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Table of Content

    20 August 2017, Volume 32 Issue 8 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Economics
    Research of the Level and Spatial Differences of Land-sea Coordinate Development in Coastal Areas Based on Global-Malmquist-Luenberger Index
    HAN Zeng-lin, XIA Kang, GUO Jian-ke, SUN Cai-zhi, DENG Zhao
    2017, 32 (8):  1271-1285.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160775
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    The coastal area is the foundation of the regional land-sea coordinate development. Assessing the integrated land and sea economic regional system based on coastal cities and provinces is of great significance to the theory and practice of the construction of “marine power”. This paper attempts to use the coastal cities as coastal areas to research the coastal regional economic development more accurately on city level of coastal area under the integrated land and sea economic regional system theory. According to the characteristics of the two systems of sea and land, an indicator system including four dimensions (economy, society, resource and environment) was established. Under the “pollution conditions”, the method of Global-Malmquist-Luenberger index was used to assess the level of land-sea coordinate development, and the spatial differences were analyzed by classifying the coastal area based on current land-sea coordination situation. The results and conclusions are as follows. Firstly, most of coastal areas are inefficient in the total factor productivity growth rate of the land-sea coordinate development, except that Guangxi and Zhejiang have increased by 0.83% and 0.03% respectively. The changes of GML index efficiency in the land, in the sea and in land-sea coordination trend to be consistent from 2003 to 2013. Scale effects on efficiency change and technological change are the major cause of the decline in land-sea coordinate development level. Under the “pollution conditions”, because the scale effect on efficiency change and scale effect on technological change have declined by 1.14% and 2.43% respectively, the changes of GML index efficiency has declined by 2.48%. Secondly, the coastal areas are experiencing the process from “attach more importance to land than sea” to “land-sea coordinate development”. Based on the spatial difference of the level of land-sea coordinate development, Zhejiang, Hebei and Fujian are classified as land-efficiency-driving type; the area around Bohai sea (except Hebei), Jiangsu, Guangxi and Hainan are classified as sea-efficiency-driving type; and Shanghai and Guangdong are classified as land-sea-efficiency-driving type. The main causes of spatial differences include the difference of industrial properties, the technical barriers of marine industry, marine resource and environment carrying capacity and government policy. Targeted suggestions are made given the light of these results.
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    Impacts of Rural Energy Policy and Income Level on Rural Household’s Energy Demand in China
    WANG Tian-qiong, GU Hai-ying
    2017, 32 (8):  1286-1297.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160787
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    In order to alleviate environmental and climate problems caused by using high-carbon energies in Chinese rural areas, the central government adopts policies that promote the use of a variety of clean energies and technologies. Meanwhile, commodity energies such as liquefied petroleum gas and electricity are becoming important parts of household energies. Will the rural energy policy cause or even widen the gap of the households’ choices between alternative energies and technologies? Will the shift among the household demand of different energies be consistent with the original intention and goal of the policy? Based on the data of provincial rural energy consumption from 2005 to 2014, this paper analyzes the changing process of Chinese households’ demand of clean energies (technologies) and commodity energies, discusses the effects of the rural energy policy (i.e., the energy expenditure and investment) and the income level (i.e., the per capita net income of farmers) on households’ demand for specific energies, and explores the implementing results of the policy. It is found that if there exists substitution among different kinds of energies or technologies, the rural energy policy will promote the need of some energies or technologies but weaken the need of the others. At the same time, the spillover effect of the policy boosts the demand of some commodity energies, such as the electricity, due to the fact that the policy improves the energy infrastructure in rural areas, which ensures the availability of commodity energies. What’s more, the structure of rural household energies tends to be diversified with the improvement of the income level. Suggestions are: Firstly, as clean energies, specific commodity energies should be considered in the rural energy development strategy and policy; secondly, the focus of the policy should comply with the stage of the energy demand; eventually, it is essential to strengthen the construction and management of the rural energy infrastructure.
