carbon storage service by linking the InVEST and FLUS models: A case study of Zichang county in hilly and gully region of Loess Plateau DENG Yuan-jie, YAO Shun-bo, HOU Meng-yang, ZHANG Tong-yue, LU Ya-nan, GONG Zhi-wen, WANG Yi-fei 2020, 35 (4):  826-844.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200407 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (6565KB) ( )   Terrestrial carbon storage is an important indicator of ecosystem carbon storage services, and it has a close relationship with land use change. The Green for Grain Program (GFGP) has brought about great changes in the pattern of land use in the region and had a major impact on ecosystem carbon storage services. In order to simply and quickly assess the impact of GFGP on terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage services, this paper takes Zichang county, which is located in the hilly and gully region of the Loess Plateau, as an example, and used InVEST model to assess the impact of GFGP on the carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, by coupling InVEST model and FLUS model, according to the set A, B, C, and D scenarios of GFGP, the change of terrestrial ecosystem carbon storage and the economic value of carbon sinks in Zichang county in 2037 were predicted. The study found that: (1) Remarkable effect of GFGP in Zichang county occurred. From 2000 to 2017, a total of 31627.98 hm2 of cultivated land was converted to woodland and grassland. The forest and grass coverage rates in the study area increased from 53.26% in 2000 to 64.20% in 2017. (2) The carbon storage service of the terrestrial ecosystem was significantly improved from 2000 to 2017. The terrestrial carbon storage increased from 39.19×106 t in 2000 to 42.34×106 t in 2017, and its growth was mainly found in the main stage of project implementation from 2000 to 2008. (3) In the future, it is assumed that the GFGP will continue to be implemented in the county, and its ecosystem carbon storage services will be further improved. In addition, certain carbon sink economic value will be obtained. Until 2037, it is expected that the terrestrial carbon reserves under the four scenarios of GFGP in the county will reach 43.78×106 t (GFGP scenario A), 44.10×106 t (GFGP scenario B), 44.32×106 t (GFGP scenario C) and 44.54×106 t (GFGP scenario D), respectively. Thus, the net income from the economic value of carbon sinks was US$1627.88 million, US$ 1979.89 million, US$2231.39 million and US$ 2471.67 million, respectively. The coupled InVEST-FLUS model can not only use the InVEST model to evaluate land carbon stocks simply and quickly, but also calculate the terrestrial carbon reserves and carbon sink economic value under future land use change scenarios based on the FLUS model.
 Research on spatiotemporal characteristics of farmland ecosystem NPP in Jianghan Plain from 2000 to 2015 HUANG Duan, YAN Hui-min, CHI Hong, GENG Xiao-meng, SHAO Qi-hui 2020, 35 (4):  845-856.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200408 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3646KB) ( )   NPP of cropland was estimated based on MODIS data and VPM model between 2000 and 2015 in the Jianghan Plain. The spatial autocorrelation and Sen trend methods were used to analyze the spatiotemporal variations and influencing factors of cropland NPP in the study area during the 16 years. The results show that: (1) The average annual NPP of cropland in the plain increased from 2000 to 2005, decreased from 2005 to 2009, and increased from 2009 to 2015. The annual total of cropland NPP was stable from 2000 to 2015. (2) The proportions of high, medium and low yield fields were 66.03%, 27.04% and 6.93%, respectively. NPP had a strong spatial aggregation from 2000 to 2015, which showed an increasing trend year by year, and its aggregation decreased with the increase of spatial distance. The NPP is characterized by high-high aggregation and low-low aggregation in the Jianghan Plain. (3) No significant change was found in 69.5% of cropland NPP, with 1.30% of cropland NPP rising significantly and 29.20% of cropland NPP decreasing significantly in the Jianghan Plain.
