Table of Content

    28 July 2020, Volume 35 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Forum of "Tourism Resources and National Strategy"
    Theoretical connotation and scientific problems of tourism resources under the background of national strategy
    HUANG Zhen-fang, GE Jun-lian, CHU Shao-ying
    2020, 35 (7):  1511-1524.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200701
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    The implementation of the national strategy has put forward new practical demand and scientific problems for the study of tourism resources. From the aspects of new strategy, new demand, new technology, new methods, new motive force,etc., this paper interprets the new characteristics of the times of tourism resources science under the background of national strategy. It is emphasized that we should take root in the major needs of the national strategy and tourism development, establish a new concept of tourism resources, make comprehensive use of new theoretical thinking and technical methods,and promote the transformation and innovation of the scientific research on tourism resources. It also proposes that tourism resources science in the New Era should draw lessons and integrate relevant theories, establish the basic theory of tourism resources in the respects of resource background, resource utilization, spatial pattern and system coordination, and take tourism attractions theory and tourism human-environment interactions theory as the theoretical core. From the dimensions of tourism resource elements and space and development, the research framework of the "three-dimensional integration" of tourism resources is constructed, and by focusing on national strategies on ecological civilization, cultural power, territorial space, new-type urbanization, rural vitalization, the Belt and Road Initiative, innovation-driven development, healthy China, regional development,etc., relevant scientific issues are condensed, the in-depth local practice and academic exploration of tourism resources research are conducted, tourism resource theory and application innovation are promoted, and a scientific system of tourism resources with Chinese characteristics is constructed.
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    Special Forum of
    Renewal review and research prospect of Classification, Investigation and Evaluation of Tourism Resources for national standard of the People's Republic of China
    BAI Kai, WANG Xin
    2020, 35 (7):  1525-1540.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200702
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    As an unique existence of regional tourism development, tourism resources are not only the key factors to attract tourists, but also the important factors to influence the development of regional tourism economy. Firstly, this paper summarizes the development trend and theme of tourism resources research in the domestic academic circle, which has gone through three development stages: initial stage, mature stage, stagnancy and decline stage. Research topics include concept definition, investigated practice, evaluation and development of tourism resources and so on. Secondly, this paper explains the updated Classification,Investigation and Evaluation of Tourism Resources published in 2017, focuses on the new changes of its content and deeply analyzes the existing problems. In the end, in combination of academic research and practical application, the interaction and extended discussion are illustrated from the following aspects: the analysis of concept about tourism resources, the classification of tourism resources, and the investigation and evaluation of tourism resources. And this paper clarifies the key content and development direction of tourism resources research and application, which is beneficial to the mutual influence and promotion of theory and practice.

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    Special Forum of "Tourism Resources and National Strategy"
    Research on the position and transformation of tourism planning in the New Era of territorial spatial planning
    LONG Jiang-zhi, ZHU He
    2020, 35 (7):  1541-1555.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200703
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    China has entered a New Era of spatial governance that leads the country's "multiple planning integration" with the territorial spatial planning. It has stricter control and higher requirements in technology and coherence over each specialty planning. Consequently, the paper reexamines the nature and status of tourism planning in the New Era of territorial spatial planning, and based on the characteristics of industrial specialization and spatial integration in tourism planning, it divides tourism planning into four types: strategy planning, coordination planning, development planning and construction planning. Then, taking the tourism development planning as an example, the paper puts forward six major transformations of tourism planning: from unbounded thought to bounded, integrated and spatial thought in planning concept; from the will of Party A to market orientation in planning ideas; from "large and all-inclusive" to "specialized and refined" in planning content; from conceptual logic to spatial logic in technical route; from closed to open in planning mode and from lack of technology to technical integration in tourism planning, in order to promote tourism planning to integrate into the territorial spatial planning system in the New Era, and further take lead in the transformation, upgrading and high-quality development of China's tourism industry.
