Table of Content

    20 October 2017, Volume 32 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Green GDP Accounting and Spatio-temporal Pattern in China from 1997 to 2013
    SHEN Xiao-yan, WANG Guang-hong, HUANG Xian-jin
    2017, 32 (10):  1639-1650.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160944
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (4312KB) ( )   Save
    In the view of natural resources and environment, a green GDP index system was constructed, and the green GDP in the mainland of China from 1997 to 2013 was calculated on the national and provincial levels. Furthermore, through the per capita green GDP and green GDP index, the regional differences of green development were revealed. The results showed that the green GDP index was 78.99-87.06 in China from 1997 to 2013. Economic development depended greatly on natural resources, especially energy resources. The index appeared a rising trend showing remarkable resource saving effect. However, environmental pollution governance still needs to be strengthened. From the view of regions, the per capita green GDP and green GDP index presented the same pattern of spatial difference which is East China>Central China>West China. It meant that the more developed regions depended less on resources and environment. Dividing provinces into groups with green development, there were 10 healthy provinces, 5 potential provinces, 10 high-risk provinces and 6 provinces on alert. Health provinces mainly distribute in the eastern coastal regions, while high-risk provinces are mainly in the inland area in the midwest.
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    Resource Economics
    Study on Export Structure Optimization Simulation in China’s Eight Economic Regions under Environmental Constrains
    TANG Zhi-peng, ZHENG Lei, LI Fang-yi
    2017, 32 (10):  1651-1663.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160936
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    The issue of global change is getting the attention of the world. The carbon dioxide emissions produced by the fossil energy consumption is the main reason of global change. Driven by the export policy, China has become the biggest exporter and also the largest carbon dioxide emitter in the world due to the large share of energy resources in the export structure. This larger share of energy resources in export structure severely restricts the sustainable development of China. The export structure with low emissions and high added value is required for regional sustainable development. As the implementation of carbon dioxide emissions reduction in each province, it should be noted that how to achieve the best goal in the whole nation through the regional structural adjustment. Most previous studies on export structure optimization focused only on national scale. In order to reflect the export structure optimization in different regions under the constrains of low carbon and less pollution, this paper constructed a multi-regional optimization model by combining linear programming with multi-regional input-output analysis, and the export structure optimizations in China’s eight economic regions in 2007 and 2010 were studied under the constrains of constant carbon and industrial pollution emissions. The results show that increasing the ratios of service and agriculture in the export structure will contribute to the environment, but it is contrary for the sector of coal mining, washing and processing, the sector of paper and products, printing and record medium reproduction, the sector of metals smelting and pressing, and the sector of electricity and heating power production and supply. It should focus on decreasing the ratios of sectors with high energy consumption and high pollution in northeast region, mid-Yellow River region, mid-Yangtze River region, southwest region and northwest region of the mainland of China, while it should focus on increasing the ratios of manufacturing and services in eastern coastal region, southern coastal region and northern soastal region. The degrees of export structure optimization in eastern coastal region, southern coastal region and northwest region were higher in 2010 than in 2007. The degrees of export structure optimization in the eastern coastal region and the southern coastal region were on top of the list. In contrast, the degree of export structure optimization in northeast region was at the bottom of the list.
