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Table of Content

    28 June 2020, Volume 35 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resources and Strategy
    Reform logic of territorial space use regulation and the response path of land spatial planning
    ZHANG Xiao-ling, LYU Xiao
    2020, 35 (6):  1261-1272.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200601
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1061KB) ( )   Save
    Under the macro background of improving the system of ecological civilization, to promote the modernization of national governance system and governance capacity, the paper systematically combs the origin, implementation characteristics, effectiveness and shortcomings of land use regulation system, focuses on analyses of the reform logic of the transformation from land use regulation to territorial space use regulation and its specific requirements for territorial spatial planning, so as to provide reference for improving the territorial spatial planning system. The results show that: (1) The land use regulation system emphasizes the protection of cultivated land, and establishes a complete control chain of land use classification - land use planning - land use plan - approval and supervision with the newly added construction land as the main control object. The land use regulation system has achieved good results in protecting cultivated land, ensuring food security, forcing the conservation and intensive use of land and improving the awareness of using land in accordance with laws and regulations. But there are still some deficiencies, such as incomplete coverage, too rigid regulation, and weak regulation of ecological land. (2) The construction of ecological civilization is the logical starting point of territorial space use regulation. And territorial space use regulation is transforming from single land type protection to space overall planning, from land use type regulation to space management and control, from index transmission to the combination of index and zoning, from bottom line restriction to both constraint and guidance, to build a whole process and diversified regulatory rule system and improve the spatial transmission mechanism of territorial space use regulation, and then realize the unified control of all elements of territorial space. (3) In the face of the needs of the era of territorial space use regulation, the reform of territorial spatial planning should make positive responses in the aspects of systematic and integrated control index system, zoning system covering the whole region and linking up the upper and lower planning, flexible mechanism of planning implementation combining bottom line constraint and incentive guidance, and "whole chain" management mechanism, and then realize the coordinated management and control of different levels of territorial spatial planning and territorial space use regulation.
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    New-type urbanization, well-being of residents, and the response of land spatial planning
    CHEN Ming-xing, ZHOU Yuan, TANG Qing, LIU Ye
    2020, 35 (6):  1273-1287.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200602
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    The urbanization of China has entered the middle and late stage, and the connotation of the people-centered urbanization needs to be further enriched and refined. The land spatial planning is the key to the practice of the new-type urbanization and ecological civilization construction. This paper proposes that the improvement of well-being of residents is the core of the people-centered urbanization. It sorts out relevant domestic and foreign studies on the connotation of well-being, summarizes the subjective and objective measure index systems and methods of well-being, and examines the factors influencing well-being and happiness of residents. In this study, we draw on the experience of foreign spatial planning and take the improvement of the well-being of urban and rural residents as one of the guiding principles for the compilation of land spatial planning. In the process of the practice of land spatial planning, it is necessary to focus on public health, disaster risk assessment system and construction of urban resilience, optimization of "production-living-ecological" spaces, community living spatial planning, fine-scale management, and big data and intelligent decision-making system. Urbanization is the indispensable important component of national spatial planning, and the establishment of national spatial planning promotes the high-quality development of new-type urbanization and the well-being of urban-rural residents. So, we should show great concern on urban scale hierarchy structure, the pattern of population flow network, peri-urbanization and local urbanization, basic allocation and equalization of public service of urban and rural areas, the impacts of climate change and urban disaster risk management, and the basic research of the new-type urbanization, such as the evolution of man-land relationship in the rapid urbanization.