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    The process and mechanism of tourism resources evaluation: From technical evaluation to the social construction perspective
    BAO Ji-gang, CHEN Yuan-yi, MA Ling
    2020, 35 (7):  1556-1569.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200704
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    Tourism resources are the most essential factor in tourism development. Therefore, making rational evaluation and developing valuable potential tourism resources are important foundations. In the late 1950s, geographers and forestry scholars began to be involved in regional tourism resources evaluation. Physical properties and attributes of tourism resources were considered as fundamental factors and taxonomy when evaluated. In order to make the result more scientific, quantitative methods were applied gradually. In the 1970s, addressing the need of tourism planning and destination development, scholars in China and abroad adopted qualitative methods to evaluate tourism resources. Since the 1980s, with the fast growth of tourism market, the scholars have paid more attention to the demand of tourists. Tourism scholars have introduced the perspective of tourist experience as well as a holistic perspective, including nature, humans, aesthetics and other standards, to evaluate the attractiveness of tourism resources. In the 21st century, with the turn of social theory in tourism research, the evaluation of tourism resources began to lay more stress on the importance and the role of discourse and socialization process in tourism development. Tourism scholars and practitioners have used the term of tourism attraction rather than tourism resources to place emphasis on their social and symbolic attributes. Social value and cultural meanings were transmitted to tourism attraction. On the other hand, tourists could receive the meanings through the visit and consumption in the attractions. This paper reviews the process of tourism resources research at home and abroad chronologically, to reveal how the methods, perspectives and theories of tourism resources evaluation evolved from the 1970s to nowadays. It puts forward that the evaluation of tourism resources in the future will show more concern about their practicability and sustainability, tourists' needs and experiences. Moreover, the economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological values are as fundamental as the former aspects. Finally, the new technology, such as the application of 5G, will help raise efficiency of tourism evaluation as well as its visualization.
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    Establishment and application of "culture-tourism" synergies assessment model of rural cultural memory resources: A case study of Jinting town in Suzhou
    LYU Long, HUANG Zhen-fang, LI Dong-ye
    2020, 35 (7):  1570-1585.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200705
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    Rural cultural revitalization is an important part of the strategy of rural revitalization in the New Era. Rural cultural memory resources are the key point of "culture-tourism" synergies in rural tourism destinations. Based on cultural memory theory, we define the concepts of rural cultural memory resources, and construct a "culture-tourism" synergies evaluation model. The "culture-tourism" synergies of rural cultural memory resources involve the comprehensive coordination of cultural information layer, material carrier layer and social behavior layer, so as to construct a three-dimensional evaluation model of "culture-tourism" coordination, cultural memory continuity and tourism market recognition. Taking Jinting town in Suzhou as a typical example, this study evaluates its "culture-tourism" synergies and discusses its spatiotemporal characteristics and influencing mechanism. The results show that: (1) In different stages of tourism development in the study area, the dependence on the construction of scenic spots and the spaces of life and production has been continuously enhanced, the dependence on the functional symbol spaces has been weakened, and the relationship with the social representation spaces and the spiritual consciousness spaces has been reduced, but the level of coupling coordination has been maintained. (2) The "culture-tourism" synergies of rural cultural memory resources show that half of the area of life and production spaces reaches a medium and high level of coupling coordination, presenting a pole-core & zonal pattern. With the other three types of space, one third of them has reached the level of medium and high coupling coordination, showing a pattern of one core and multiple poles. (3) The synergies between the rural cultural memory resources and scenic spots are as follows: the living and production space is dominated by "culture-tourism" spatial coordination, cultural memory continuity, and gradually turns to tourism market recognition as the dominant form, and other types of space are always dominated by "culture-tourism" spatial coordination. These synergies are influenced by the multiple driving mechanisms as memory continuity and cultural integration, spatial optimization and tourism integration, and social support and policy guarantee. The research results provide theoretical guidance and application model for the cultural revitalization and "culture-tourism" integration of rural tourism destinations.
