People’s livelihood satisfaction is the ultimate measure of the performance during transformation of resource-based cities. Evaluating people’s livelihood satisfaction is significant to measure the performance and sustainable development of resource-based cities. From the perspective of livelihood satisfaction, this paper establishes an indicators system to measure the performance during the transformation of resource-based cities, which was built on four indices of residential livelihood, public services, livelihood environment and cultural consumption. Expert group decision making and AHP method are used to determine the weights of indices, then customer satisfaction index method is used to measure the transformation performance of resource-based cities. The results show: 1) The total measure of transformation performance in Huangshi city based on people’s livelihood satisfaction is 4.17, at the level of “excellent”, but there are still some indicators need to be improved. 2) There are group differences and regional differences of livelihood satisfaction in Huangshi resulted from characteristics of respondents. There are diversity of people’s livelihood satisfaction with transformation caused by differences in gender, age, educational level, occupational category, annual household income of respondents. From the view of regional differences, in traditional old mining areas, such as Tieshan and Daye, the livelihood satisfaction with transformation appears relatively high due to the support of national policy for the transformation of resource-based cities. In downtown area, such as Xisaishan, Xialu and Huangshi Port, the livelihood satisfaction is low. In agricultural areas such as Yangxin, people have the lowest satisfaction with the transformation. 3) The evaluation based on livelihood satisfaction is consistent with the material output performance in Huangshi.