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Table of Content

    20 December 2017, Volume 32 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Economics
    Measurement of Green Efficiency of Water Utilization and Its Spatial Pattern in China
    SUN Cai-zhi, JIANG Kun, ZHAO Liang-shi
    2017, 32 (12):  1999-2011.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161076
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (860KB) ( )   Save
    China is a country with serious water shortage problem. Water pollution is also serious in China, which exacerbates the water shortage situation. Improving water resource utilization efficiency is a key to solve these problems, so the research on it has become the center issue of water sciences. Now the government of China is advocating green development, which has become the theme of the times. The core of green development is the coordinated development of economy, environment and society. The studies of water use efficiency should extend to the social dimension from the traditional water use efficiency. This paper is a trial of this study. The paper scientifically defined the concept and connotations of Green Efficiency of Water Utilization (GEWU) from the perspectives of economy, environment and society. The model of SBM-DEA was applied to measure the GEWU in China from 2000 to 2014. To compare the traditional water use efficiency and GEWU, the Economic Efficiency of Water Utilization (EEWU1) and Environment Efficiency of Water Utilization (EEWU2) were also measured in this paper, and the ESDA method was used to study the spatial pattern. The results show that the social factor has a positive effect on water use efficiency, which means that the value of GEWU is larger than those of EEWU1 and EEWU2. On the whole, the values of the three kinds of efficiency have declining tendency with fluctuations. The fluctuation of EEWU2 is the largest, which means that the water environment regulation is not stable. The fluctuation of GEWU is the second largest one, and the fluctuation of EEWU1 is the least. The GEWU has no direct relation with the economy development level, and some regions with lower economy development level, such as Qinghai, Ningxia, have high GEWU. EEWU1 and EEWU2 have strong spatial autocorrelation, with gradually strengthened degree of agglomeration degree, but GEWU has no obvious spatial autocorrelation and has gradually decreased degree of agglomeration. The green water resources efficiency showed obvious regional difference in the study area during the 15 years, and the regional difference was gradually increasing. In this paper, it is a useful attempt to use the social dimension to provide people with more and better services, and to improve the water resource utilization efficiency. In the measurement of water resource utilization efficiency, the social dimension can reflect the role of social effects, otherwise, it may lead to an error estimation, which will probably mislead policy formulation.
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    Influence Factors and Ecological Compensation Standard of Winter Wheat-fallow in the Groundwater Funnel Area
    XIE Hua-lin, CHENG Ling-juan
    2017, 32 (12):  2012-2022.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161418
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (918KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years, China has vigorously promoted the rehabilitation of cultivated land and the implementation of land fallow policy so as to enhance its land reclamation and guarantee the sustainable development of agriculture. The shortage of water resources has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development in North China. As one of the three pilot sites for fallow land cultivation in North China, the main goal is to fallow high-water-consumption winter wheat and achieve the “one fallow season and one rainy season” policy to reduce the amount of groundwater mining and repair the groundwater environment. Farmers, as the main production and management entities in rural areas, will undoubtedly influence the smooth implementation of policies by understanding and adapting the fallow policies. The winter wheat-fallow policy is a way to alleviate the shortage of water resources in North China. However, the effective implementation of the policy depends on the reasonable compensation to the farmers. This paper discusses the reasonableness of the ecological compensation standard for winter wheat-fallow in the groundwater funnel area in Hebei Province and the main factors affecting the farmer's willingness to fallow. The purpose is to provide theoretical basis for scientifically and rationally developing the rotation policy in the groundwater funnel area. A survey based on questionnaires was conducted, and then the opportunity cost method and Logistic model were used to analyze the willingness of farmers and the compensation standard. The results are as follows: 1) Farmer's educational level, the total number of agricultural labor force in a household, the dependency rate, the attitude of farmers towards winter wheat-fallow policy in the groundwater funnel area and the degree that the farmer's trust in government policy have significantly positive effect on farmer's willingness to fallow. 2) The number of days of participation in farming, cultivated land quality and per capita area of cultivated land have significantly negative effect on farmer's willingness to fallow. 3) Considering only the impact of winter wheat on groundwater, the proposed standard of compensation to farmers is 518 yuan/mu (7 770 yuan/hm2). Finally, this paper puts forward suggestions on how to formulate the compensation policy of winter wheat fallow in the groundwater funnel area, develop the green industry, transfer the surplus labor force, and propagate the fallow policy.