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    Special Forum of "Water Resource and Ecological Environment in Northwest Hebei Province"
    Study on ecological vulnerability and its influencing factors in Zhangjiakou area
    XU Chao-xuan, LU Chun-xia, HUANG Shao-lin
    2020, 35 (6):  1288-1300.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200603
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    Ecological vulnerability is one of the key issues that the international community cannot avoid in the face of a series of ecological problems. It is also one of the hot spots in the research of ecological civilization construction and green development. The paper, based on the SRP model, takes Zhangjiakou area as the research area, and selects 14 indexes to construct the index system of ecological vulnerability assessment in the study area, and combines the principal component analysis method with geodetector to carry out the research and analysis of the ecological vulnerability and its main driving factors in Zhangjiakou city. The results showed that in space, the ecological vulnerability of Zhangjiakou was characterized by a low to high pattern from the south to the north, which was consistent with the natural environmental characteristics of Bashang plateau (at a higher altitude) and the area below Bashang. The ecological vulnerability of Zhangjiakou decreased significantly from 2008 to 2016, and the proportion of light vulnerable area in 2008, 2012 and 2016 was 27.24%, 29.54% and 35.57%, respectively. In the last nine years, the proportions of severe and extremely ecologically vulnerable areas decreased from 30.96% to 1.29%, and the proportion of slightly and lightly ecologically vulnerable areas increased from 38.08% to 69.01%. The structure and function of ecosystem was developing in a positive direction. And the spatial distribution differences of ecological vulnerability in Zhangjiakou area were mainly related to the changes of slope, drought index, vegetation coverage and temperature. Due to high altitude, drought and less rain, the ecological fragility of Bashang plateau was generally high. The whole area below Bashang is slightly fragile, the ecological systems may have strong resistance to external interference, and the ability of self-recovery is strong. The results of 91 interactions indicate that the interaction between any two factors had greater influence on the ecological vulnerability of Zhangjiakou than the effect of any single factor, indicating that the ecological vulnerability of the region was affected by many factors. Based on the evaluation results of spatial principal component analysis and geodetector findings, suggestions for the development of ecological management in Zhangjiakou city are put forward.
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    Spatio-temporal changes of groundwater level and its driving factors in a typical region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China
    ZHAO Yu-feng, LUO Zhuan-xi, YU Ya-jun, CHEN Ying-hui, ZHANG Shu-gang, ZHANG Qing-hua
    2020, 35 (6):  1301-1313.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200604
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    The northwest of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region is an important water conservation area and ecological barrier for Beijing and Tianjin. It is also an important regional support node for the "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei coordinated development strategy". In order to reveal the spatial and temporal changes of groundwater level and its driving factors in northwest BTH region, 56 wells of groundwater level observation were selected from 1981 to 2015 in Zhangjiakou city as a typical region. Based on continuous observation data on hydrogeology, meteorology, groundwater resources exploitation and socioeconomic development, the spatial and temporal changes of groundwater level and its statistical analysis with the abovementioned data were performed in four geomorphic units of Bashang Plateau, Chaixuan Basin, Zhuohuai Basin and Yuyang Basin in the study area. Results showed that the groundwater level of the four geomorphic units in Zhangjiakou and districts and counties under its jurisdiction in general tended to decrease, and the decrease rate was gradually accelerated. In the past 35 years, the groundwater level of Bashang Plateau decreased by 3.59 m < 3.6 m in Yuyang Basin < 7.17 m in Zhuohuai Basin < 20.41 m in Chaixuan Basin. The changes of groundwater level in the four geomorphic units were not significantly correlated with natural factors such as precipitation, evaporation and temperature, but significant correlation between the total population and other socio-economic factors, including primary industry output value, common cultivated land area, effective irrigation area, total grain output, total vegetable output, total pork, beef and mutton output, secondary industry output value, tertiary industry output value and year-end total population. In the principal component analysis, the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first two principal components of the four geomorphic units was more than 80%. The first principal component was mainly socio-economic factors such as total vegetable production, total pork, beef and mutton production, year-end total population and output value of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries. All the first two principal components in the four geomorphic units can explain more than 66%, indicating that socio-economy was the main factor leading to the continuous decline of groundwater level in Zhangjiakou. The findings can provide new insights into the sustainable development of social economy and the rational utilization and allocation of regional water resources in the future, as well as water conservation and ecological function maintenance in the northwest of the BTH region.