 Spatio-temporal distribution of the potential evapotranspiration and its controlling factors in the tableland protected region of the Loess Plateau SUN Cong-jian, ZHENG Zhen-jing, LI Xin-gong, SUN Jiu-lin 2020, 35 (4):  857-868.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200409 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3845KB) ( )   The tableland protected region, as a major region for agriculture and habitation, plays an important role in the Loess Plateau. The information of the regional potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and its distribution on the Loess Plateau are beneficial to the reorganization in regional water cycle, control on the soil erosion and sustainable development of agriculture. Based on the meteorological data of the tableland protected regions of the Loess Plateau during 1960-2017, the spatial and temporal distribution of the ET0 and its controlling factors were analyzed by using the Penman-Monteith model, wavelet analysis, Mann-Kendall test and ArcGIS. The results are shown as follows: (1) The average ET0 of the study area is 1173.4 mm, which shows a significant increasing trend with a rate of 21.1 mm/10 a. The average ET0 in growing season is much higher than that in the non-growing season. (2) The spatial distribution of the multi-year annual average ET0 in the study area decreased from the east to the west, and the multi-year average ET0 in the western Gansu tableland is far lower than that in the eastern Shanxi tableland. (3) Over the past 58 years, the average ET0 of the whole study area, growth season and non-growth season showed a significant increasing trend, but the spatial variations are remarkable. There were 10-year, 30-year and 50-year oscillation periods in the variation of average ET0 in the study area, of which the 30-year oscillation is the main oscillation period during the past 58 years. (4) Air temperature is the most important meteorological factor controlling ET0 change in the region, but the influence of air temperature on ET0 change shows an obvious spatial difference. The lowest temperature has the most significant effect on the ET0 change of the whole study area. The changes of ET0 in the Gansu tableland and Shaanxi tableland are mainly affected by the change of average temperature. The change of maximum temperature in Shanxi tableland has significant influence on regional ET0. (5) The Pacific/North America index (PNA) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) are associated with the regional ET0 change, while the ET0 change of the non-growing season is related to the change of the WPI.
 Dynamic research on sustainable development of farmland-livestock production system based on emergy theory HUANG Huang, SHI Yu, RAN Shan-shan, SU Hai-rong, LIU Jin-e 2020, 35 (4):  869-883.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200410 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2498KB) ( )   To understand the agricultural production dynamics and sustainability in the hilly areas of southeast China, this paper took Dehua county, a typical mountainous area in Fujian province, as an example to quantitatively analyze the changes of input, output, environmental load and sustainability of farmland-livestock systems from 2007 to 2016, and constructed the indicators of waste emergy ratio and environmental pollution emergy negative output. The results showed that the input of the farmland-livestock system in the study area was mainly based on the purchasing emergy, accounting for 68%-79% of the total emergy input, and the emergy of water resources accounted for 21%-31%. The emergy output of livestock systems accounted for more than 72% of the total output. And the emergy density fluctuated between 2.68×1012 and 3.33×1012 sej·m-2, and emergy per person increased from 1.23×1016 sej to 1.72×1016 sej. The net emergy yield ratio decreased by 40%, and the environmental load increased significantly, which could have been maintained since 2015. The emergy sustainability index fell rapidly from 1.14 to 0.42 after a brief rise in 2007-2010. From the indicators of construction, the proportion of system waste emergy decreased, and environmental pollution emergy output decreased by about 22%. In terms of comprehensive economic benefits and waste utilization, the sustainable development of Dehua county has gradually improved in recent years. Dehua county is currently adjusting its output structure of farmland-livestock system. It should increase the amount of feedback emergy in the system, control fertilizer and feed input, and improve waste utilization to achieve sustainable development.
