Land use changes can affect the ecosystem services. Since the implementation of reform and opening-up policy in 1978, the transformation and development of society and economy has led to the land use transition, and furthermore led to the "ecosystem services transition". Based on the data of LUCC, net primary productivity (NPP) and statistics in 1980, 2000 and 2015, this paper analyzed the changes and spatial patterns of two types of ecosystem service, e.g., food production, carbon sequestration and oxygen release, in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by using the methods of GIS and ecosystem service values calculation, and revealed the reasons for the "ecosystem services transition". The results show that: (1) In the past 35 years, the land use changes in the study region was mainly characterized by the expansion of construction land and the decrease of cultivated land. The phenomenon of conversion of cultivated land to construction land was particularly prominent in this region. Between 1980-2000 and 2000-2015, the cultivated land in mountainous areas changed from decrease to increase and the forest land changed from decrease to increase. The cultivated land in dam areas continued to increase and the forest land changed from decrease to increase. Both the cultivated land and forest land in plain area continued to decrease. In 1980 and 2000, areas with high values of NPP were mainly located in mountainous areas, and in 2015, they were mainly found in plain areas. (2) From 1980 to 2000, the ecosystem services in the study area were mainly reflected by the increase of food production service and the decrease of carbon sequestration and oxygen production service. From 2000 to 2015, the ecosystem services in the region were mainly featured by the simultaneous increase of food production function and carbon sequestration and oxygen production function. The pattern of "ecosystem service transition" was "food production + carbon sequestration and oxygen production -" → "food production + carbon sequestration and oxygen production +". (3) The main reasons for "ecosystem services transition" were the improvement of agricultural productivity, the increase of area and quality of forest land, and the increase of the quality of cultivated land and grassland. In general, the "ecosystem services transition" in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has a positive impact on food security. It is particularly necessary to pay attention to areas where both food production function and ecological function declined. Policies aimed at improving agricultural productivity should be formulated, while policies for supporting ecological restoration should be continued.