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Table of Content

    28 January 2020, Volume 35 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Editioral
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Ecological Restoration of Territorial Space
    PENG Jian, DONG Jian-quan, LIU Yan-xu
    2020, 35 (1):  1-2.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200101
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    Processes coupling and spatial integration: Characterizing ecological restoration of territorial space in view of landscape ecology
    PENG Jian, LYU Dan-na, DONG Jian-quan, LIU Yan-xu, LIU Qian-yuan, LI Bing
    2020, 35 (1):  3-13.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200102
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    The core of ecological restoration of territorial space is the holistic protection and systematic governance in the new period. It emphasizes the synergies between ecological conservation and socio-economic development. Landscape ecology focuses on the dynamics of landscape structure and function, and the interactive mechanism between them and human society from a comprehensive perspective, especially paying attention to processes coupling and spatial integration. The approach of "coupling patterns and processes-spatial and temporal scale-ecosystem services-landscape sustainability" in landscape ecology can provide significant disciplinary support for ecological restoration of territorial space. In the practice of ecological restoration of territorial space, pattern-process coupling theory should be employed to identify degraded or damaged life community of mountains, rivers, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands. Ecosystem services tradeoffs of multifunctional landscape for balancing social, economic and ecological demands are used to determine ecological restoration targets. For systematic restoration, the ecological security pattern is an effective way to optimize a multi-level restoration network, and the multi-scale cascade framework for human well-being safeguard can be built based on landscape sustainability.

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    Application of landscape ecology in territory optimization
    WU Jian-sheng, WANG Yang-lin, CHANG Hsiao-fei, PENG Jian, LIU Yan-xu
    2020, 35 (1):  14-25.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200103
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    Globalization and urbanization promote rapid development of countries and regions and rapid growth in the area of buildings, diversify ecological functional needs, and expand paucity in the utilization of land resources. It is greatly important to deal with problems and risks including unbalanced regional development, exhaustion of resources, decline in environmental quality, and frequent occurrence of natural disasters in the current territory optimization. The analysis of regional ecological characteristics and advancing and refining development needs based on construction standards of ecological civilization are proposed to enhance the comprehensive benefits of regional ecological services and socio-economic development. Landscape ecology involving analysis of the texture characteristics of surface space from the ecosystem perspective has a long-term effect on the scale, pattern, function, process, and linkage among them and is advantageous in systematically dealing with current problems of territory optimization at different spatial and temporal scales. The study integrates land and resources management under the background of global change from the perspective of landscape ecology and based on an understanding of ecological civilization construction. It raises the demands of the territory optimization in terms of the specific orientation of ecosystem services, efficient building area structures, suitable and diversified industrial development supports, and multi-level ecosystem services and safeguards. Based on studies on different spatial and temporal scales and landscape ecology in land space governance, the current territory optimization should focus on the following topics: (1) Identifying and unifying governance units at different spatial scales; (2) Defining and evaluating spatial variation of landscape functions; (3) Constructing landscape patterns based on ecological risk prevention; (4) Proposing an intensive and efficient plan for the coordinated development of urban and rural areas; (5) Investigating the framework of green development with multi-scale linkage; (6) Exploring multi-level and diverse ecological compensations. Additionally, the marine area included in the territory is less involved in current landscape ecological research. It should be supplemented in a follow-up study to maintain ecosystem services, improve landscape functions, and prevent ecological risk.

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    Thinking for the transformation of land consolidation and ecological restoration in the new era
    WANG Jun, YING Ling-xiao, ZHONG Li-na
    2020, 35 (1):  26-36.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200104
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    As the national land space and ecosystems are affected by global change nowadays, ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning must be the positive responses of China in the new era. Great achievements have been made in the restorations of ecological space and ecosystems through projects for land consolidation and ecological restoration. However, the degradation of some regional ecosystems still exists, and the interference of unreasonable traditional human activities has not been completely eliminated in China. Meanwhile, China faces a large number of challenges in the economic and social developments of the new era. The transformation and improvement of land consolidation and ecological restoration therefore become the inevitable requirement. Through introducing the concepts, connotations of land consolidation, ecological restoration and relationships between them in the new era, this paper suggested that the transformation should be determined by the variations and complexities of regional ecological and environmental issues, the new requirements of ecological civilization construction and land spatial planning. We also indicated the four shortcomings of land consolidation and ecological restoration at present, including working perception, theoretical basis, technological system, and institutional construction. Specifically in recent practices, the integrated and comprehensive concepts are lagging behind, the key theoretical systems are deficient, the technological supports are instable, and the related institutions are insufficient. Therefore, we proposed the strategies for the corresponding transformation, which mainly included: (1) intensifying the systematic thinking and concept to promote the implementation of land consolidation and ecological restoration on a regional basis; (2) upgrading the theoretical system to stimulate the new motivation for land consolidation and ecological restoration; (3) enhancing the technical support to improve the effectiveness of land consolidation and ecological restoration works; (4) improving the institution construction to reinforce the support foundation for land consolidation and ecological restoration implementations.