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    Hydrochemistry characteristics and the recharge source of groundwater in typical watersheds of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China
    ZHANG Qing-hua, ZHAO Yu-feng, TANG Jia-liang, LU Wen, LUO Zhuan-xi
    2020, 35 (6):  1314-1325.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200605
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    To reveal the characteristics of groundwater circulation in typical watersheds of the northwestern Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, this paper used environmental isotopes and hydrochemical techniques to analyze the characteristics of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes, hydrochemical characteristics and spatio-temporal changes, as well as the relationship between surface water and groundwater transformation in different watersheds of the Zhangjiakou region. Results showed that the surface water in the region was mainly HCO3-Mg·Na and HCO3·Cl-Na type, while in different seasons the water types of the groundwater were not the same. Specifically, the groundwater types were more diverse with HCO3-Mg·Na, HCO3·Cl-Na, HCO3·Cl-Na·Mg types. An ion source analysis indicates that the surface water and groundwater were mainly affected by rock weathering. Parts of the groundwater in Zhangjiakou were affected by evaporation concentration. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of surface water and groundwater were similar, indicating that the water was mainly from the atmospheric precipitation. Based on stable isotopic characteristics, 37.74% of the groundwater in the study region was derived from precipitation, while the remaining 62.26% was from river water, suggesting that the basin groundwater is mainly recharged from the river water.
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    Evaluation on the ecosystem services value of the upper reaches of Yongding River
    ZAN Xin, ZHANG Yu-ling, JIA Xiao-yu, XIONG Guang-sen
    2020, 35 (6):  1326-1337.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200606
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    Zhangjiakou city is the water conservation area and ecological function supporting area of Beijing, the capital of China. The upper reaches of Yongding River in Zhangjiakou play an important role in preserving water resources. In order to get a better understanding of the ecological value of water resources in the study area, various water ecological service functions were quantitatively evaluated in this study. With 2017 as the base year, and the InVEST model and market value method, the water supply in the study area was comprehensively evaluated and intuitively expressed by means of space and currency. In the study area, where spatial data were difficult to obtain, soil and water conservation and biodiversity values were evaluated with the equivalent factor method. The aquatic ecotourism value was calculated with the apportionment method. The results show that the total value is ¥ 5.514 billion, accounting for about 67.35% of the GDP (¥ 8.187 billion) of Zhangjiakou city. The water supply value, hydropower generation value, aquatic product production value, leisure and entertainment value and other direct service values reach ¥ 2.864 billion. Soil conservation, river sediment transport, biodiversity, and other indirect service values reach ¥ 2.650 billion. Water supply, recreation, and soil and water conservation functions play an important role in enhancing the value of regional aquatic ecosystems. The ecological value and economic value per unit area of the study area are ¥ 35 million and ¥ 23 million, respectively, and the ecological value is much higher than the economic value. At the same time, the comprehensive use of the above assessment methods has improved the reliability of the evaluation method and has certain reference significance in the areas without enough basic data.
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    Spatiotemporal variations of surface water quality of main rivers in the upper reaches of Yongding River
    SHAO Zhi-jiang, ZHENG Bin, WANG Tao
    2020, 35 (6):  1338-1347.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200607
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    Water quality improvement in the upper reaches of the Yongding River in Zhangjiakou city has become a most significant work for the water safety of the Winter Olympics in 2022. The spatiotemporal variations of surface water quality and the annual flux of main pollutants in the main rivers of Zhangjiakou were studied by the long-term monitoring in Zhangjiakou in the upper reaches of Yongding River from 2013 to 2017. Results showed that: (1) The water quality in the upper reaches of the Yanghe River in Zhangjiakou was good in 2017, while that in the middle and lower reaches was moderately polluted. The water quality in the upper reaches of the Qingshui River was good, while that of the lower reaches was slightly polluted. The water quality in the Sanggan River was good. (2) The differences between the water quality indexes in different rivers were obvious from 2013 to 2017. The variation of water quality in the upper reaches of the Yanghe River was small from 2013 to 2017, while the that of the middle and lower reaches tends to deteriorate. The fluctuations of water quality in the Qingshui and Sanggan rivers were small, and the five-year comprehensive pollution index of the whole basin was 0.82, corresponding to the level of light pollution. (3) The seasonal changes of water quality in the Yanghe and Qingshui rivers were obvious; however, those in the Sanggan River were not obvious. The water quality indexes of the Yanghe River were higher in summer than those in spring and autumn. And the water quality indexes in spring were higher than those in summer and autumn. Total phosphorus and fluoride are the main pollutants in the upper reaches of the Yongding River, with Yanghe River being the main source of contribution. Among them, the contribution rates of total phosphorus and fluoride are 74% and 61%, respectively. Therefore, the local government should focus more on the prevention of phosphorus pollution because the phosphorus was the main factor that can limit water pollution. Once the water is polluted by phosphorus, it will be very difficult to be remedied.