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    Resource Ecology
    Research on Performance Measure and Group Difference during Transformation of Resource-based Cities Based on Livelihood Satisfaction—A Case Study of Huangshi City in Hubei Province
    HAO Zu-tao, FENG Bing, XIE Xiong-biao, FENG Zhong-lei, WANG Ying
    2017, 32 (8):  1298-1310.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160783
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    People’s livelihood satisfaction is the ultimate measure of the performance during transformation of resource-based cities. Evaluating people’s livelihood satisfaction is significant to measure the performance and sustainable development of resource-based cities. From the perspective of livelihood satisfaction, this paper establishes an indicators system to measure the performance during the transformation of resource-based cities, which was built on four indices of residential livelihood, public services, livelihood environment and cultural consumption. Expert group decision making and AHP method are used to determine the weights of indices, then customer satisfaction index method is used to measure the transformation performance of resource-based cities. The results show: 1) The total measure of transformation performance in Huangshi city based on people’s livelihood satisfaction is 4.17, at the level of “excellent”, but there are still some indicators need to be improved. 2) There are group differences and regional differences of livelihood satisfaction in Huangshi resulted from characteristics of respondents. There are diversity of people’s livelihood satisfaction with transformation caused by differences in gender, age, educational level, occupational category, annual household income of respondents. From the view of regional differences, in traditional old mining areas, such as Tieshan and Daye, the livelihood satisfaction with transformation appears relatively high due to the support of national policy for the transformation of resource-based cities. In downtown area, such as Xisaishan, Xialu and Huangshi Port, the livelihood satisfaction is low. In agricultural areas such as Yangxin, people have the lowest satisfaction with the transformation. 3) The evaluation based on livelihood satisfaction is consistent with the material output performance in Huangshi.

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    The Key Ecological Services and Their Values of Wetland Ecosystems in Beijing
    ZHANG Biao, SHI Yun-ting, LI Qing-xu, XIE Gao-di
    2017, 32 (8):  1311-1324.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160771
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    With increasing urbanization and agricultural expansion, there is rapid loss, conversion, and degradation of global wetlands. Quantifying the key ecosystem services and elucidating the main providers of wetland can help implement sustainable and diverse wetland utilization strategies. This study estimates the economic values and dominant contributors of five key ecosystem services (i.e. flood regulation, water provision, water purification, cooling effect and habit maintenance) of wetlands in Beijing using the economic valuation methods with the wetland inventory data in 2014. There are 5.14×104 hm2 wetlands in Beijing, 46% of which are natural wetlands and mainly distribute in outer suburban districts of Beijing, such as Miyun, Fangshan and Mentougou. These wetlands can annually regulate 20.75×108 m3 of flood, supply 9.44×108 m3 of water, purify 4.22×104 t of COD from surface water, absorb 3.03 PJ of heat by evaporation, and maintain 0.96×104 hm2 super-quality habit. The economic values of the 5 key ecosystem services are 1.59×1010, 1.18×109, 1.69×108, 4.21×108 and 1.08×109 yuan, respectively. In addition, the reservoirs and rivers in Miyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Huairou and Mentougou provide 78% of wetland ecosystem services, whereas the urban wetland resources in Xicheng, Dongcheng, Shijingshan, Chaoyang and Haidian also take important roles. The study highlights the economic values and the dominate contributors of wetland ecosystem services in Beijing, and provides basis for wetland protection policy when developing new urban areas.
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    Study on Ecological Compensation Standard in River Basin Based on the Property Rights of Eco-environment
    MA Yong-xi, WANG Juan-li, WANG Jin
    2017, 32 (8):  1325-1336.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160784
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    The ecological compensation measurement is a key problem in the cross-basin management. Based on the summary of theoretical studies of ecological compensation standards, the paper puts forward a method to measure ecological compensation standard based on the property rights of eco-environment. By comprehensive consideration of water quality and water quantity, the ecological service compensation and the pollution compensation are brought into the measurement for ecological compensation in river basin. In the method, the factors of water quality and quantity are integrated in the measuring model of ecological compensation standard. Then, the paper applies the measurement method on the ecological compensation in Xin’an River Basin which is located in Anhui and Zhejiang provinces to conduct a case analysis. The case study verifies the applicability of the method. This paper presents the following results: 1) By defining eco-environmental property rights, the ecological compensation for river basin can be divided into the compensation for ecological protection investment and the compensation for pollution, and both water quality and water quantity can be integrated into a unified ecological compensation measurement. 2) The eco-environmental property rights being endowed to different benefit body will cause difference contents and standards of compensation. The property right shared by upstream and downstream which balance is fairer since it balances the interests of all parties. 3) In the case of shared eco-environmental property right, the river basin ecological compensation standard considering the wastewater quantity has clear ecological and environmental goals and complete compensation content, and it is easily accepted by all parties.