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    The evolution and frontier development of land ecological restoration research
    YI Xing, BAI Cai-quan, LIANG Long-wu, ZHAO Zi-cong, SONG Wei-xuan, ZHANG Yan
    2020, 35 (1):  37-52.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200105
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    Ecological restoration of the land is a major measure to promote ecological protection and restoration, serve the construction of ecological civilization and accelerate the development of modernization. It is of great significance to human survival and social progress. This paper uses the bibliometrics and network analysis methods, takes 1196 articles in the Web of Science database as the research object, deeply analyzes the dynamic trends, cooperation and research hotspots of the land ecological restoration research, further discriminates the evolution process and explores the progress of the frontier. The research shows that: (1) The land ecological restoration has been increasingly concerned by academic circles at home and abroad, and the research literature mainly concentrates on the fields of ecology and environment. (2) Scholars and research institutions in developed countries such as the United States have prominent influence in this field. China has shown strong development potential and is a core member of the emerging cooperative group, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has become one of the most influential institutions in the world. (3) The elements of water, soil and population with ecology as the core are the main research objects in this field, and the comprehensive research under the intersection of humanities and natural sciences is the future development trend of this field.

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    The new conception and review of territory consolidation based on the past years of reform and opening-up
    WANG Wei, HU Ye-cui
    2020, 35 (1):  53-67.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200106
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    In the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, territory consolidation has changed with the political will and institutional changes in the fields of resources and ecological environment, and has undergone a process of rise, collapse and integration. On the basis of the important policies in the field of territory consolidation in the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, this paper summarizes the development experience, the main problems and the new trend of territory consolidation in the new era, and then puts forward a new conception of territory consolidation. The goal of territory consolidation of the new era will be firmly integrated with the ecological civilization strategy to optimize territorry space, resources and ecology and to create a people-oriented and high-quality territorry space. Territory consolidation in the new era will depend on carrying capacity and suitability evaluation mechanism, combining comprehensive research and attribution analysis to divide "territory consolidation" functional zones and carry out major projects. Territory consolidation will deal with "negative externalities" in the process of territory space development and utilization to restore land functions by various measures, so as to optimize territory space,improve resource utilization efficiency, protect important ecosystem, restore damaged ecosystem, prevent disaster and control pollution. It will enhance carrying capacity, suitability, beauty, security and the sustainability of territory space.

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    Spatio-temporal patterns of ecological capital under different mining intensities in an ecologically fragile mining area in Western China: A case study of Shenfu mining area
    XIAO Wu, ZHANG Wen-kai, LYU Xue-jiao, WANG Xin-jing
    2020, 35 (1):  68-81.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200107
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    Taking Shenfu mining area as an example, this paper selects the ecological environment and statistical data indicators such as land use, vegetation coverage, soil, and meteorology, and then using RS and GIS technology to build an ecosystem service remote sensing measurement and evaluation index system. On this basis, we assess the characteristics of changes in ecosystem services and the spatial and temporal distribution of the study area from 2005 to 2015, and further explore the impact and driving force analysis of ecosystem services under different mining intensities in the Shenfu mining area. The results show that: (1) The total ecosystem services in the study area in 2005, 2010 and 2015 were 1.598×1010 yuan, 1.905×1010 yuan and 2.134×1010 yuan, respectively, showing an increasing trend yearly. (2) The proportion of soil and water conservation value is the largest in ecosystem service functions. The per unit area of grassland has the highest ecosystem service value. Cultivated land and grassland ecosystems have contributed the most ecosystem service value to the region. (3) The distribution of ecosystem services in the study area shows a gradual decrease from northeast to southwest. The growth and changes of ecosystem services under different mining intensities are similar. The impact of coal mining activities on the ecological environment in the study area is generally increasing, and the overall situation is relatively stable. The driving analysis of changes in ecosystem services shows that, in recent years, under the combined effect of relatively improved climate and artificial restoration, ecosystem services in Shenfu mining area did not significantly decrease. The land and space ecological restoration of such semi-arid ecologically fragile mining areas is suitable to avoid large-scale and high-intensity soil and water disturbance governance through active "protective development" and "artificial induction + natural restoration". Through moderate human intervention, the function of ecosystem services in this region is guaranteed and maintained. The research results can well reflect the quality of the regional ecological environment and its changes, and can provide an important basis for regional sustainable development evaluation and ecological environment construction planning.