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    Difference assessment on ecological functions of artificial coniferous forests in water conservation area of Northwestern Hebei
    SUN Fei-fei, ZHANG Zeng-xiang, ZUO Li-jun, ZHAO Xiao-li, PAN Tian-shi, ZHU Zi-juan, WANG Xiao, LIU Fang, YI Ling, WEN Qing-ke, XU Jin-yong, HU Shun-guang
    2020, 35 (6):  1348-1359.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200608
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    Artificial afforestation is considered to be one of the most effective ecological methods to increase carbon sequestration, conserve water and soil, and improve water quality. This study focuses on the main coniferous afforestation tree species (Dahurian larch, Pinus tabulaeformis, Oriental arborvitae and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolical) of Zhangjiakou, based on long-term soil and meteorological data, as well as physiological parameters data of afforestation tree species obtained from literature data with similar conditions, and localized the CENTURY model. The validation data derived from literature investigation is used to evaluate the fitting precision of CENTURY model. The results showed that the CENTURY model had a good simulation on SOC, biomass and soil water content, which could be used for the ecological function assessment of artificial coniferous forest in Zhangjiakou. Compared with young plantation, the results of CENTURY model simulation show that the total reserves of soil C, N and P in half-mature forest of Dahurian larches, Pinus tabulaeformis, Oriental arborvitae and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolical increased by 3.37%, 3.98%, 2.84% and 1.82%, respectively, and the soil water contents increased by 151.25%, 73.62%, 41.83% and 94.98%, respectively. The average evapotranspiration of two ages of Dahurian larches (338.85 mm) < Pinus tabulaeformis (399.86 mm) < Oriental arborvitae (400.52 mm) < Pinus sylvestris var. mongolical (401.82 mm) were compared between different forest species. Dahurian larches can be used as the best afforestation tree species in water conservation area. Pinus sylvestris var. mongolical and Dahurian larches were suggested to be promoted in the downstream areas polluted by agricultural production. This study can provide a reference for ecological engineering construction aimed at different ecological function goals.
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    Soil infiltration under different patterns of land use and its influencing factor in the Bashang and Baxia regions of Hebei province
    WANG Xiao-yi, SU Zheng-an, MA Jing, YANG Hong-kun, HE Zhou-yao, ZHOU Tao
    2020, 35 (6):  1360-1368.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200609
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    To investigate the infiltration capacity under different land use types in typical Bashang region (wind erosion area) and Baxia region (water erosion area) in Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province of China, a Mini Disk Infiltrometer was used to measure soil infiltration capacity of different typical and representative land use types (i.e., cultivated land, forest land and grassland) in Yangyuan and Zhangbei counties. Meanwhile, the influencing factors of soil infiltration capacity were analyzed. Different soil infiltration capacities were found among different land use types. In Yangyuan county, the soil infiltration capacity of the high coverage grassland was the highest among different land use types, and the soil infiltration capacity of the low coverage grassland was higher than that of the cultivated land and forest land. Meanwhile, the soil infiltration capacity of forest land was the lowest among different land use types in Yangyuan county. In Zhangbei county, the soil infiltration capacity of the grassland was the highest among different land use types, and the soil infiltration capacity of the cultivated land was higher than that of the shrub land and shelterbelt land. Meanwhile, the soil infiltration capacity of shelterbelt land was the lowest among different land use types in Zhangbei county. A significant difference in fitting degree could be found among infiltration models. Philip model had the best fitting degree. This result indicated that Philip model should be applied to simulate soil infiltration process of Zhangjiakou city. A significantly negative correlation could be found between bulk density and soil initial infiltration rate, as well as stable infiltration rate and stable infiltration time, while a significantly positive correlation could be found between the total porosity and soil initial infiltration rate, as well as the stable infiltration rate and the stable infiltration time. The results indicated that the grassland had the highest soil infiltration capacity among different land use types and more attention should be paid to the role of grassland in the ecological engineering project so as to enhance the ability of soil water conservation in this region in the future.