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    Resource Ecology
    The Response of Dynamic Change in Vegetation Coverage to Topography in Chongqing Based on MODIS EVI
    ZHU Lin-fu, XIE Shi-you, YANG Hua, MA Ming-guo
    2017, 32 (12):  2023-2033.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161215
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1058KB) ( )   Save
    The annual change and spatial variation of vegetation coverage in Chongqing during 2000-2015 were studied based on the MODIS EVI datasets. The method of trend analysis was used, and the coefficient was corrected by topography. The response of vegetation coverage to elevation, slope and aspect were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) The coverage of vegetation was dominated by the low and medium coverage. The low coverage was in decline, while the poor, medium and high coverage was increasing. 2) A large proportion of vegetation was in increasing trend, however, with fluctuation. The proportions of the decreased, stable and increased trends of vegetation changes were 3.84%, 81.12% and 15.04%, respectively. 3) The vegetation coverage was low in the areas where the elevation was below 400 m and the slope was below 6°, however, the coverage changed significantly. There were shifts of dominant change types in the areas where the elevation was between 400 m and 1 200 m and the slope was between 6° and 15°. 4) The vegetation coverage was high and stable in the areas where the elevation above 1 200 m and the slope was above 15°. However, the vegetation coverage was decreasing in some area where the elevation was above 1 500 m and the slope was above 25°. 5) In different aspects of slopes, there was no obvious difference of the vegetation coverage change except in the flat area.
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    Influences of Precipitation Increase and N Addition on Soil Potential N Mineralization in Inner Mongolia Grassland
    YANG Hao, HU Zhong-min, GUO Qun, LI Sheng-gong, LI Ling-hao, BAI Wen-ming
    2017, 32 (12):  2034-2042.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161084
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (634KB) ( )   Save
    Increase in precipitation amount and extreme precipitation events are important characteristics of global change in temperate grasslands and may affect grassland productivity. However, the effects of precipitation increase and extreme precipitation events on soil nitrogen (N) supply capacity remain unclear, which limits the prediction of grassland productivity. In this study, precipitation increase experiments with different intensities and N addition experiments were carried out on a temperate Stipa krylovii steppe in Inner Mongolia, China. The aims of the experiments were to investigate the responses of soil potential N mineralization (SPNM) to precipitation increase and N addition. Precipitation treatment was to increase 60 mm precipitation during June and July, compared to ambient precipitation. Precipitation intensities were set to 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 mm and the frequencies of precipitation were every 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 days, respectively. The treatment of N addition was 10 g N·m-1·a-1, compared with ambient N deposition. Soil samples in each treatment were collected at the end of August after two years and then incubated in lab under 20 ℃ and 60% of water holding capacity for four weeks. SPNM were obtained by measuring the soil inorganic nitrogen (SIN). The results showed that: 1) Precipitation increase had no influence on SIN and SPNM, but high intensity and low frequency of precipitation increased SPNM. 2) N enrichment increased SIN and SPNM by 256% and 29%, respectively, compared to control. 3) After N addition, 5 mm precipitation each time significantly increased the SPNM. The work indicates that future precipitation increase has no much influence on soil N supply capacity, however, the effects of future precipitation might be modified by increasing N deposition.
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    Soil Water Use and Competition in Jujube-crop Systems in Loess Hilly Region
    HUO Gao-peng, ZHAO Xi-ning, GAO Xiao-dong, WANG Shao-fei, PAN Yan-hui
    2017, 32 (12):  2043-2054.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161101
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (838KB) ( )   Save
    Since the initiation of the “Grain for Green” project by the Chinese central government in 1999, jujube orchards have been increased rapidly in the hilly region of the Loess Plateau. However, most of these orchards were managed as clean cultivation, which resulted in serious water loss and soil erosion and therefore affected jujube yields and quality. Therefore, we introduced two local economic crops, feed Brassica napus and Hemerocallis fulva, to establish agroforestry to conserve soil and water and raise farmer's income. However, these introduced crops may compete for soil water with jujube trees, and serious water competition can affect the growth and yield of jujube. The primary objective of this study was to investigate water use strategy at different growth stages of plants by using stable oxygen isotope (18O) and Isosource model to evaluate their feasibility in the jujube-crop agroforestry systems. Three potential water sources were identified: shallow (0-20 cm), middle (20-60 cm) and deep soil water (below the 60 cm). The results showed that during the growth period of 2015, jujube trees primarily absorbed soil water in middle and deep layers and used only a small quantity of soil water at surface soil during the whole study period. More specifically, jujube trees mainly used soil water in the middle and deep soil layers in the dry season and in middle layer in the rainy season. The water use of the feed Brassica napus and Hemerocallis fulva were sensitive to small effective rainfall during the dry season. However, they still mainly used middle-layer soil water during the whole season. Nonetheless, the contribution of surface soil water to these two crops increased after apparent rainfall events in the rainy season. Generally, the three kinds of plants had different water using strategies, and there was certain degree of competition in the use of middle-layer soil water in May and July. The results can provide guidance for the jujube-crop agroforesty systems on the Loess Plateau from the point of soil water competition.