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    Empirical study on the coupling coordination between development intensity and resources-and-environment carrying capacity of core cities in Pearl River Delta
    WU Da-fang, HU Yue, LIU Yan-yan, LIU Yi-hua
    2020, 35 (1):  82-94.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200108
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    In the Report uring the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2012, President Xi Jinping proposed that we should speed up the construction of an ecological civilization system and resolutely fight the battle against pollution, which is presented in the new round of ecological civilization construction work in Guangdong Province. According to the carrying capacity of regional resources and environment, we should incorporate environmental damage, ecological benefits and other indicators into the comprehensive evaluation system of development, and build a green ecological urban agglomeration in the Pearl River Delta. In this paper, through the construction of development intensity and bearing capacity index system, nine cities in the Pearl River Delta were selected as the research object, and the coupling coordination model was used to quantify the level of sustainable development, and the role of each subsystem was revealed through driving force analysis. The results show that: (1) The contrast of regional development intensity is obvious, and the characteristics of metropolitan area are becoming increasingly prominent. Among them, Shenzhen has the strongest degree of development and Zhaoqing was the weakest; (2) According to the driving factors, the carrying capacity of resources and environment in the region can be divided into natural pulled type and economic pulled type. The comprehensive carrying capacity can be consolidated through natural advantages and socio-economic input, respectively; (3) More than half of the urban eco-economic systems in the region are on the verge of being out of tune. Driven by economic factors, Guangzhou and Shenzhen are relatively more coordinated; (4) We should cope with three coordinated development states in the region, and formulate ecological restoration plans for local cities.

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    Research on the spatial vulnerability and resilience of land in the Yangtze River Economic Belt based on multi-criteria decision
    ZHANG Zheng-yu, JIN Gui, GUO Bai-shu, DONG Yin, CHEN Kun
    2020, 35 (1):  95-105.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200109
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    Scientific assessment of spatial vulnerability and resilience and analysis of its spatio-temporal distribution characteristics can provide reference for the decision-making of land spatial development and protection. The comprehensive index assessment method and the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) method are used to evaluate land spatial vulnerability and to simulate the land spatial resilience at the municipal scale in the Yangtze River Economic Belt, respectively. The comprehensive analysis is used to examine the combination characteristics of land saptial vulnerability and resilience. The results showed that: (1) The spatial vulnerability index of land in the study area has a significant downward trend, and the cumulative decline rate is 16.49% from 2008 to 2017. And the spatial vulnerability index gradually decreases from west to east. (2) Under the policy scenarios of "ecological priority", "maintenance status" and "development priority", the spatial resilience of the region is in the higher degree (47.22%), medium degree (35.19%) and low degree (99.07%), respectively. (3) The land in the Yangtze River Economic Belt is dominated by the types of low vulnerability-moderate resilience and low vulnerability-low resilience, accounting for 30.63% of the total land area. The overall vulnerability of land is low, and its resilience is at a low to medium level.