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    Theory and Method for Assessing the Environmental Efficiency of Urban Industrial Concentration Areas: A Case Study of Fengtai District, Beijing
    ZHEN Mao-cheng, GAO Xiao-lu, YUAN Hai-hong
    2017, 32 (10):  1664-1677.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160939
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    Urban industrial concentration areas (ICAs) are playing important roles in urban economy and employment. However, the aggregation of pollution discharge in the process of industrial production brings extensive effects on human health and eco-system function in ICAs. In this paper, an evaluation tool is proposed to evaluate the environmental efficiency (EE) of ICAs, which integrates the complex function and environmental impact of ICAs from three aspects: socio-economic contribution, environmental load and environmental risk. The structure of EE assessment, selection of indices, criteria of pollutant and risk industries, and scale effect issue are discussed. The urban environmental statistic data and the polluting resources census data are used. Based on the theoretical discussion on EE assessment in ICAs, an empirical study is conducted in Fengtai District, Beijing. The study area is divided into 1 379 grids of 500 m × 500 m, which has been demonstrated to be appropriate spatial unit for Fengtai District. The EE level of each unit is evaluated. As a result, there are plenty of extreme value points existing, which means the grid of 500 m × 500 m not only makes accurate evaluation result but also helps grasp the environmental problems in the region. It turns out that subdistricts of Taipingqiao, Fangzhuang, Xiluoyuan and Majiabao are undertaking the highest burden of environmental load and the low EE level grids tend to aggregate in central urban areas, along urban express ring roads and around wholesale markets. These findings provide solid scientific basis for making plans of spatial adjustment, environmental management and population regulation.
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    Farm Household’s Decision of Returning Biogas Residues to Farmland and Its Economic Effects
    MU Ya-li, FENG Shu-yi, MA Li, LEI Hao, YUAN Yang
    2017, 32 (10):  1678-1690.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160969
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    Based on the survey data collected from 215 households using biogas digester in Huai’an city and Lianyungang city in Jiangsu Province, this paper firstly analyzed the driving factors affecting farm households’ decision of returning biogas residues (BGRs) to farmland with the Probit model, and then evaluated the economic effects of returning BGRs to farmland with the output supply function. Results indicated that younger householders, members of the village cadres or farmers’ professional cooperatives, households with more contracted land per capita and households using biogas digester more frequently are more likely to return BGRs to farmland. While households with more or less fixed assets are reluctant to return BGRs to farmland. Returning BGRs to farmland can indeed increase crop output. Keeping other variables constant, 1% increase of the rate of returning BGRs to farmland may lead to 0.07% increase of crop output (around 10.81 yuan/hm2). In the research area, if all households using biogas digester can return BGRs to farmland, crop output will increase 356.55 yuan/hm2, indicating considerable economic effects. Robustness test by PSM method further confirmed this conclusion. However, the rate of returning BGRs to farmland is quite low in China, and there is no specific management project regarding BGRs. Therefore, the government should encourage households using biogas digester to make full use of their biogas digesters and village cadres or members of farmers’ professional cooperatives to play the leading role to allow farmers to truly understand the economic effects of returning BGRs to farmland and improve farmers’ enthusiasm of returning BGRs to farmland.
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    Resource Ecology
    Impacts of Urban Expansion on Ecosystem Services in the Drylands of Northern China: A Case Study in the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos Urban Agglomeration Region
    SUN Ze-xiang, LIU Zhi-feng, HE Chun-yang, WU Jian-guo
    2017, 32 (10):  1691-1704.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160928
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    Understanding the impacts of urban expansion on ecosystem services (ESs) in the drylands of northern China is important for regional human well-being and sustainable develop-ment. In this paper, we assessed the impacts of urban expansion on ESs in the Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos (HBO) urban agglomeration region, a rapidly urbanizing drylands in North China, at three scales: urban agglomeration scale, city scale, and county scale. First, we quantified four key ESs in HBO region in 1990, including habitat quality (HQ), crop production (CP), meat production (MP), and carbon storage (CS). Second, we analyzed the processes and modes of urban expansion in HBO region during 1990-2013. Finally, we evaluated the influences of urban expansion on ESs at urban agglomeration, city and county scales. We found that the HBO region experienced a rapid urban expansion during 1990-2013, with urban land area increasing by 1.2 times from 314.22 km2 to 692.10 km2. The rapid urban expansion in HBO region resulted in obvious decreases of the four key ESs. Among these ESs, CP suffered the biggest loss with a decrease of 13 581.41 t, accounting for 0.99% of total CP in HBO region in 1990. At the same time, MP and CS decreased 70.19 t and 1.65 Tg C, accounting for 0.25% of total MP and 0.29% of total CS in HBO region in 1990, respectively. In addition, HQ decreased 0.47, accounting for 88.68% of the mean HQ in HBO region in 1990. The modes of edge expansion and leapfrog expansion had the greatest impacts on ESs in HBO region. During 1990-2013, the decreases of CP, MP and CS caused by edge expansion accounted for more than 60% of the total decrease of ESs in HBO. The losses of MP caused by leapfrog expansion accounted for more than 1/3 of the total losses of ESs in HBO region. The large-scale decreases of cropland and grassland during the urban growth of edge expansion and leapfrog expansion were the main causes for the losses of ESs. Thus, we suggest that effective utilization and management of urban land with respect to urban growth of edge expansion and leapfrog expansion are needed to reduce the impacts of urban expansion on ESs in HBO region.