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    Spatio-temporal Variation of Water Supply Service in Bailong River Watershed Based on InVEST Model
    XIE Yu-chu, GONG Jie, QI Shan-shan, WU Jing, HU Bao-qing
    2017, 32 (8):  1337-1347.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160799
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    Water supply service is not only an essential ecosystem service for supporting human well-being, but also a hot topic in ecology and hydrology. The quantitative assessment and mapping of spatiotemporal variation of water supply service have important significance for water conservation planning, water management and establishment of ecological compensation mechanism in the water source areas. Bailong River Watershed (BRW), a vital ecological function region of water supply and conservation in the upper Yangtze River, locates in the transitional ecotone of the Loess Plateau, Qinba Mountains and Tibet Plateau. Based on InVEST model simulations, RS, GIS spatial analysis, field observation and survey, BRW was selected as a case to estimate water supply service and analyze the impact of vegetation types, elevation, slope, slope direction on the spatiotemporal pattern of water supply service. Moreover, the reference factors and data, such as land use, meteorology (eg. precipitation, evapotranspiration), soil and the DEM data, were preprocessed and calculated. The results showed that the average annual water yield and total water yield in the BRW were approximately 388 mm and 9.0 billion m3. There was a significant spatial heterogeneity of water supply in the basin. The southern and southeast areas of the BRW had higher volume of water supply per unit area, especially in the forest areas and nature reserves, such as Dieshan mountain forest region, Baishuijiang National Nature Reserve. Low water yield area mainly distributed in central valleys of BRW between Zhouqu and Hanwang town, which were not only dry-hot valleys but also centralized agricultural and urban areas. The comparison of water conservation capacity between different types of vegetation landscape indicated that the spruce and fir, quercus, broadleafed forest, mixed coniferous and broad-leafed forest, evergreen coniferous forest and other high-forest had high water yield capacity in the BRW. The areas with the highest water yield distributed from 1 500 to 3 500 m and from 15° to 40°. Moreover, the water yield capacity was higher on shady slope than on sunny slope.
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    Variations in Deuterium and Oxygen-18 Isotope Compositions and Water Utilizations by Crops in the Cropland Ecosystem, Qinghai Lake Watershed
    LI Jing, WU Hua-wu, LI Xiao-yan, HE Bin, PEI Ting-ting, JIANG Zhi-yun, BAO Zhi-cheng
    2017, 32 (8):  1348-1359.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160766
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    Water condition is commonly considered as an important factor affecting the yields of crops. The water use patterns of Brassica napus and Avena sativa during the growing season remain unclear in the Qinghai Lake watershed. In this paper, the stable isotope compositions in precipitation, plant xylem of Brassica napus and Avena sativa and soil water during the entire growing season were collected and the utilization ratios of soil water of the two crops were analyzed with direct comparison method and mixing IsoSource model. The results showed that the stable isotopic compositions in precipitation showed great fluctuations. The isotopic contents in shallow soil water, subject to the effect of evaporation, are more abundant than those in deep soil water. Brassica napus mainly used soil water at 0-10 cm layer at the jointing stage (95.1%), 0-10 cm layer at the flowering stage (68% and 44.8%), 30-60 cm layer at the filling stage (69.9%) and 0-10 cm layer at the full ripe stage (38.8%). Avena sativa mainly utilized the soil water at 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm layers during the whole growing period. This finding provides the basis for adjusting tillage manners and developing water-saving and efficient modern agriculture in alpine regions.