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    The debris flow disaster land use and ecological restoration measures in Wenchuan earthquake hard-hit disaster areas: A case study in the small watershed of Duba River
    HUANG Hai, YANG Shun, TIAN You, XIE Zhong-sheng
    2020, 35 (1):  106-118.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200110
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    Abundant debris flows and disaster lands have been induced by the Wenchuan earthquake in Longmen Mountain area, Southwest China. The disaster land use and ecological restoration are the most important aspects of the mountain industrial reconstruction. By focusing on the Duba River Basin of Beichuan county as an object, through investigating the conditions of disaster land, characteristics of debris flow and demand of land resource, taking the analysis methods of multi-factor coupling and the key limiting factor, this paper explores how the disaster and development influence the land use and ecological restoration. The results were as follows: The new sources of land supply in Duba River Basin are mainly debris flow disaster lands, and the utilization of disaster land confronts three great limiting conditions, such as the risk of high-frequency debris flow, dynamic settlements, and industrial structure. Through spatial and temporal variation analysis and geo-hazard characteristics, we identify three types of disaster land, such as deposited type, gully erosion type and gully bank erosion type, which shows that there are significant differences in the fertility, safety and traffic conditions. Therefore, based on the following four principles, which contains to divide land use areas according to disaster risks, to give the first priority to the cultivated land in land use, to take into account the needs of industrial development in land utilization, and to improve human settlement environment by ecological restoration, with hazards prevention and evaluation, this paper proposed an idea of the debris flow ecological restoration and built debris flow hazard ecological restoration mode, and applied it to Yangjia gully as an example. In the Yangjia gully watershed, the types of land use were ecological forest land, industrial forest land, and high-quality cultivated land, accounting for 28.5%, 56.3%, and 15.2%, respectively. The ecological restoration measures are mainly taken to improve the vegetation coverage of forest land and to enhance the function of soil and water conservation of cultivated land. The land use and ecological restoration model established in this study, which is based on disaster risk and industrial development, can effectively coordinate the contradiction between human and land, develop the green economy and enhance the environment of human settlements.

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    The influence of ecological restoration projects on cultural ecosystem services in the Xilin Gol Grassland
    LUO Qi, ZHEN Lin, YANG Wan-ni, XU Zeng-rang
    2020, 35 (1):  119-129.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200111
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    Cultural ecosystem services (CES) are important parts of ecosystem services and are receiving increasing attention. As the ecological barriers in the northern China, Xilin Gol League has witnessed more serious degradation in recent years. A large number of ecological restoration projects (ERPs) have been carried out in Xilin Gol, among which, grazing prohibition, rest grazing, grass-animal balance are the most representative ones. In this study, we used the questionnaire survey method to investigate the perceptions of 144 respondents in Xilin Gol on the CES of grassland ecosystem, and analyzed the factors influencing these perceptions. In addition, we compared the CES of grassland in three ERPs areas ("rest grazing", "rest grazing +grass-animal balance", "rest grazing + grass-animal balance + grazing prohibition"). The results showed that: (1) Respondent's perception of grassland's CES was affected by their ethnicity, age and education level (P<0.05), the perception of Mongolian people on mental and physical health, and the aesthetic services is higher than that of Han ethnic groups; the older group has higher perception than the younger one on mental and physical health, education and science, and low perception on recreational services; the group with high education level has higher perception on education and science services. (2) ERPs affected the CES of grassland, several grassland's CES (mental and physical health, inspiration, spiritual and religious services, sense of place, recreational services) in "rest grazing + grass-animal balance + grazing prohibition" region is lower than that of the other two areas.

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    Application of ecological restoration and planning based on resilience thinking in coastal areas
    LI Yang-fan, XIANG Zhi-yuan, YANG Yi, WANG Quan-li, LI Yi
    2020, 35 (1):  130-140.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200112
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    Adaptive characteristics of a resilient system (plan-absorb-recover-adapt) provide supports for ecological restoration and guidances for coastal spatial planning. In this research, we took coastal area of Mulanwan in Hainan province as a case study to estimate desertification mitigation and adaptation based on resilience theory. We developed a methodology of land spatial planning according to the analysis of vulnerability and ecosystem services in our study area. Our results show that: (1) Dry land and sand (21.8% of the total area) were identified as high vulnerability area, forests, water and wetlands (67.5% of the total area) were classified as areas with high ecosystem services; (2) Redeveloping restoration areas were mainly identified in fishing ponds and dry lands (16.4% of the total area), artificial restoration area was located on dry land and windward side (5.5% of the total area), and conservative zone was mainly covered by sands (15.8% of the total area). System's responses to human-related and environmental pressures can be characterized by overlapping the maps of vulnerability and ecosystem services, which addresses the integrated management and resilient restoration in coastal areas.