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    Study of Ecological Water Transfer Mode and Ecological Compensation Scheme of the Tarim River Basin in Dry Years
    GUO Hong-wei, XU Hai-liang, LING Hong-bo
    2017, 32 (10):  1705-1717.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160961
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    In recent years, the exploration of water and soil resources in the Tarim River Basin has led to increasingly violent contradiction between water supply and demand, especially in dry years. Ecological and social securities are seriously threatened. It is urgent to put forward scientific and reasonable ecological water transfer mode and ecological compensation scheme. Using surface runoff, water diversion and recession and groundwater depth of the four source streams and main stream of the Tarim River Basin, remote sensing data of the main stream and meteorological data, this paper calculated the water loss of each river and ecological water demand in the lower reaches of the main stream based on water balance principle, and water resources allocation scheme in dry years was put forward. Furthermore, the ecological water transfer mode in dry years and corresponding ecological compensation scheme were determined. The results showed that in dry years water demand in the lower reaches is 7.01×108 m3, taking at least 10.70×108 m3 of water in the upper reaches. If transferring water from the source stream in the upper reaches to the source stream in the lower reaches, the total benefit and economic benefit of 1 m3 water will be reduced by 38.2% and 81.2%, respectively. Therefore, the transferring water from the upper reaches to the lower reaches is impracticable. After water transfer, the source stream in the upper reaches should compensate the Kaidu-Kongque River 3.4 yuan/m3. This study provides a scientific basis for the development, utilization and management of water resources.
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    Study on the Eco-efficiency of Land Use Transformation in Jiangsu Province from the Perspective of Carbon Emission—Based on the Mixed Directional Distance Function
    YANG Hao-ran, WU Qun
    2017, 32 (10):  1718-1730.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160906
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    Ecological efficiency is related to both economy and ecology. It is important to control the environmental impact to the minimum for the normal development of social economy. Greenhouse gas emissions, such as CO2, are the main causes of global warming and have become the focus problem of improving global environment. In a certain extent, land use transformation affects the land ecology and affects the land ecological efficiency through land input and output. Analyzing the influence mechanism of land use transformation will help minimize the land utilization cost and maximize the ecological value of land. Taking CO2 emissions as non-expected output index of eco-efficiency, this paper constructed the land use transformation input and output index system and calculated the ecological efficiency and environmental total factor productivity growth of 13 cities in Jiangsu Province during 2006-2014. The total factor productivity changes were decomposed using mixed directional distance function model and Global Malmquist-Luenberger index. The results showed that the excessive CO2 emissions and excessive energy consumption caused environmental inefficiency problem in many cities; the average ecological efficiency of Jiangsu Province during 2006-2014 is 0.827, and the resource intensity and the pollution emission intensity can be increased by 17% on average if we can make full use of current technologies; the ecological efficiency change in Jiangsu Province showed regional differences, and there are spatial correlations and agglomerations of the eco-efficiency; environmental TFP growth, which was mainly caused by pure technical progress, was unbalance among regions; the technological scale change, which is the most important factor of environmental TFP growth, showed the maximum regional differnce, which was the main factor to cause the differences of the environment TFP growth.