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    Assessment of soil erosion change under land use and reforestation scenarios
    WANG Yan-zai, DONG Yi-fan, SU Zheng-an
    2020, 35 (6):  1369-1380.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200610
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    Soil erosion can lead to deterioration of soil health because it degrades soil quality and disrupts both mechanical and chemical processes in the soil. In semiarid regions of northern China, soil erosion is dominated by water and wind erosion, and these two erosion types could occur contemporaneously. To understand appropriate mitigation strategies for soil erosion, we must determine the magnitude and relative influence of water and wind erosion, which varies greatly between regions. Both land use adjustment and reforestation are efficient measures to control soil loss. Many studies have explored the soil erosion reduction based on land use adjustment and reforestation. Bashang region, located in the typical semiarid, agropastoral ecotone of North China, was generally considered a region with severe wind and water erosion. In this study, under five scenarios of land use adjustment, assessment of water erosion and wind erosion in Bashang was conducted using USLE and wind erosion model. Our results show that, (1) regional wind erosion rates, water erosion rates and total erosion rates in Bashang are 8.83±5.15 t·ha-1·a-1, 4.37±6.62 t·ha-1·a-1 and 13.22±8.18 t·ha-1·a-1, respectively. Under five scenarios of land use adjustment, if reforestation practices are not included, (2) the reduction rates of wind erosion, water erosion and total erosion are 4.9%-9.9%, 2.9%-8.3% and 4.3%-9.3%, respectively. However, under the five scenarios, if reforestation practices are included, the reduction rates of wind erosion, water erosion and total erosion are 6.3%-13.8%, 5.2%-16.2% and 5.9%-14.3%, respectively. Thus, the soil erosion reduction rates just due to reforestation were 1.35%-3.93%, 2.27%-7.83% and 1.65%-5.00%, respectively for wind erosion, water erosion and total erosion. (3) We also found that, the reductions of wind erosion have logarithmic relation with the increase of forest land area, the reductions of water erosion have exponential relation with the increase of forest land area, correspondingly, and the reduction of total erosion have linear relation with the increase of forest land area (P<0.01). Our results indicate that, land use adjustment is an efficient measure for mitigating soil erosion, however, the reforestation practices after land use adjustment are important for reduction of soil loss, especially for reduction of water erosion in the study region.
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    Spatiotemporal matching characteristics and economic benefits of sectoral water footprint
    MA Wei-jing, GENG Bo, YANG De-wei, LIU Dan-dan, XU Ling-xing, CLAUDIEN Habimana Simbi, YU Hui, CHRISTIAN Opp
    2020, 35 (6):  1381-1391.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200611
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    The per capita water resources of Zhangjiakou city in 2015 was only 332 m3, or less than 17% of the national level, even below the internationally recognized extreme water shortage standard of 500 m3 per capita. Therefore, water shortage has become one of the major factors restricting the sustainable development of the city. In this paper, we divide Zhangjiakou into three geographical regions: the municipal district, the Bashang area and the Baxia area. On this basis, the water footprint account method is used to calculate the water footprint of the agricultural, industrial, construction, service and domestic sectors of the study city and its three subregions in 2005-2015. Then, the matching levels between water footprint and economic benefits in different regions and sectors are analyzed, and its spatial and temporal differences are discussed in detail. The results show that: (1) Potato cultivation became the main driving factor for the rapid increase of agricultural water footprint in Zhangjiakou city. The contribution rate of potato to agricultural water footprint increased from 10% to 50%, thus potato became the dominant crop, which was mainly planted in the Bashang area. (2) The industrial water footprint decreased by 64%, and the municipal district experienced the fastest decline; the water footprint of construction industry accounted for only 1%-4% of the industrial water footprint; the water footprint of service industry increased from 5.71 million m3 to 14.36 million m3. The municipal district witnessed the largest rise. (3) It is recommended that Zhangjiakou should continue to adjust the planting structure, maximize the use of precipitation, and reduce irrigation water; establish a water-related input-output table in the industrial sector, and plan the industrial structure and layout of the industry within the goal of saving water.