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    Research on Agricultural Ecological Compensation Based on River Ecological Base Flow
    CHENG Bo, LI Huai-en
    2017, 32 (12):  2055-2064.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161171
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (574KB) ( )   Save
    In view of the contradiction between agricultural water demand and the ecological base flow in the northwest arid and semi-arid area, this paper proposed a method of calculating the agricultural ecological compensation standard based on the river's ecological base flow. The crop water requirement coefficient was introduced to establish the relationship between the agricultural water shortage and the yield loss due to the protection of ecological base flow and to calculate the amount of agricultural ecological compensation. Taking Baoji Gorge Irrigation Area as an example, the agricultural ecological compensation quantity based on the ecological base flow was calculated. The upper limit was 525 million yuan and the lower limit was 37 million yuan according to the different situations in Baoji Gorge Irrigation Area. Farmers in Baoji Gorge Irrigation Area who lose the yield because of the ecological basic flow are the objects of ecological compensation, and the administrative departments of the river basin are the subjects of the compensation. In order to improve the sustainable development of agriculture in Baoji Gorge Irrigation Area, the implementation of ecological compensation should not be limited to the payment in cash and can be the investment in construction, etc.
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    Resource Evaluation
    The Planting Technology and Industrial Development Prospects of Forage Rape in the Loess Hilly Area—A Case Study of Newly-increased Cultivated Land Through Gully Land Consolidation in Yan'an, Shaanxi Province
    LIU Yan-sui, CHEN Zong-feng, LI Yu-rui, FENG Wei-lun, CAO Zhi
    2017, 32 (12):  2065-2074.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161142
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (677KB) ( )   Save
    The sustainable and efficient utilization of land resource has become a prominent problem in loess hilly-gully region since gully land consolidation. The key issue is to bring the advantages in the agro-pastoral ecotone into full play and develope an agriculture production pattern combining farming and animal husbandry according to the local conditions. This paper analyzed the effects of planting date and seeding density on the growth characteristics and yield of forage rape based on the plot experiments in the Yangjuangou catchment and the Gutun catchment and then explored the new agriculture production mode in the agro-pastoral ecotone. The results indicated that: 1) The seeding date of forage rape should be earlier, mid-April is good, and the suitable density of spring forage rape is 225 000 per hectare. The appropriate seeding rate of spring forage rape is 3.9-5.1 kg/hm2. 2) The spring forage rape needs enough base fertilizer and appropriate topdressing. The principle of “five abandon five reserve” should be followed when thinning out, and singling and watering should be done in the 4-5 leaf stage. 3) According to the multifunction of forage rape, the modes of livestock breeding, vegetable-livestock breeding, vegetable-sightseeing-rapeseed oil can be developed in Yan'an.