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    Key Landscape Pattern Factors Affecting Land Ecological Quality in Developed Areas: A Case Study of Kunshan City in Jiangsu Province
    XIAO Yao, ZHU Feng-wu, ZHOU Sheng-lu, SHEN Chun-zhu, WANG Jing
    2017, 32 (10):  1731-1743.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160972
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    Land ecological planning based on landscape ecology is an important way to improve land ecological quality and regional ecological environment. Key landscape pattern factors are the important bases of landscape planning and design. The paper selected a developed city in Yangtze River delta region—Kunshan city as the study area. Based on the comprehensive index for land ecological quality evaluation, the paper chose 14 landscape pattern indices and calculated the correlation coefficient between the comprehensive index of land ecological quality and the landscape pattern indices with correlation analysis to identify the key landscape factors which affect land ecological quality mostly. The results showed that: 1) At town scale, land ecological quality has significant negative correlation with the largest plaque index (LPI) and the area weighted average patch area (AWMPS), and it has significant positive correlation with Shannon diversity (SHDI) and average shape index (MSI). 2) Key landscape pattern factors affecting land ecological quality are different in areas with different land use structures. In construction land zone, land ecological quality has significant positive correlation with the patch density index (PD) and boundary density (ED) and has significant negative correlation with the aggregation index (AI) and contagion index (CONTAG). In ecological land zone, land ecological quality has significant positive correlation with land patch area (TA) and the area weighted average patch area (AWMPS). In farmland zone, land ecological quality has significant negative correlation with the largest plaque index (LPI) and negative correlation with separation index (SPLIT) and diversity index (SHDI). 3) When we make land ecological planning and landscape design in the research area, the dominant types of landscape, the richness and balanced distribution of landscape types and the landscape complexity should be considered firstly. Secondly, we should focus on key landscape pattern factors in areas of different land use structures. The fragmentation and discreteness of landscape should be maintained in construction land zone. In ecological land zone, the maximum area and the advantage types should be maintained. In farmland zone, the diversity and spatial equilibrium of the landscape types should be ensured.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Spatial Spillover Effects and Influencing Factors of Forest Carbon Sink in China—Spatial Econometric Analysis Based on Forest Resources Inventory in 31 Provinces of the Mainland of China
    XUE Long-fei, LUO Xiao-feng, LI Zhao-liang, WU Xian-rong
    2017, 32 (10):  1744-1754.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160912
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    Estimating the forest carbon sinks and exploring the spatial characteristics of the carbon sinks are important basis for making differential policy of carbon sink. According to forest resources inventory in 31 provinces (cities and districts) of the mainland of China in the years of 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2013, the amount of carbon sequestration was calculated and summarized with the method of forest stock volume expansion. The direction and the strength of the spatial correlation of the total amounts of provincial carbon sink were detected and compared, and the spatial econometric model was used to evaluate and analyze the spillover effects of the carbon sink and the factors affecting the carbon sink. The results show that the overall forest carbon sequestration in each area of the country is increasing during 1988-2013. There are regional differences in the amount of carbon sinks, that Tibet, Heilongjiang and other regions are rich in carbon sink, and Beijing and Shanghai have fast growth of carbon sink. The trend of Moran’s I index shows the inverted “S”, suggesting the spatial relevance of provincial forest carbon sequestration. The forest carbon sinks has obvious spatial spillover effect, and it is affected by forest resources logging, forest disaster and precipitation. Based on the results, this paper argues that the development of forest ecological function in China should be taken into consideration of the geographical location, and we should make differential and harmonious policy for the forest carbon sink development in different provinces.