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    The theoretical framework and demonstration of rural adaptive evolution in the context of tourism development
    CHEN Jia, YANG Xin-jun, WEN Xin, DENG Meng-qi
    2020, 35 (7):  1586-1601.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200706
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    Rural transformation and adaptive evolution path are important research contents in the field of rural sustainable development, which have an important theoretical and practical significance for the implementation of rural revitalization strategy and the realization of its multiple goals. Through the key time point of national institutional (strategic) changes, this research combed the development stages of typical rural cases in China, and clarified the regime evolution characteristics of rural transformation and adaptation in the case. On the basis of constructing a theoretical analysis framework for rural adaptive evolution, it took the village with obvious regime evolution as an empirical case, combined questionnaire survey and in-depth interview, and evaluated the system adaptive capacity (results) and effects of rural farmers' livelihood response under rural adaptive evolution. This study revealed the adaptive evolution path and mechanism of the correlation between rural regime shifts and micro farmers' livelihoods based on induction and grey correlation analysis. The results were shown as follows. (1) After the transition from the traditional agricultural regime to the rural tourism regime, the coexistence of rural economic development, environmental damage, and social contradiction risks emerged. The response of rural farmers' livelihood adaptation choices to rural transformation was diversified. (2) There were significant differences in the resilience of farmers' livelihood in different adaptation paths. The livelihoods' resilience of the type of upgrade and expansion was relatively high, while that of the type of maintenance and replacement were relatively low. (3) Rural regime shifts (R1 to Rn) and farmer's livelihood adaptation (P1 to P5) presented an evolutionary path of coordination and differentiation. Factors like infrastructure, policy support, and ecological environment were the key influencing variables of adaptive evolution of the relationship between rural transformation and farmers' livelihood.
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    The measurement of xiangchou and its resource value in traditional village tourism destinations: A case study in Southern Jiangsu
    CHEN Xiao-yan, HUANG Rui, HONG Xue-ting, HU Xiao-hai, LI Dong-ye, SHEN Wei-li
    2020, 35 (7):  1602-1616.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200707
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    "Remembering xiangchou" (nostalgia) is an important part of rural tourism and rural revitalization. Based on the perspective of residents and tourists, this paper develops the scale of xiangchou for traditional villages in Southern Jiangsu province, and discusses the resource value of xiangchou. The results show that xiangchou in traditional village tourism destinations is a comprehensive concept, which is the embodiment of specific human-land relationship, under a certain spatial and temporal condition, and that it is the result of the interaction of xiangchou subject, xiangchou touch point, xiangchou carrier, xiangchou emotion and xiangchou vision. Xiangchou is not only the sadness of leaving the hometown, but also the memory of homesickness, which embodies a certain cultural concept and is a combination of emotion, memory and culture. Through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, the paper discusses and verifies the "culture-emotion-memory" scale of xiangchou in traditional village tourism destinations. There are certain differences between the xiangchou of the residents and tourists: the intensity of residents' xiangchou is higher than that of tourists. The mean value of residents' emotional dimension is the highest, while that of cultural dimension is the lowest; the mean value of tourists' cultural dimension is the highest, but that of emotional dimension is the lowest. Xiangchou has certain resource value, which is mainly reflected in three aspects: emotional connection value, cultural identity and inheritance value, protection and development value. Based on this, some suggestions are put forward.