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    Exploration of ecological restoration pattern and countermeasure along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu province based on the "element-landscape-system" framework
    HAN Bo, JIN Xiao-bin, XIANG Xiao-min, ZHAO Qing-li, LIN Jin-huang, HONG Chang-qiao, JIN Zhi-feng, HU Jing, ZHOU Yin-kang
    2020, 35 (1):  141-161.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200113
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    As a global issue, ecological restoration demands for urgent practice and research in the way of Ecological Civilization construction and green development in China. In a narrow sense, ecological restoration mainly refers to ecological engineering and environmental protection measures. In the face of increasingly complex, systematic and regional ecological problems, it has become a consensus to implement multi-scale, multi-path and multi-element systematic ecological restoration. Aiming at the area along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu province, which is the most contradictory area between ecological protection and economic development, this paper used the methods of qualitative and quantitative to identify ecological problems, and used the relevant theories and methods of land use science, landscape ecology and human-land system to construct the evaluation system of ecological restoration potential from the perspective of "element-landscape-system". Based on Getis-Ord Gi* hot spot analysis and K-means cluster methods, this paper identified ecological restoration zones and hot spots, so as to build an ecological restoration pattern structure composed of points, lines (belts) and areas, and put forward corresponding countermeasures. The results show that: (1) Ecological restoration has multi-scale character, complex-objects character and multi-approaches character. Different scales of ecological restoration have different objects, approaches and objectives, which are connected by different levels and types of planning; (2) The average value of ecological restoration potential at the factor level of the study area is 0.460, and the spatial distribution is characterized by "large scale dispersion and small scale agglomeration". The hot spots of ecological restoration potential at the landscape level are distributed around the Yangtze River Estuary, and the cold spots are distributed in the Yang-Tai plain. According to the evaluation indexes of social economy, ecological function and planning response, the study area can be divided into five clusters; (3) According to the evaluation results, the ecological restoration structure of "five areas, three belts and two cores" can be constructed, and the countermeasures can be put forward in the aspects of development orientation, spatial control strategy, restoration object, engineering measures and so on. This study can provide reference for the compilation of ecological restoration planning of the area along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu province, the exploration of connotation and implementation paradigm.

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    Construction of ecological security pattern for systematic restoration of industrial and mining land in resource-based cities
    WANG Hui-hui, LI Han-ting, XIE Miao-miao, XU Meng, LI Shao-ling, BAI Zhong-ke
    2020, 35 (1):  162-173.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200114
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    The systematic restoration of industrial and mining land for resource-based cities is a critical method to achieve sustainable development. It is necessary to integrate ecological restoration of industrial and mining land in the construction of regional ecological security pattern as whole. Based on the ecological security pattern and circuit theory, this study identified the key points and ecological corridors in 2000, 2005, 2011 and 2017 in Wuhai, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, a typical resourced-based city, and established the important level of restoration priority. The results show that: (1) From 2000 to 2017, the increase of industrial and mining land area and urban expansion on corridor paths led to a decline in the quality and changes in the location of the ecological corridors. The total length of the seven minimum cost paths increased from 120.74 km to 125.71 km; the total of cost weighted distance increased from 692.58 km to 1162.28 km. (2) 14 barriers are identified in 2017 with a total area of 16.06 km2, including 12 key points with a total area of 14.09 km2. (3) The restoration area is the identified ecological corridors from 2000 to 2017 and the key points in 2017, which were divided into important level of restoration priority, with a total area of 475.86 km2. Based on the paradigm of regional ecological security pattern, the study coordinates the ecological restoration of industrial and mining land, making it an organic whole for the restoration of territorial space, and providing decision-making reference for the sustainable development of resource-based cities.
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    Identification and optimization of hierarchical ecological nodes based on multi-target genetic algorithm: Take Jintan district of Changzhou as an example
    ZHANG Xiao-lin, JIN Xiao-bin, ZHAO Qing-li, REN Jie, HAN Bo, LIANG Xin-yuan, ZHOU Yin-kang
    2020, 35 (1):  174-189.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200115
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    Effective ecological network construction can guarantee regional ecological security, which is an important path to achieve regional sustainable development. Based on the analysis of the connotation of ecological nodes, this paper establishes a multi-level ecological node identification system based on "resource-based strategic point - structural strategic point - structural weak point", and uses remote sensing images, land use data, POI data, etc. of Jintan district in 2015. This paper also employs multi-target genetic algorithm, minimum resistance model and so on. The hierarchical ecological network in the ideal state of Jintan district was constructed, and the ecological network was quantitatively evaluated by using indexes such as the network topology and nodes utility. Based on the above, the following main conclusions were obtained: (1) Multi-level ecological network is significantly better than the general network in terms of nodes utility and overall network performance. And the water network area has a strong applicability. (2) As the current situation of the ecological network distribution is uneven, the ecological nodes' layout needs to be optimized. The optimized node coverage increased by 17.70%, the uniformity of node distribution decreased by 45.45%, and the average clustering coefficient increased by 87.36%. (3) Multi-level ecological node system has practical application, and different management strategies should be adopted for different types of ecological nodes.