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    Comparative Analysis of the Responses of Rainstorm Flood and Sediment Yield to Vegetation Rehabilitation in the Yanhe River Basin
    GU Chao-jun, MU Xing-min, SUN Wen-yi, GAO Peng, ZHAO Guang-ju
    2017, 32 (10):  1755-1767.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160929
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    Yanhe River Basin suffered from rainstorm events in July 1977 and 2013. However, the disasters showed different features due to the changes of underlying surface condition. This paper investigated the amount, intensity and frequency of these two rainstorm events and analyzed their relations with the runoff and sediment variations in the Yanhe River Basin. The results showed that the amount, intensity, frequency of the rainstorm in 2013 were all higher than those in 1977. However, the maximal daily runoff, maximal daily sediment, maximal daily sediment concentration, peak runoff discharge, peak sediment discharge and the duration of high sediment concentration in 2013 were all lower than those in 1977. The disasters in July 2013 were mainly caused by landslide and debris flow, while the disasters in July 1977 were mainly caused by flood. Large-scale vegetation rehabilitation in the Yanhe River Basin after the launch of “Grain for Green” program, which has changed the processes of runoff sediment, was the main reason of the different results of the disasters.
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    The Water Vapor Transportation Characteristics of the Extreme Severe Rain Events in Sichuan Basin
    WANG Jia-jin, XIAO Di-xiang, WANG Chun-xue
    2017, 32 (10):  1768-1783.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160916
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    Using the data of 1961-2015 from 104 meteorological stations in Sichuan Basin and the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) data, the extreme severe rain events are selected and divided into two types with the HYSPLIT 4 model: extreme severe rain events moving in the whole basin and in the west basin. The storm water vapor transportation of different types at 850 and 700 hPa are analyzed quantitatively. The results show that the water vapor transportation paths are different between different types and different levels. At 850 hPa level, there are four moisture transport paths of the type moving in the whole basin, and there are five paths of the type in the west basin. At 700 hPa level, there are three moisture transport paths of both the types moving in the whole basin and in the west basin. The maximum water vapor areas at different backward tracking times are different. The contribution rates from different sources to water vapor transport are also different. For the type moving in the whole basin, the water vapor comes from the Arabian Sea-Bay of Bengal contributes the most (59.5%) at 850 hPa, followed by the West Pacific (32.7%), while East Asia and Coastal Waters contributes a little (7.8%). For the type in the west basin, at 850 hPa the water vapor comes from the South China Sea (45.1%) is the most important, followed by the ones from Bay of Bengal (32.5%) and from the Eastern China and Coastal Waters (22.1%). At 700 hPa, the water vapor comes from the Arabian Sea contributes the most (55.1%) to the type moving in the whole basin, followed by the Bay of Bengal-South China Sea (39.1%), and East Asia contributes a little (5.8%). At 700 hPa, the water vapor comes from the Bay of Bengal (68.8%) is the most important to the type in the west basin, the water vapor from South China Sea is the second (30.4%), and the water vapor from Caspian Sea is 0.8%.
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    Hydrogeochemical Characteristics of Dripwater in Jiguan Cave, Henan Province at Different Scales and the Response to Regional Extreme Drought Event
    LIANG Sha, YANG Yan, ZHANG Na, SUN Zhe, ZHANG Ping, TIAN Ning, ZHANG Zhi-qin
    2017, 32 (10):  1784-1796.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160963
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    Geochemical dynamics of dripwater at LYXS and TGBD in Jiguan Cave were monitored from October 2009 to December 2015, and the rainstorm from August 4th to 6th in 2015 was monitored. Characteristics of the dripwater, including dripping speed, pH value, HCO-3, electrical conductivity, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, element ratio, and its relationship with precipitation, were analyzed at different time scales, and their responses to the extreme drought events were analyzed. The results showed that: 1) At inter-annual scale, the hydrochemical characteristics of dripwater responded to the precipitation difference between wet years and dry years. It was mainly controlled by the dissolution of soil CO2, leaching effect and the intensity of prior calcite precipitation (PCP) effect. 2) Affected by the migration path of karst water, the leaching effect, the time of water-rock interaction and the PCP effect, there were obvious seasonal variations of the characteristics of dripwater. 3) At single rainfall scale, the hydrochemical characteristics of dripwater varied with the dripping rate. It was mainly influenced by the migration path of karst water, piston effect and dilution effect and had little relation with the time of water-rock interaction. 4) Affected by retention of the old water in the extreme drought year of 2013 and the dilution effect of the new precipitation in 2014, the extreme values of the hydrochemical indicators appeared in 2014 when the precipitation rebounded. The decrease rates of EC, HCO-3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, were 12%, 35%, 35%, 28%, 89% and 95%, respectively.