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    The coupling coordination relationship between industrial structure transformation and upgrade level and tourism poverty alleviation efficiency: A case study of Wuling Mountain Area
    WANG Kai, ZHU Fang-shu, GAN Chang, XI Jian-chao
    2020, 35 (7):  1617-1632.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200708
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    Eliminating poverty and upgrading the industrial structure are major challenges faced by contiguous poverty-stricken areas in the three-year campaign against poverty. Since the national strategy of targeted poverty alleviation was put forward, the tourism industry has become one of the crucial avenues through which residents increase their income, optimize the industrial structure, promote economic development, and escape the poverty trap. It is therefore urgent to study the coupling coordination relationship between industrial structure transformation and upgrade and tourism poverty alleviation efficiency. Taking the 42 national poverty-stricken counties in the Wuling Mountain Area as examples, the SBM model and improved entropy method are applied to measure the tourism poverty alleviation efficiency and industrial structure transformation and upgrading index, respectively. The coupling coordination model is then employed to describe the spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the coupling coordination relationship between industrial structure transformation and upgrade and tourism poverty alleviation efficiency in the Wuling Mountain Area. The results are as follows. (1) The industrial structure transformation and upgrading index of the study area as a whole and each sub-area shows irregular changes, and the future development trend is not obvious. Tourism poverty alleviation efficiency declined slightly at the end of the sample period in Hunan and Guizhou subareas, while Hubei and Chongqing subareas showed a significant upward trend. (2) The uncoupled and uncoordinated county units of industrial structure transformation and upgrade and tourism poverty alleviation efficiency are concentrated in the central part of Wuling Mountain Area, and the number of units decreased annually. The number of counties that achieved coupling and coordination increased significantly and presented an agglomeration trend to the edge zone. (3) The transition from uncoupling disorder (type 1) to coupling coordination (type 2) is the core transformation path, which leads to the fact that the number of type 2 regions increased significantly, and gradually formed a band distribution at the edges of the study area. Finally, based on the above research results, it is suggested that the poverty-stricken areas should actively strengthen the integrated development of tourism industry and other industries, and give full play to the two-way radiation effect of industrial structure transformation and upgrade and tourism poverty alleviation efficiency. This would reconstruct and optimize the coupling path and spatial distribution pattern of the two, which enables the coordinated development of industrial structure changes and poverty alleviation through tourism. In turn, this realizes the optimization and adjustment of the industrial structure in poor areas and allows for smooth poverty alleviation.
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    Influencing factors and path analysis of rural tourism based on tourists' living space changes: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis
    ZHANG Yuan-gang, YU Xiang-yang
    2020, 35 (7):  1633-1646.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200709
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    As a national strategy, the policy of rural revitalization is of great significance. Rural tourism is not only one of the important ways to promote rural revitalization but also an effective way to protect and utilize rural resources. To explore the travel influencing factors of rural tourists, this study aims at the core element of rural tourism development. We utilized the questionnaire survey and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis to investigate multivariate interactions between variables. The results showed that among the 128 combinations of local emotion, nostalgic emotion, subjective norms, perceptual behavior control, attitudes, desires and destination popularity, 12 had sufficient conditional configurations to influence rural tourists' travel behavior. The consistency of local emotion, nostalgic emotion, attitudes, and desires was relatively high, but it was not a necessary and sufficient condition. The overall coverage of the conditional combination of 12 paths was about 0.9165 and the overall consistency was about 0.918919, both of which met the threshold of 0.9. Tourists were affected by multiple combinations with local emotion and nostalgia as the key factors, which were specific conditions to activate other influencing factors. This paper puts forward the influencing factors and path model of rural tourism based on tourists' living space changes, and reveals the mechanism of four kinds of influence paths: the path of "rural emotion-recreation intention", the path of "planning behavior-recreation intention", the path of "recreation desire-recreation intention" and the emotion-behavior synthesis path. This study also aims at helping the tourism practitioners find the most suitable product development solutions for tourists' recreation.
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    Identification and measurement of the response of urban residents' happiness to tourism urbanization agglomeration in Zhangjiajie
    MA Xue-feng, LYU Yi-xiang
    2020, 35 (7):  1647-1658.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200710
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    This paper takes the response of the happiness level of urban residents in less-developed areas to tourism urbanization agglomeration as the research objective. It constructs a model to identify and measure the response intensity of the happiness level of urban residents to tourism urbanization agglomeration. The results show that: (1) The agglomeration of tourism urbanization is a one-way Granger causality of the happiness level of urban residents. (2) Due to the influence of tourism urbanization agglomeration level, the happiness level is affected by different external factors of happiness in different periods, and the grey correlation changes from spiritual cultural environment, natural ecological environment and other non-economic factors to social security environment, life quality environment and other economic factors. (3) The effect of tourism urbanization agglomeration on the happiness level of urban residents is different from the traditional path of improving the happiness level which meeting people's material needs first and then meeting their non-material needs. Instead, it passively improves the "non-material" needs and then drives the "material" needs to improve the happiness level. The research results can provide theoretical support and reference for similar underdeveloped regions to improve the happiness level of residents through the development of tourism urbanization.