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    Evolution Trend and Fairness Evaluation of Ecological Footprint in Guanzhong City Group
    YANG Yi, LIANG Li-bo, ZHANG Jing-qian
    2017, 32 (8):  1360-1373.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160772
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    The fairness degree of distribution and allocative efficiency of natural capital and human-made capital are the guarantee for sustainable sharing of regional ecological resources. Based on calculating ecological footprint in Guanzhong City Group from 2005 to 2014, this paper adopted ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity and GDP to represent the regional demand of natural capital use, natural capital gains and human-made capital gains. The regional fairness degree of distribution and the allocative efficiency of resources were analyzed by Gini coefficient, spatial-temporal analysis index, ecological support coefficient (ESC) and economy contributive coefficient (ECC). The results showed that the per capita ecological footprint increased from 2.056 hm2 per capita to 3.201 hm2 per capita with an average annual growth rate of 5.04%; the per capita GDP increased from 11 089 yuan per capita to 46 639 yuan per capita with an average annual growth rate of 17.31%; and the per capita ecological carrying capacity changed little in Guanzhong City Group during 2005 to 2014. In the same period, the ecological pressure index (Epi) increased 1.59 times from 4.665 to 7.406 and the ecological footprint for ten thousand yuan GDP decreased from 1.854 hm2 per ten thousand yuan to 0.686 hm2 per ten thousand yuan with an average annual decline rate of 10.45%. The adjusted ecological pressure elasticity coefficient (E′) showed that the changes of ecological footprint was generally inverse to the changes of ecological carrying capacity, and the ecological footprint for ten thousand yuan GDP elasticity coefficient (G) basically ranged between 0 and 1. The ecological support Gini coefficient, economic contribution Gini coefficient and the comprehensive Gini coefficient were between [0.18, 0.20], [0.24, 0.29], [0.23, 0.28] respectively. The conclusion indicated that the ecological pressure became increasingly prominent and economic contribution increased gradually. That means the increase (decrease) in ecological footprint caused by 1% increase (decrease) of GDP is less than 1%, the scale effect of economic is at an optimal level and the ecological elements match well in Guanzhong City Group. Besides, there is no city in Guanzhong City Group that had both relatively high economic contribution and high ecological support contribution. Tongchuan, Baoji, Xianyang had relatively higher ecological support contribution but lower economic contribution while Xi’an, Yangling were opposite.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Evaluation on Island Resources and Environment Carrying Capacity under the Background of Urbanization
    CHI Yuan, SHI Hong-hua, SUN Jing-kuan, GUO Zhen, MA De-ming
    2017, 32 (8):  1374-1384.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160753
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    Island ecosystem is vulnerable due to the special position, limited area and isolated space of islands, and the conservation and exploitation of islands are both essential to the construction of strong marine country. Urbanization has profound impact on island ecosystem, which threatened biodiversity and ecosystem productivity, and changed the landscape pattern, thus the evaluation on island resources and environment carrying capacity is of great significance for controlling human activities and maintaining ecological balance. Miaodao Archipelago, typical islands in North China which locate in Changdao County of Shandong Province, was used as the study area. The evaluation model of island resources and environment carrying capacity which integrated the exploitation intensity and ecological status was established. The methods of remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS) and field investigation were adopted, and the resources and environment carrying capacities at archipelago scale, island scale and grid scale were analyzed, respectively. The results indicated: at archipelago scale, the resources and environment carrying capacity was in status of critical overloading; at island scale, Nanchangshan Island was in status of mild overloading, whereas Beichangshan Island, Miao Island and Daqin Island were in status of critical overloading, and the other six islands were in status of no overloading, which suggested that different modes of conservation and exploitation should be implemented in different islands; at grid scale, the island resources and environment carrying capacity had significant spatial heterogeneity with no overloading zones (41.7%), critical overloading zones (30.0%), mild overloading zones (15.9%), moderate overloading zones (8.1%) and severe overloading zones (4.3%) in descending order, where no overloading zones distributed in the non-urban construction areas, critical overloading zones located in suburb areas and parts of non-urban construction areas, and overloading zones concentrated in urban construction areas. Urban construction inevitably decreased the island ecological function. Construction scale control, spatial allocation optimization, environmental impact mitigation, and ecological restoration and construction were important measures to enhance the island resources and environment carrying capacity. The evaluation model comprehensively reflected the features and spatial heterogeneity of island resources and environment carrying capacity, thus provided a basis for allocations of island conservation and exploitation, and it can be widely applied to the evaluation of island resources and environment carrying capacity in different regions and different types of islands.