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    Determining and identifying key areas of ecosystempreservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning based on ecological security patterns: A case study of Yantai city
    FANG Ying, WANG Jing, HUANG Long-yang, ZHAI Tian-lin
    2020, 35 (1):  190-203.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200116
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    Ecosystem preservation and restoration of Mountain-River-Forest-Farmland-Lake-Grass System is very important for national ecological security. Current researches on ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning lack the determination and identification of key areas from a perspective of ecosystem integrity and landscape connectivity. Due to wetland degradation and homogeneity of habitat types that resulted in the low ecosystem resilience, it is urgent for in Yantai, a typical bay city in China, to restore degraded ecosystem and preserve natural resources. In the study, a regional ecological security pattern was proposed and key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration including pinch points, barrier points, break points and fragmented ecological functional land were identified using habitat quality model, habitat risk assessment model, granularity inverse method, minimum cumulative resistance model and circuit theory. The results showed that the ecological hubs covered an area of 668.85 km2, with a total of 1548.36 km corridors between them, and most of the hubs were water body and forests. All of them constructed a "two horizontal and two vertical" ecological security pattern. Key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration were identified based on the ecological security pattern, including a total of 13 ecological pinch points, 8 ecological barrier points, 39 ecological break points, and 1308.66 km2 of fragmented ecological land. Suggestions of restoration were proposed, with a combination of the spatial distribution characteristics and land use status of various key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration. It would help to provide scientific guidance for identifying key areas of ecosystem preservation and restoration for territorial spatial planning and sustainable ecosystem management.

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    Ecological remediation zoning of territory based on the ecological security pattern recognition: Taking Jiawang district of Xuzhou city as an example
    NI Qing-lin, HOU Hu-ping, DING Zhong-yi, LI Yi-bo, LI Jin-rong
    2020, 35 (1):  204-216.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200117
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    Ecological security pattern is crucial for implementing the systematic ecological remediation in the resource-exhausted city. It can assist the government in clarifying and facilitating the orientations and priorities in ecological remediation practices. An ecological remediation zoning of territory based on the ecological security is proposed. In the framework, three-phrase remote sensing images, historical mine information, and GIS spatial analysis are utilized. With the application of the paradigm of ecological pattern research, the essential elements of an ecological pattern are obtained. Ecological source areas are recognized from the perspectives of connectivity, sensitivity, and importance. The ecological resistance surface was revised based on the information of the past minefield boundary. By the application of circuit theory, ecological corridors, and other possible areas of ecological processes were identified. Based on the space superposition of the ecological-source area, barrier area, and resistance surface, the ecological remediation zones are delineated along with the consideration of the needs of ecological restoration, the difficulty of ecological processes, and the characteristics of ecological factors. A case study of Jiawang district in Xuzhou city, Jiangsu province is used to demonstrate the application of the proposed method. Results indicate that the average area of ecological sources accounts for almost 20% of the whole district in 2000, 2008 and 2016. The percentage of ecological sources rose before 2008 and fell after 2008 because of urbanization and mine closure. On the contrary, the change of the ecological resistance surface has an opposite trend due to the fact that urbanization becomes the dominant factor. In the past three phrases, the distributions of ecological corridors have an obvious spatial similarity overall, but differentiation within each town. These corridors are either along the rivers or in the low hilly area with good vegetation coverage. However, they are sparsely distributed in the central-, southern-, and southwestern parts of the region. The barrier areas are overlapping among different phrases and sitting to the northern side of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal, in which obstruction level is higher in the northern and central parts. Due to the treatment of the subsidence area after mine closure, the area of barrier began to decline. Four ecological restoration zones, namely ecological conservation zone, ecological upgrading zone, ecological restoration zone and ecological control zone, are divided into areas of 144.38 km2, 189.60 km2, 182.68 km2 and 103.34 km2, respectively. These findings can provide spatial guidance for ecological transformation and ecological remediation in Jiawang district.