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    Other Articles
    Analysis on global food supply and demand balance and its evolution from a perspective of food trade
    WANG Xiang, NIU Shu-wen, QIANG Wen-li, LIU Ai-min, CHENG Sheng-kui, QIU Xin, LI Fan
    2020, 35 (7):  1659-1671.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200711
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    Food availability and self-sufficiency are represented by food supply and production, and food trade is represented by the difference. The changes of dietary nutrition can be better reflected by converting calories per person per day. The study analyzes the situation of food trade during 1986-2013. The results show that global food trade volume increased 1.5 times in the past 28 years, and food production increased 0.75 times. The proportion of trade volume in the production increased by about 8%, which is equivalent to 7.9×108 t of food entering the international market and has become the key to improve the dietary structure. In the past 28 years, food availability and self-sufficiency rose, and most of the world's population reached the minimum level of 2200 kal. Food availability, self-sufficiency and trade volume all showed regional differences. Some countries of Africa and South Asia were low value areas. On the whole, the daily supply of calories and protein per capita increased. Low-income countries grew fastest, followed by middle-income countries, and high-income countries grew slowest. But some underdeveloped countries in Africa still did not meet the minimum standards of nutrition, and part of world's population was still suffering from malnutrition.
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    Analysis of Harbin cross-regional network based on industry structure
    CUI Zhe, SHEN Li-zhen, LIU Zi-shen, WANG Xia
    2020, 35 (7):  1672-1685.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200712
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    Under the background of "flow space", secondary cities in urban network have attracted the attention from regional economic researchers. The role of intra-regional and inter-regional linkages in the development of secondary cities is related to the success or failure of inter-regional cooperation, but we have different understandings toward such a network. Based on the data of enterprises classified by machine learning, after industry classification, this paper studies the total changes and industry characteristics of urban linkages between Harbin and other cities in Northeast China. It is found that: (1) In the inward economic linkages of Harbin, the importance of cities in Northeast China is declining, and the hinterland of outward network is shrinking. (2) There is a trend of industrial-reversal and low-end in service industry in industrial linkages between Harbin and other cities in Northeast China. (3) Unlike other parts of the country, there is no "service center" in Northeast China. By studying the relationship between the total number of links and distance, gross regional product (GRP) and industry comparative advantages between Harbin and cities outside the northeast region, it is found that: (1) Harbin's linkage network shows scale-free characteristics, and the linkages with national central cities do not conform to the distance attenuation law; and the linkages are strongly linearly positively correlated with GRP. (2) The connection in advanced producer services shows a character of agglomeration, while the connection in manufacturing and other services presents a long tail distribution. Compared with the scope of contact, we should pay more attention to the quality of contact with a few "service centers".