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    Spatiotemporal matching between water resources and social economy: A case study in Zhangjiakou
    HAN Yan, JIA Shao-feng, LU Chun-xia, LYU Ai-feng
    2020, 35 (6):  1392-1401.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200612
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    Water shortage has been become a vital restricted factor for developing of regional socio-economy. It is critical to harmonize the relationship between water exploitation and socio-economic development so as to achieve sustainable utilization of water resources. In this paper, we take Zhangjiakou as a case study, and adopt the Lorenz Gini coefficient method and imbalance index model to examine the spatiotemporal matching between water resources and socio-economy. The results indicate that the match status between water resources and population, and between water resources and farmland, were reasonable and relatively reasonable respectively from 2004 to 2015. The match status between water resources and economy was changing from complete to relative mismatch. In terms of spatial matching, there was little change of matching between water and population, and between water and farmland. The less water resources there are in a region, the faster economic development is, and the worse the matching between water and economy. This study is important for the development and utilization of water resources in the study area.
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    Spatial distribution of sewage industrial point in Zhangjiakou city
    ZHONG Jia, YU Hui, LIU Shao-quan
    2020, 35 (6):  1402-1415.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200613
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    This research analyzes the spatial distribution pattern of industrial point sources and pollution loads in Zhangjiakou city, a central city in the northwest of Heibei province by buffer analysis and hotspot analysis, based on sewage industrial point source information database. The results show that: (1) Industrial point sources are concentrated in neighboring districts on the southeast-west axis of the main urban area. The industrial point source pollution of Zhangbei county and Xuanhua district are the heaviest. (2) Industrial point sources are mostly distributed in the Yongding River system, presenting a banded distribution in the Yanghe River Basin. The high load of water pollutant of industrial point sources is near the river and the city, and high density areas of pollutant discharge are concentrated in Zhangbei county, Xuanhua district and Wanquan district. (3) The large, medium, small and micro enterprises are mainly concentrated in the Yongding River system under the dam, followed by the inland river system. Major emitters of heavily polluting industries are mainly located in Zhangbei, Guyuan and Kangbao county, and major emitters of light pollution industries are concentrated in the intersection of Zhongyang River and Qingshui River in the Yongding River system under the dam. By analyzing the spatial distribution pattern of industrial point sources and their pollution load characteristics, this study can provide guidance for government departments to adjust planning industries and focus on water polluted areas.
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    The coupling characteristics between polluting industrial agglomeration and water pollution discharge in Zhangjiakou
    YU Hui, ZHONG Jia, LIU Shao-quan, YANG De-wei
    2020, 35 (6):  1416-1424.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200614
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    This research examines the spatial agglomeration characteristics of industrial enterprises and their spatial coupling characteristics with water pollution discharge in Zhangjiakou by the method of kernel density analysis and pollutant discharge intensity, based on the environmental statistical data of industrial pollution sources in the study area. The results show that: (1) There is a certain spatial heterogeneity in the spatial concentration of industrial enterprises, and there is almost no pollution-intensive enterprise in Chongli and Chicheng counties. Pollution-intensive enterprises mainly distribute in the urban ecological construction functional areas along the Yanghe River. (2) Agricultural and sideline food processing industry, ferrous metal smelting and calendaring processing industry, food manufacturing industry, coal mining and washing industry are the four major industries with the largest discharge of water pollutants such as COD, NH3-N and total nitrogen. (3) The spatial positive coupling effect between the degree of industrial enterprise agglomeration and the degree of water pollution is obvious, and 96.23% of the areas show a strong positive coupling. The proportion of high pollution value-high concentration area was 0.40%. In view of the four spatial coupling types, the future direction of pollutant emission control is proposed in order to provide the decision-making basis for the government to accurately lock the control area.
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    Other Articles
    Spatial and temporal differentiation characteristics of transportation service function and tourism intensity coordination: A case study of Yunnan province
    GUO Xiang-yang, MU Xue-qing, MING Qing-zhong, DING Zheng-shan
    2020, 35 (6):  1425-1444.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200615
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    Taking the typical tourist destination-Yunnan province as a research case, and based on the multi-source data such as Gaode traffic big data and electronic map POI, this study uses the improved TOPSIS method, coupled coordination model and Tobit model to construct the comprehensive traffic service function and tourism intensity conceptual model. From the perspective of time and space, this paper examines the spatial differentiation characteristics of transportation service function and tourism intensity coordination and the contribution of different transportation service functions to tourism intensity. The results show that: (1) From 2006 to 2016, the synergy effect of comprehensive transportation service functions and tourism intensity in various cities of Yunnan province became more prominent, and the type of coordination leading has changed from "official disorder" to "primary coordination type". (2) The overall pattern of comprehensive transportation service functions and tourism intensity coordination degree shows a pattern of "high in the middle, but low in the east and west as well as in the north and south", and the east and west are greatly divided, and the north-south changes are relatively stable. The regional differences within the province are characterized by "Central part > Southeast > Southwest > West > Northwest > Northeast". There is a significant difference in the spatial differentiation characteristics of different types of transportation modes and tourism intensity coordination. (3) The contribution of roads, railways and aviation lines to tourism intensity is characterized by the unbalance of "air transportation > road traffic > railway traffic". The income of tourism residents, the endowment of tourism resources and the degree of marketization all have positive effects on tourism intensity. However, the lower level of opening up has restricted the improvement of regional tourism intensity to a certain extent.