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    The Simulation and Multi-scenario Forecast of Urban Spatial Expansion in Oasis Cities—Take Jiuquan and Jiayuguan Cities as Examples
    LIU Hai-long, SHI Pei-ji
    2017, 32 (12):  2075-2088.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161153
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (926KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid progress of urbanization in China, the urban space expanded rapidly. The establishment of urban spatial process dynamic simulation system is a popular research theme in the field of geography space which can simulate the typical regional urban development and explore the development and expansion trend of cities under different conditions. Based on the multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM satellite remote sensing data of 1987, 1995, 2000, 2006 and 2011, we studied the cases in two typical oasis cities: Jiuquan and Jiayuguan. Using the integrated cellular automata model (CA ), artificial neural network model (ANN) and Land Transformation Model (LTM), the trends and characteristics of urban development were studied in different scenarios of intensive growth, integrated growth of Jiuquan and Jiayuguan, and ecological protection. The results show that: 1) The LTM model has good accuracy and reliability in simulating urban expansion that the Kappa coefficient and PCM index for Jiuquan City were 0.581 and 59.57%, and Jiayuguan City were 0.593 and 60.20%, respectively. It can be used for forecast of future urban space expansion in the study area. 2) Three scenarios were comprehensively analyzed, combined with the master plans of Jiuquan City and Jiayuguan City. The future expansion of Jiuquan City will be in the south and the west. The future urban expansion of Jiayuguan will be in the south and east. The two cities expand towards each other speedily and there is an obvious trend of urban integration. 3) Under the influence of the regional integration and ecological protection strategy, the scenarios of Jiuquan-Jiayuguan urban area integration, ecological conservation and intensive growth can better reflect the future urban expansion in the study area. The Kappa coefficient and PCM index of Jiayuguan City were as high as 0.721 and 73.07%, respectively, and the Kappa coefficient and PCM index of Jiuquan City were 0.666 and 68.40%, respectively. Compared with the natural growth scenario, the expanded urban area of Jiuquan City under intensive growth and ecological protection scenarios decreased 9.39% and 9.38% in 2020 and 2030, and that of Jiayuguan City decreased 9.47% and 10.89%, respectively. 4) The government's strategic decision-making is the main driving force of the urban space expansion, which determines the main direction of the expansion of oasis-type cities in the future. Therefore, on the basis of natural background and current situation of development, government-driven decision-making is the internal mechanism of oasis-type urban expansion.
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    Strategy of Rural Residential Land Consolidation Based on the Dominate Function of Township
    YUAN Ye, ZHAO Zhong-qiu, SHI Xue-yi, NIU Shu-ye, ZHU Pei-tian, RONG Lian-wei
    2017, 32 (12):  2089-2099.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161164
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (748KB) ( )   Save
    Various development patterns lead to different dominant functions of towns, which have significant impacts on the demands of the rural residential land consolidation. This paper, taking Zezhou County in southeast of Shanxi Province as an example, analyzed the demands and modes of consolidation in different towns according to the dominant function and the construction suitability evaluation. The results show that: 1) The dominant functions of towns in Zezhou can be divided into four categories: agriculture production function, agriculture ecological function, modern manufacturing function and business and service function, the area of rural residential land with each function being 1 720.89, 620.41, 3 415.58, 4 534.13 hm2, respectively. 2) The demands of rural residential land consolidation of towns with different functions are different. 3) The rural residential land consolidation should follow the principle of “guaranting cultivated land security and ecological environment security, protecting farmers' interests and promotion of region's development, and suiting local conditions”. The results of this paper could provide suggestions to the practice of residential land consolidation and beautiful rural construction.
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    Urban Residential CO2 Emissions and Its Determinants: A Case Study of Central Plains Economic Region
    ZHAO Jin-cai, ZHONG Zhang-qi, LU He-li, WU Le-ying, CHEN Yu-long
    2017, 32 (12):  2100-2114.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161068
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1253KB) ( )   Save
    Urban residential energy consumption and CO2 emissions have a major impact on regional carbon reduction policy. Due to lack of data and limitation of methods, spatial characteristics of urban residential CO2 emissions and its influencing factors at county scale have rarely been discussed. Therefore, taking the Central Plains Economic Region as a case, this paper used the DMSP-OLS nighttime light imageries corrected by enhanced saturation correction model to estimate the spatial distribution of carbon emissions at the 1 km resolution and analyze its influencing factors at the county scale with geographical weighted regression model. The rationality of our method was confirmed in the process of estimating carbon emissions. The linear regression model between the estimated CO2 emissions and the statistical CO2 emissions of urban residents with R2 of 0.837 1 demonstrated that the inversion model based on the nighttime light imageries has strong feasibility and suitability. Based on the carbon emissions of urban residents at 1 km resolution, we can calculate carbon emissions across administrative boundaries. In terms of spatial characteristics, CO2 emissions in the northwest Central Plains Economic Region were significantly higher than those in the southeast. Moreover, Zhengzhou District held the first place of CO2 emissions with total amount of 2.47 ×106 t, accounting for 6.58% of total CO2 emissions. However, Xingtai, Huixian and Xiangyuan were the regions with high CO2 emissions per capita, and these regions with higher carbon emissions per capita should be paid more attention. With respect to influencing factors, per capita GDP, carbon intensity, proportion of secondary industry and HDD (Heating Degree Days) all have the positive effects on urban residential carbon emissions at the county scale. However, urbanization rate presented a negative effect. Furthermore, it's important to note that CDD (Cooling Degree Days) has positive impact on urban residential carbon emissions in some cities while has negative impact in other cities. However, the maximum coefficient of its negative impact was 0.046 6, which could be ignored compared with the coefficient of positive impact. Therefore, CDD would be regarded as a positive influencing factor as a whole. Overall, the analysis of influencing factors in this paper provides an important theory basis for policy-makers to carry out more feasible policy on regional carbon emissions in the Central Plains Economic Region.