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    Analysis on the influencing factors of the diffusion of Chinese Taiwan's agricultural technology in China's Mainland from the perspective of farmers: Taking orchid planting industry in Guangdong-Taiwan agricultural cooperative experimental zone in Shaoguan of Guangdong province as an example
    LI Hang-fei, WEI Su-qiong, WEI Shao-bin
    2020, 35 (7):  1686-1698.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200713
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    Taking orchid planting industry in Guangdong-Taiwan agricultural cooperative experimental area in Shaoguan, Guangdong province as an example, from the perspective of farmers, seven potential variables of external factors under three dimensions were constructed. Based on the questionnaire survey data, the influencing factors of the diffusion effect of Taiwan's agricultural (orchid) technology (potential variable of internal factor) were analyzed through the structural equation model. The results show that the factors, such as the characteristics of farmers' social networks and subjective norms, farmers' cognition to Taiwan's agriculture, characteristics of Taiwan agriculture, characteristics of Taiwan agricultural technical service and basic conditions, have significant positive effects on the diffusion effect of orchid technology, and the corresponding hypotheses pass the test. The factors such as the characteristics of farmers' entrepreneurship and the policy environment do not have significant effects on the diffusion effect of orchid technology, and the corresponding hypotheses do not pass the test. The special regional culture in the experimental area promotes the diffusion of orchid technology; however, it also brings some negative effects. According to the influencing factors of orchid technology diffusion and the actual situation, reasonable countermeasures of orchid industry should be formulated in the experimental area.
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    Research on monitoring resource carrying capacity: Taking Three-Rivers Region in Tibet as an example
    LIU Yu-jie, DAI Liang, ZHANG Jie, FENG Zhi-ming, PAN Tao, GE Quan-sheng
    2020, 35 (7):  1699-1713.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200714
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    The disorderly development of natural resources and the destruction of ecosystems inhibit China's sustainable development. Resource carrying capacity is an important tool to describe the development of regional resources and is also a fundamental basis for measuring regional sustainable development. Based on the statistics of the counties in the Three-Rivers Region in Tibet, this paper quantitatively calculates the resource carrying capacity of water, soil and ecology, and builds a monitoring system for resource carrying capacity based on quantitative evaluation results and applies it to the Three-Rivers Region in Tibet. The results show that: (1) The relationship between population and food in the study region tended to be tense. The population-food-land contradiction was prominent in some counties. Land resource carrying capacity in 76.5% of the counties declined, and land resource carrying indexes for 83.3% of the counties increased. The water resource carrying capacity in the study region was much larger compared with the actual population, and the water resource carrying indexes were less than 0.05, but the water resource carrying capacity in 77.8% of the counties decreased, and the carrying indexes increased. The ecological carrying capacity of each county increased, the carrying indexes decreased, and some counties were in an ecological deficit state. (2) The main constraints of resource carrying capacity in the study region were transformed from ecological carrying capacity to land resource carrying capacity. From 2000 to 2015, among the counties where the resource carrying capacity was critically overloaded or overloaded, the resource carrying capacity that had the greatest impact on the resource carrying status was gradually transformed from the ecological carrying capacity to the land resources carrying capacity. (3) The level of resource carrying capacity in the region gradually increased, and the degree of harm or negative impact may be reduced. From 2000 to 2015, the number of counties with a resource carrying capacity of three (medium load) and below fell from 15 (83.3%) to 3 (16.7%). The establishment of a long-term monitoring mechanism for resource carrying capacity helps to clarify the status quo of resource development and utilization, scientifically utilize regional natural resources, and promote regional ecological protection and sustainable development.
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    Spatiotemporal evolution of land ecosystem service value and its influencing factors in Shaanxi province based on GWR
    GENG Tian-wei, CHEN Hai, ZHANG Hang, SHI Qin-qin, LIU Di
    2020, 35 (7):  1714-1727.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200715
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    Based on the ecosystem service value (ESV) assessment system, geo-detector and GWR model, the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics, influencing factors and dominant factors of ESV of 107 county-level administrative units in Shaanxi province from 2000 to 2015 were analyzed. The spatial heterogeneity of the intensity of the ESV was examined. The main conclusions are as follows. (1) From 2000 to 2015, the ESV in Shaanxi province showed the characteristics of rising and then decreasing. In 2005, the ESV reached the peak in the study period, while that of 2015 saw the bottom. The supply and regulation services were the core functions of the ESV in the province. The service contents in the food production and maintenance of nutrient recycling are the two types of services. (2) The distribution of ESV over the years showed a pattern of "low in the center, while high at the edge; high in the south, but low in the north". The areas with high values were distributed in the Qinling Mountains and the Ziwuling Mountains, and those with low values were concentrated in the Guanzhong Plain. The spatial changes in the ESV are more obvious. The whole province is basically covered by negative values. The high-value areas are less concentrated and concentrated in Northern Shaanxi. The second-highest values?areas are scattered in Guanzhong and Southern Shaanxi. (3) Economic factors have the greatest impact on the ESV, with the strongest interpretation, followed by social factors, and natural factors contribute the least to the interpretation of ecosystem services. (4) The spatial intensity of the effects of various dominant factors on the ESV is different. The land reclamation rate is characterized by a gradual decline from south to north. The per capita GDP gradually increases from south to north, and the population density increases from northeast to southwest. The land reclamation rate, per capita GDP, and population density are all negatively correlated with ecosystem services. The per capita income of urban and rural residents shows that the ESV is changing from negative to positive, from north to south and gradually increases.