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    Study on trade embodied carbon and embodied SO2 emission transfer in energy enrichment areas:A case study of Shanxi province
    WU Jing-hui, ZHANG Ge, WANG Geng
    2020, 35 (6):  1445-1459.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200616
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    The source and direction of the embodied carbon emissions and the embodied SO2 emissions between regions can be better understood by quantifying their transfer characteristics between regions, so as to make up the emission reduction and control plan for each region in a rational way. In this paper, a multi-regional input-output model is used to calculate the embodied carbon and SO2 emissions from Shanxi province in 2007 and 2012. The results show that Shanxi was the export area of the embodied carbon and the embodied SO2. The export areas were mainly located in Jiangsu, Hebei, Zhejiang, Shandong, and the input areas were mainly found in Hebei, Shandong, Inner Mongolia and Henan. The embodied carbon and the embodied SO2 emissions transferred from Shanxi to other regions were mainly concentrated in the metal smelting and products industry, construction industry and chemical industry. The embodied carbon and the embodied SO2 emissions transferred from other regions to Shanxi were mainly concentrated in the construction industry, mining and separation industry, metal smelting and products industry. Based on the above conclusions, some key suggestions and measures are put forward.
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    Multi-risk assessment of agrometeorological disasters based on a three-level hierarchical framework
    WANG Xiang, HUAI Jian-jun
    2020, 35 (6):  1460-1471.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200617
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    The multi-risk assessment of agrometeorological disasters is of great significance for disaster prevention and mitigation and the development of risk countermeasures. According to the annual statistics of agrometeorological disasters in Shaanxi province from 1980 to 2015 and the survey data of farmers in 2015-2018, we use multi-risk assessment methods such as Bayesian network and Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM), analyze the change trend of agrometeorological disasters in the province, as well as the interactions between disasters and the impact of livelihood capital on the vulnerability of different crops. The results show that: (1) The rate and intensity of flood disasters in Shaanxi Province from 1980 to 2015 dropped significantly, with slopes of 0.17% and 0.7%, respectively, and the disaster rate of frosts increased significantly, with a slope of 0.25%, while there was no significant change in drought and hail disasters. (2) Droughts and floods significantly aggravated other disasters, and there were complex interactions between various disasters. (3) When we reduced vulnerability by increasing livelihood capital, these livelihood capital indicators, such as the ratio of effective irrigated area, crop planting area, rural electricity consumption and agricultural phosphate fertilizer application, should be selected. The study will improve the adaptability of farmers to agrometeorological disasters and provide guidance for the prevention and mitigation of agrometeorological disasters.
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    Calculation of reference crop evapotranspiration in Shaanxi province based on ANFIS
    LI Ke-li, ZHANG Xin
    2020, 35 (6):  1472-1483.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200618
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    To effectively improve the prediction accuracy of reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in Shaanxi province, eight ET0 calculation models based on the ANFIS were constructed. The data used are obtained from 6 meteorological stations in Shaanxi province. The ET0 calculated by FAO 56 P-M was taken as a standard value. ANFIS was compared with three models, namely, Hargreaves-Samani, Iramk and Makkink. The results show that the ANFIS model can better reflect the complex linear relationship between meteorological factors and ET0. When only the temperature data can be used, the ANFIS model has sufficient accuracy (R2=0.894, RMSE=0.558 mm/d, MRE=18.258%), with the increase of meteorological factors, the accuracy of ANFIS model is improved. The simulation accuracy of ANFIS model is higher than that of Hargreaves-Samani, Iramk and Makkink models under the same input condition. The analysis shows that the ANFIS model has strong generalization ability in the province, and it has higher accuracy based on different sites (R2=0.974, RMSE=0.276 mm/d, MRE=8.608%). Therefore, the ANFIS model can be used as a recommended model for the calculation of ET0 in Shaanxi in the absence of meteorological data, and has good portability, which can provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management and optimal allocation of water resources.