 The transformation of Zeche Zollverein in the Ruhr area: Experience of multi-agent governance ZHANG Chu-lin, LIU Yun-gang 2020, 35 (4):  884-894.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200411 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (2218KB) ( )   Transformation of industrial districts has attracted much attention for long. The Ruhr area in Germany, which used to be a pillar of the industrial economy in the past and is a robust cultural and economic region now, is always a typical case. Based on field visits and semi-structured interviews, this paper takes Zeche Zollverein in Ruhr as an example, trying to find out how multiple agents take part in and cooperate with each other during its transformation and to summarize its mechanism of multi-agent governance. It is found that during the transformation in Zeche Zollverein, administrative, social and market powers actively participate and interact in the protection and development of industrial culture, financing and investment, renovation of buildings and environment, daily operation and management as well as social life and space activation. In the framework of multi-agent cooperation in Zeche Zollverein, different levels of governments combine top-down management and moderate decentralization, acting as a backbone; the public are important elements in the activation of social life while social organizations share public affairs with governments and citizens enjoy participating in public activities; market economies form a virtuous circle between their self-development and the regional transformation. From single subject controlling to multi-agent cooperation, the transformation of governance framework in Zeche Zollverein is a remarkable enlightenment for industrial districts in China. Under the realistic conditions of our country with Chinese characteristics, governments tend to be responsible for every stuff in cities and get overburdened. Learning from Zeche Zollverein, they can try to break away from the idea of "all-around arrangement", and to cooperate more with and release some functions to the society and the market, attracting them to locate in the district and develop themselves on their own initiatives, so as to promote regional transformation jointly.
 Stocks and flows of steel in automobiles, vessels and household appliances in China SONG Lu-lu, CHEN Wei-qiang, DAI Min 2020, 35 (4):  895-907.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200412 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (5568KB) ( )   Material flow analysis (MFA) characterizes and quantifies flows of materials into, out of, and through a socio-economic system of interest, balancing all flows by stocks. Stocks are the amount of concerned manufactured products and materials in active use. Flows refer to the inflow (demand) and outflow (scrap) of products or materials between different processes. Stocks are the driving force for the flows and circulation of substances in the socio-economic system. In this paper, we analyzed steel stocks and flows in automobiles, vessels, and household appliances in the past (1949-2018) and future (2019-2050) by using the dynamic stock-driven model. The results showed that: (1) Steel demand in three industries will be saturated or decreased after reaching its peak; (2) Steel scrap of the three industries will exceed demand after 2040, (3) There will be a large amount of steel scrap produced in automobiles (83 million tons/year), vessels (27 million tons/year), and household appliances (4 million tons/year) by 2050. The results of this paper are intended to provide policy implications for sustainable production and utilization of steel.
 The evolution of land use structure in karst valley area based on micro-space unit LI Shan-shan, LI Yang-bing, WANG Meng-meng, LUO Guang-jie 2020, 35 (4):  908-924.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200413 Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (11428KB) ( )   This paper examines the evolution characteristics of the land use structure in karst valley areas on the basis of remote sensing images SPOT with a resolution of 2.5 m and their corresponding socio-economic data in the years of 2004, 2010 and 2015. This study is also conducted by creating a microspatial unit of 200 m×200 m grid to calculate the composite index of the area proportion and land use degree in the inner part of the cell grid, in combination of bivariate local space autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. It is concluded that: (1) The average proportions of forest land, cultivated land, settlements and bare rock in grids in 2004 were 6.46%, 11.76%, 0.87%, and 28.86%, respectively; in 2010, they were 10.36%, 8.77%, 1.27%, and 27.13%, respectively; in 2015, they were 9.13%, 10.30%, 26.18%, and 1.29%, respectively. (2) Various land use types have obvious spatial differences in terms of spatial distribution. (3) Cultivated land hot spot showed a decreasing trend, and later focused on the southwestern part of the study area, the total hot spot area of the forest increased, and the hot spot of bare rock gradually shrank to the northeast of the study area. In recent years, the hot spot area of land use gradually extended to the northwest of the study area, and the Zanthoxylum Bungeanum forest was mainly distributed in the northern dry-hot valley. In short, the area of forest land in the Huajiang valley area increased, and it gradually evolved into concentrated contiguous areas, while the bare rocky land gradually shrank to the north and northeast of the valley area. The diversified development of farmers' livelihoods and the improvement of traffic conditions in the study area reduced land pressure and gradually improved the ecological environment. This paper, taking typical karst geomorphic units as case study areas, reveals the law of land use evolution and its internal differences in karst mountainous areas of Southwest China, which is of great significance to the research on the characteristics and law of land use evolution on a larger scale.