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    Spatial zoning for land ecological consolidation in Guangxi based on the ecosystem services supply and demand
    XIE Yu-chu, ZHANG Su-xin, LIN Bing, ZHAO Yin-jun, HU Bao-qing
    2020, 35 (1):  217-229.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200118
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    Ecological consolidation is of great importance for land consolidation, and it is also the inevitable requirement of ecological civilization construction and rural revitalization strategy. The spatial zoning of ecological consolidation and differentiated management can contribute to economic development and human well-being. In this study, we aimed to characterize the relationship between ecosystem services supply and demand, and identify their spatial heterogeneity with Guangxi as a case study. Firstly, the ecosystem services supply was calculated by using revised value method, and the ecosystem services demands were characterized by using the socio-economic indicators. Secondly, through conducting the relationship framework between land ecological consolidation and ecosystem services, we analyzed and evaluated ecosystem service supply-demand space matching status, relationship, aggregation and coordination degree based on matching types, local spatial autocorrelation analysis and coordination degree. Finally, the spatial zoning of land ecological consolidation, and its regulation measures in different subareas were determined and discussed. The results showed that: (1) Both ecosystem service supply and demand of Guangxi had high spatial variations. The high supply of ES was mainly distributed in the mountainous forest areas or ecological function districts around Guangxi, while the low supply of ES was concentrated in cities. Ecosystem service demands were high in the southeastern Guangxi, whereas they were low in the northwestern Guangxi. (2) The differences of ecosystem services supply and demand spatial matching were obvious, and were grouped into four matching types. The average coordination degree of ecosystem services was 0.531, which was in a general equilibrium level, indicating that ecosystem services supply and demand was in an equilibrium state. (3) Based on the combination of the geographical environment characteristics, landscape heterogeneity and ecological function zoning, the 94 administrative county units in Guangxi could be classified into four land ecological management areas (HH area, LH area, LL area, and HL area), and 10 land ecological subareas. Differential management measures were proposed for each management area. HH area should focus on conservation and cultivation, and prohibit the large-scale construction. HL area should be protected comprehensively to improve production efficiency and management level. LH area should improve land use efficiency and implement comprehensive improvement measures. LL area should target at ecological reconstruction.

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    Multi-scenario simulation and prediction of ecological space in Hubei province based on FLUS model
    WANG Xu, MA Bo-wen, LI Dan, CHEN Kun-lun, YAO Hua-song
    2020, 35 (1):  230-242.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20200119
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    Since reform and opening up in 1978, with the rapid development of China's economy, the problem of ecological environment has become increasingly serious. In order to ensure the ecological security of the countries and regions, it is necessary to simulate and predict the future ecological space. Under the background of the Yangtze River protection strategy and the green development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, this paper takes Hubei province as the research area. Based on the data of land use in 2010 and 2015 and the data of 15 driving factors including natural and human factors, the FLUS model was used to simulate and predict the ecological space of Hubei province in 2035. Based on the current situation of land use in 2010, the results show that the overall accuracy of land use change in Hubei in 2015 is 0.976, and the Kappa coefficient is 0.961, which are of high accuracy. The four scenarios of production space priority, living space priority, ecological space priority and comprehensive space optimization basically meet the needs of different development orientations in this province in the future. From the perspective of geomorphic unit, under different scenarios, the ecological space of Hubei is mainly distributed in the four major mountainous areas on the border of Hubei province, and the ecological space in the central Jianghan Plain is scattered. In terms of quantity scale, the difference in the size and scale of each land use type in different scenarios is more obvious. The area of cultivated land increased by 1216 km2 under the priority of production space, and the scale of urban land use increased by 5959 km2 under the priority of living space. The ecological space used in the ecological space priority scenario increased by 722 km2, while that used in the integrated space optimization scenario became moderate. From the distribution of ecological space change, the ecological space of the four mountainous areas has not changed much, but the ecological space of the central Jianghan Plain is more obvious. From the perspective of administrative divisions, the scope of change is mainly distributed in Wuhan City Circle, Xiangyang city, the central-west of Yichang city and the central part of Suizhou city. All in all, the FLUS model has good applicability to the ecological spatial simulation in Hubei. The results of multi-scenario simulation can provide a multi-angle and multi-directional policy decision reference for the future territorial spatial planning and ecological spatial control in this province.

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