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    Carbon Sequestration Potential and Economic Analysis of Agricultural Biochar—A Case Study in Shanxi Province
    ZHU Yu-en, MENG Fan-jian, WANG Yun, LI Li-fen, LI Hua, XIE Wen-xiang
    2017, 32 (12):  2115-2124.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161137
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (678KB) ( )   Save
    Under the pressure of emission reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) and low-carbon development, biochar has attracted wide attention as a new agricultural carbon-sequestration technology. This paper reports a case study about the carbon sequestration potential and economics of biomass pyrolysis products which are the basis of large-scale development and utilization of biomass resources. The study examines whether biochar can be applied for carbon abatement in Shanxi and to what extent it brings economic benefits using an evaluation method integrating biomass resources, carbon abatement potential and economic benefits. The results show that the three main feed stocks offset about 12.28 million tons of equivalent CO2, which approximately accounts for 2.5% of total carbon emissions in Shanxi in 2014. Biomass resources have positive economic profitability. For example, crop straw and agricultural byproducts are around 8.09 RMB yuan and 21.79 RMB yuan per ton of raw material in terms of average and the highest GHG price in 2014, respectively. The total economic value of the three types of biochar ranges from 43.69 million RMB yuan to 280.10 million RMB yuan, showing the economic feasibility of biochar technique in Shanxi. Further study should focus on characteristic parameters estimation, default value screening, cost fluctuation effects and different utilization approaches to improve the applicability and accuracy of the method.
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    Research Method
    Anisotropic Reflectance Effect on the Spectral Mixture Analysis for Vegetation Coverage Estimation
    DUAN Li-min, TONG Xin, LIU Ting-xi
    2017, 32 (12):  2125-2135.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161086
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (790KB) ( )   Save
    Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) models are highly effective methods used to deal with sub-pixel vegetation coverage estimation, among which linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) is the most commonly used one. However, the precision of vegetation coverage estimation retrieved from LSMA is mainly affected by the multiple scattering and end-member spectral variability. Also, anisotropic reflectance effect (ARE), one of the distinctive and inherent properties of surfaces, is very likely to be ignored. This research conducted in situ spectral experiments by using checkerboard-style mixture design which incorporated three types of surfaces. After discussing and analyzing the traditional multiple scattering and the end-member spectral variability, the effect of anisotropic reflectance on the spectral mixture analysis for vegetation coverage estimation was further evaluated. The results indicated that the impact of ARE cannot be neglected. The Carex duriuscula coverage estimation was more accurate after considering of ARE, when minimizing the effect of the traditional multiple scattering and end-member spectral variability. The root mean square error (RMSE) decreased nearly 52%. These results not only emphasized the importance of integrating ARE into vegetation coverage estimation but also indicated that ARE can be regarded as another significant source of variability within the same end-member class. This study broadens the scope of end-member spectral variability, and may put forward a new thinking and direction for vegetation coverage estimation based on SMA.