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    Study on Time Scales Characteristics of Land Use Pattern Change in Songnen High Plain
    WANG Yue, SONG Ge
    2017, 32 (10):  1797-1807.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160976
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    The scale dependency and sensitivity are important characteristics of land use pattern change. Taking Bayan County in Songnen High Plain as the empirical study area, the paper extracts single band image data as the original signal from multi-band image with K-L transformation. On the optimal spatial scale of the land use pattern in the study area, the wavelet analysis model was improved with fast Fourier transform to explore the appropriate time scale of land use pattern change in the study area. The model can automatically identify the land use pattern change and clarify the volatility characteristics of land use pattern change on appropriate time and space scales. Land use transfer matrix was used to test the results of time scale. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, the land use pattern change showed volatility characteristics on time scales of 10-20 years, 30-40 years and 40-50 years. The volatility of land use pattern change on time scale of 40-50 years was the most intensive one, followed by the volatility on time scale of 30-40 years, and the volatility on time scale of 10-20 years was the least. Secondly, the optimal time scale for analysis of land use pattern change is 36 years in the study area during 1979-2015. Land use pattern has obviously volatility characteristics around 12.33 years. The study area can be divided into three development stages: the early stage is from 1979 to 1991, the medium stage is from 1991 to 2003, and the recent stage is from 2003 to 2015. Thirdly, the global time scale and the local time scale of land use pattern change were highly consistent in the study area. Finally, the main land use types, such as dry land, woodland and construction land, underwent obvious trend of conversion in the years of 1979, 1991, 2003 and 2015.
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    Resource Research Method
    Extraction of Main Crops in Yellow River Delta Based on MODIS NDVI Time Series
    GUO Yu-shan, LIU Qing-sheng, LIU Gao-huan, HUANG Chong
    2017, 32 (10):  1808-1818.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160943
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    Agriculture plays a key role in the Yellow River Delta, which is one of the greatest granaries of China. Timely and accurately understanding the crop distribution information is very important for related government departments to make reasonable decisions and guide agricultural production. Traditional methods based on field investigation and statistic data were time consuming and labor consuming. Time series of vegetation indices based on remote sensing images have obvious advantages and great application potentials in the extraction of crop planting information. This paper aimed at extracting the main crops in the Yellow River Delta, including winter wheat, maize and cotton. MODIS images with 250 m spatial resolution were used in this study. Dezhou City, Binzhou City and Dongying City were chosen as the study area for the convenience. The 250 m MOD09Q1 8 d time series remote sensing images in 2014 were acquired from the website of NASA. To avoid the disturbance from orchards and grasslands, firstly, the non-crop areas were masked out with the 1:100 000 land use map of the study area in 2014. Considering that there were some irregular fluctuations of the NDVI time series caused by the influence of clouds and atmosphere, we secondly reconstructed the NDVI time series with Hants filters. Then, the main crops planting information was extracted by comparing the NDVI time series with the reference NDVI time series which were the average NDVI of the sampling points collected in May, 2014 and November, 2014. Finally, the threshold value of each crop was determined and the planting information was extracted according to the thresholds. Two precision validation methods, spatial distribution and areal statistics, were adopted. The results showed that the accuracies of wheat and cotton in area were high (96.8%, 95.5%), while the accuracy of maize in area is a little lower (85.1%). The overall spatial consistency was 86.9% according to spatial distribution cooperation. The result suggests that the method in this paper is effective and practicable.
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