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    Spatio-temporal distribution pattern of potential natural vegetation and its response to climate change from Last Interglacial to future 2070s in China
    REN Zheng-chao, ZHU Hua-zhong, SHI Hua, LIU Xiao-ni
    2020, 35 (6):  1484-1498.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200619
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    Regarded as the final evolutionary status with its standing environment, potential natural vegetation plays a key role in ecological reconstruction, design of natural reserve, and development of agriculture and livestock farming. Based on the Comprehensive and Sequential Classification System model, in combination of climatic datasets containing temperature and precipitation in periods of Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, Mid Holocene, Present-Day, and project climate in the 2050s and 2070s, the spatio-temporal distribution pattern of potential natural vegetation in China and its response to climate change during the six periods were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) 39, 37, 38, 40, 40, 40 and 40 classes, and 10 super-classes were classified for potential natural vegetation by CSCS model from Last Inter-Glacial to future 2070s in China. (2) The frigid-arid super-classes were mainly distributed in northwest China, but warm-humid super-classes and tropical-perhumid super-classes appeared in the central-east China and southern China, respectively. The area was following a descending order: temperate zonal forest steppe, tundra and alpine steppe, sub-tropical zonal forest steppe, frigid desert, semi desert, steppe, temperate zonal humid grassland, tropical zonal forest steppe, warm desert and savanna during the six periods. Tundra and alpine steppe, frigid desert, semi desert, and temperate zonal forest steppe presented a decreasing trend, but the other super-classes showed an increasing trend. (3) The conversion of temperate zonal forest steppe to sub-tropical zonal forest steppe had the biggest area, accounting for 35.4% of total changed area, which meant that the climate shifted sharply and the response of terrestrial vegetation to climate change was sensitive during the period from Last Glacial Maximum to Mid Holocene. (4) CSCS, with more detailed features for classifying grassland vegetation than other models such as RT, excluding the human activity from its classification system, could simulate the long-time series succession of potential natural vegetation. (5) With the global warming, forest shifted to northern China and Tibet with much higher latitude and elevation. The geometrical center, shifting direction and distance of super-classes revealed more offset with more serious impact of climate change. The results further clarified the concept of potential natural vegetation, explored the impact mechanism of climatic change on succession of potential natural vegetation, and enriched the research contents of potential natural vegetation, which could be taken as a reference for construction of regional natural reserve, ecological reconstruction and promotion for agriculture and animal husbandry.
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    Causes of surface sediments and natural environment of Tongwan city in Jingbian county of Shaanxi province during its construction period
    HUANG Xiao-gang, ZHAO Jing-bo, MA Yan-dong, YUE Da-peng, LUO Xiao-qing
    2020, 35 (6):  1499-1510.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200620
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    In order to figure out the natural environment during the construction period (around 1600 years ago) of Tongwan city and a long-standing controversy of whether the city is built on sand deposits, research is done on six profiles of sample bore holes by grain size analysis, X-Ray diffraction, etc. This study indicates that lacustrine deposits are identified under the surface of ground both inside and outside of the city wall, and their features are totally different from wind deposit. The differences are shown as follows: (1) There is yellowish-brown goethite in targeted sand layers. (2) Several dark gray deposited layers are identified. (3) The content of coarse sand in the targeted sand layers is much higher than that in wind deposits. (4) The grain content showed a mixture of coarse and fine sand with a higher degree of separation. (5) The contents of Fe2O3 and A12O3 in fine-sand spots in lacustrine deposits are higher than those in sand deposits. Supported by concrete evidences collected, it is shown that the natural environment of the city was good during the construction period. And the basic landscape is plateau generated owing to the accumulation of lacustrine deposits, on which the ancient city was built. Desertification did not occur during the construction period, but did during a period after its construction.
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