Measurement of Green Efficiency of Water Utilization and Its Spatial Pattern in China
2017, 32 (12):
China is a country with serious water shortage problem. Water pollution is also serious in China, which exacerbates the water shortage situation. Improving water resource utilization efficiency is a key to solve these problems, so the research on it has become the center issue of water sciences. Now the government of China is advocating green development, which has become the theme of the times. The core of green development is the coordinated development of economy, environment and society. The studies of water use efficiency should extend to the social dimension from the traditional water use efficiency. This paper is a trial of this study. The paper scientifically defined the concept and connotations of Green Efficiency of Water Utilization (GEWU) from the perspectives of economy, environment and society. The model of SBM-DEA was applied to measure the GEWU in China from 2000 to 2014. To compare the traditional water use efficiency and GEWU, the Economic Efficiency of Water Utilization (EEWU1) and Environment Efficiency of Water Utilization (EEWU2) were also measured in this paper, and the ESDA method was used to study the spatial pattern. The results show that the social factor has a positive effect on water use efficiency, which means that the value of GEWU is larger than those of EEWU1 and EEWU2. On the whole, the values of the three kinds of efficiency have declining tendency with fluctuations. The fluctuation of EEWU2 is the largest, which means that the water environment regulation is not stable. The fluctuation of GEWU is the second largest one, and the fluctuation of EEWU1 is the least. The GEWU has no direct relation with the economy development level, and some regions with lower economy development level, such as Qinghai, Ningxia, have high GEWU. EEWU1 and EEWU2 have strong spatial autocorrelation, with gradually strengthened degree of agglomeration degree, but GEWU has no obvious spatial autocorrelation and has gradually decreased degree of agglomeration. The green water resources efficiency showed obvious regional difference in the study area during the 15 years, and the regional difference was gradually increasing. In this paper, it is a useful attempt to use the social dimension to provide people with more and better services, and to improve the water resource utilization efficiency. In the measurement of water resource utilization efficiency, the social dimension can reflect the role of social effects, otherwise, it may lead to an error estimation, which will probably mislead policy formulation.
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