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    Spatiotemporal pattern of water conservation and its influencing factors in Bailongjiang Watershed of Gansu
    LIU Dong-qing, CAO Er-jia, ZHANG Jin-xi, GONG Jie, YAN Ling-ling
    2020, 35 (7):  1728-1743.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200716
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    Bailongjiang Watershed is an important area of water conservation in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, with great significance for maintaining the ecological balance of the watershed and promoting regional sustainable development. Taking the Bailongjiang Watershed in Gansu as an example, we used the InVEST water conservation assessment model based on parameter localization to analyze the multi-scale spatiotemporal change of water conservation in the watershed from 1990 to 2016 and its influencing factors. The results showed that the average annual water conservation depth of the watershed was 47.50 mm, with a trend of decreasing first and then rising. In terms of spatial distribution, the high value areas were mainly concentrated in the steep overcast forest area of middle-high mountain in Wenxian, Diebu and Zhouqu (the conservation depth of the three counties, 2500-3500 m altitude section, shaded and semi-shaded slopes, slope section above 25° and the forest land was higher than the average conservation depth of the watershed). The low value areas were mainly distributed in the gentle apricus farming and pastoral areas of middle-low mountain in Tanchang and Wudu (the average conservation depth in the two counties, below 2500 m elevation, sunny slope and semi-sunny slope, below 25° slope, cropland and grassland was lower than the watershed). Under the climatic background, the spatial difference of land use/cover pattern driven by human activities was an important factor affecting the spatiotemporal change of water conservation. Returning cropland to forest is of great significance in slowing down the decline of water conservation depth in the context of climate warming.
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    Impacts of climate change and human activities on runoff variations in Yixun River Basin
    WU Li-yu, ZHANG Xuan, LI Chong, HAO Fang-hua
    2020, 35 (7):  1744-1756.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200717
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    According to the consistency analysis of meteorological and hydrological series, one natural period (1961-1979) and three impact periods (① 1980-1989, ② 1990-1999 and ③ 2000-2016) have been divided by the Mann-Kendall's test in the Yixun River Basin. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model calibrated by the streamflow data in natural period and stepwise method was used to identify the fluctuant impacts of climate change and human activities on the river runoff. Results showed that the climate change in the study area at annual scale was mainly reflected in the significant increase in temperature and there was no obvious trend in precipitation, while the runoff indicated a notable descending trend. Furthermore, the significant increase of precipitation in non-flood season was found at seasonal scale. Climate change and human activities would have significant effects on runoff with the complex mechanism; stepwise method was more appropriate for analyzing the fluctuant impacts than traditional methods. In the period ② with abundant precipitation, the increase of winter rainfall would significantly increase runoff. However, in the period with less precipitation, such as periods ① and ③, the increase of evaporation and the decrease of soil water content would be two factors causing the reduction in runoff. Water consumption reduced runoff in periods ① and ③, and the impact of human activities gradually increased. In period ②, urbanization would be the major effect of the ascending on the runoff. The studies on how climate change and human activities affect the runoff could provide theoretical principal for water resources management and planning in future.
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