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    Land Cover Classification in Mountain Areas Based on Sentinel-1A Polarimetric SAR Data and Object Oriented Method
    XIANG Hai-yan, LUO Hong-xia, LIU Guang-peng, YANG Ren-fei, LEI Xi, CHENG Yu-si, CHEN Jing-yi
    2017, 32 (12):  2136-2148.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161306
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1273KB) ( )   Save
    Land cover classification is fundamental and critical to the investigation and assessment of land resources and the global change. However, the cloud-prone and rainy weather in mountain areas make it difficult to obtain valid optical remote sensing images. In addition, the complexity of terrain also has a negative impact on the accuracy when classifying land covers using only optical remote sensing imagery. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can transmit energy at microwave frequencies that are unaffected by weather conditions. This advantage gives SAR all-day and all-weather imaging capability. In this paper, the research area is situated in the mountain areas of Southeast Chongqing. We obtained the backscattering coefficient through a series of preprocessing of the Sentinel-1A polarization data. Then, according to the statistical analyses of VV/VH polarization backscattering coefficients, textures, elevations and slopes of all kinds of land covers, we employed object oriented approach on single temporal and multi-temporal images to improve land cover classification accuracy by combing these features. Finally, we compared the classification results with the result of Landsat 8 OLI data. The research indicated that: 1) The object-oriented classification method with single temporal SAR data has about the same accuracy as the OLI Landsat 8 data, the object-oriented classification with multi-temporal SAR data has the best classification result with the total accuracy 85.65% and Kappa coefficient 0.829 9. 2) SAR data have the advantages in extracting broad-leaved forest and artificial building which improve the accuracy by more than 10%. The classification with multi-temporal data has the advantage in the extraction of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest and farmland whose accuracy is about 9% higher than that with single temporal data. 3) Forest is the main land cover type in the study area which accounts for 42.68% of the total area, followed by farmland and shrub, and the artificial construction, grassland and river are less.
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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Advance in the Reasons for Two Different Grassland Use Patterns Formed and Their Each Effects on the Socio-ecological System on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
    CAO Jian-jun, XU Xue-yun, YANG Shu-rong, LI Meng-tian, GONG Yi-fan, ZHOU Jun-ju
    2017, 32 (12):  2149-2159.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161195
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (633KB) ( )   Save
    In 1990s, grassland contract system was introduced in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, but it has not been implemented thoroughly due to some reasons, and thus two distinct patterns of grassland contract emerged: the multi-household use pattern (MUP) that the grasslands were jointly managed by two or more households without fences between individual household pastures and the single-household use pattern (SUP) that grasslands were managed by individual household with fences demarcating the individual ownership. The reasons of these two patterns and their effects on socio-ecological system caused a wide concern, and researchers have extensively studied in recent years. In this paper, the major progress in this field is reviewed, extensive literature is analyzed and summed up, and common issues in present studies are discussed. In current studies, it lacks of the study in the advantages of the SUP and the weaknesses of MUP, and the coupled socio-ecological systems and properties in this special area are not fully concerned. Based on this, the paper lists several aspects that should be paid more attention in future study, such as the external reasons leading to the emergence of the SUP, possible consequences caused by the SUP, comparative study between the SUP and the MUP according to ecology, economy, society and culture, and the optimum number of households in the MUP.
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    Visual Analysis of Research Situation in the Basic Farmland Field from 1986 to 2015
    QIAN Feng-kui, WANG Wei-wen, ZHANG Jing-ye, ZHANG Xue-feng
    2017, 32 (12):  2160-2170.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161048
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4882KB) ( )   Save
    The purpose of this study is to visually analyze the trend of research in the field of basic farmland research in China during recent 30 years (1986-2015) with clustering map of keywords co-occurrence and time zone map of co-citation. Citespace software was employed to visually analyze 537 literatures collected by searching keyword of “basic farmland”. The results show that: 1) The research of basic farmland focused on four fields of protection, evaluation, demarcation and construction of basic farmland which involve different contents and methods. The basic farmland protection study includes the quality, quantity, environment, protection policy and dynamic monitoring of basic farmland. The research of basic farmland evaluation deals with suitability assessment and quality evaluation of basic farmland. The basic farmland demarcation concerns with theories and techniques of demarcation. The basic farmland construction study deals with zoning, timing sequence, standard and models of basic farmland construction. 2) There were rich and various connotation and contents of basic farmland study, which had epochal characteristics, and the research had characteristics of regional difference and temporal variability. The research scales included provincial scale, city and county scale. The basic farmland research can be divided into three stages: the research emphasized on quantity of basic farmland protection in the initial stage; the quality and quantity protection were equally important in the second stage; and the ecological conditions were integrated in the research of the basic farmland in the recent stage. 3) The research of basic farmland still had some common problems, including indistinct evaluation index, lack of coordination of the evaluation system, and need for fund support. It is concluded that the evaluation and demarcation of farmland should take into consideration of regional features and demands. The research of basic farmland should adapt to national strategic requirements, such as land use planning and consolidation. Lastly, the research of basic farmland is a scientific problem and should be developed to an important search keyword and research field in research fund systems, such as NFSC.
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