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    A Study on the Relationship between Natural Factors and Population Distribution in Beijing Using Geographical Detector
    Lü Chen, LAN Xiu-ting, SUN Wei
    2017, 32 (8):  1385-1397.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160707
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    The spatial distribution of population presents different features as the scale varies. Studies on the effect of natural resources on urban population distribution on the scale of street and township could provide more precise results. This research aims to provide a scientific foundation for reasonable population distribution arrangement and urban planning. Based on the data of the fifth population census and the sixth population census in Beijing on the scale of street and township, this paper analyzed the features of both the permanent residents distribution and the floating population distribution in Beijing by exploration of spatial data analysis with ArcGIS. The geographical detector was used to explore the effect of various zonal natural factors on the population distribution. The natural factors in our analysis which have been proved to influence the population distribution include the altitude, slope, relief degree of land surface, water system density, and suitable construction land. The results showed that: 1) The natural factors have different impacts on permanent residents and floating population distribution. The natural resources having effects on the permanent residents density were the suitable construction land (0.336), the relief degree of land surface (0.236), the slope (0.230), the altitude (0.182), and water system density (0.145) in descending order according to factor dictator of geographical detector. And the natural factors having impacts on the floating population density were the relief degree of land surface (0.260), the suitable construction land (0.246), the slope (0.227), altitude (0.197), and water system density (0.111) in descending order. 2) The natural factors had different impacts on the spatial pattern of population in different regions. For the regions both inside and outside the sixth express way loop, the suitable construction land was the most decisive natural influential factor. Besides the suitable construction land, the slope (0.191) was the second decisive natural influential factor to the population distribution in the regions inside the sixth express way loop, and the water system density (0.148) was the second decisive natural influential factor to the population distribution in the regions outside the sixth express way loop. These two natural factors had greater impact on the population density than other natural influential factors. The altitude had more profound impact on the population density in the regions outside the sixth express way loop (0.093) than they did to the regions inside the sixth express way loop (0.051). The PDU value of relief degree of land surface on the population density in the regions outside the sixth express way loop was 0.125, larger than that of the regions inside the sixth express way loop which valued 0.009. 3) The result of interaction detector from the geographical detector showed that the overlay impact of two natural factors on population density got intensified, and the intensified effect was often presented as the synergy of two factors or the non-linear increase of two factors. The comprehensive impact of five natural factors on population density valued 1, which disclosed that the natural factors enhanced each other when they influenced the population distribution.
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    Simulation of the Response of Soil Water in Winter Wheat Field and Winter Wheat Yield to Rainfall and Temperature Change on the Loess Plateau
    WANG Xue-chun, LI Jun, WANG Hong-ni, HAO Ming-de
    2017, 32 (8):  1398-1410.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160701
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    There is great meaning to research the impacts of rainfall and temperature changes on soil water and grain yield of winter wheat on the Loess Plateau of China, with the objective of ensuring the safety of grain production in China. EPIC model was used to simulate the response of soil water and winter wheat yield to rainfall and temperature changes in different regions on the Loess Plateau of China. The results are: 1) The EPIC model simulated soil water content well in the 0-2 m soil layer, the RRMSE value between the simulated values and measured values being 6.0%-14.0%; the mean value of R2 was 0.824 which was close to the value of ME (0.815). 2) There was a descending trend of rainfall and an ascending trend of temperature from 1976 to 2010 on the Loess Plateau of China. Compared with those during 1961-2000, rainfall decreased 13.6%-24.9% in Luochuan, Changwu, Yuncheng and Yan’an during 2001-2010, the maximum temperature increased 0.30-0.84 ℃, while the minimum temperature increased 1.00-1.55 ℃ during 2001-2010. 3) Both the increasing of maximum temperature and the decreasing of rainfall were harmful to the production of winter wheat, while the increasing of minimum temperature was good to the production of winter wheat on the Loess Plateau. Due to the descending of rainfall, winter wheat yield in Luochuan, Changwu, Yuncheng and Yan’an decreased 8.5%, 7.6%, 11.7% and 12.3% respectively. The increasing of the highest temperature made winter wheat yield decrease 6.4%, 6.8%, 7.2% and -3.0% respectively in Luochuan, Changwu, Yuncheng and Yan’an; while the ascending minimum temperature increased the winter wheat yield by 8.8%, 10.2%, 1.5% and 12.0% respectively in Luochuan, Changwu, Yuncheng and Yan’an. In conclusion, considering sustainable use of soil water and sustainable production of winter wheat, adjusting planting time properly and developing water conserving and saving technologies are two of the best ways to adapt the climate change and to ensure the sustainable production of winter wheat on the Loess Plateau of China.
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    Effects of Drainage Ditch Connectivity on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Export in Tidal Flat Agricultural Reclamation Area
    OU Wei-xin, WANG Hai-jie, GUO Jie, WU Wei, TAO Yu
    2017, 32 (8):  1411-1421.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160738
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    Ditch corridors not only serve as the nutrient transportation and discharge channel, but also provide retention and purification services for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Therefore, drainage ditch corridors and their connectivity are closely related to nutrient transportation process critical for non-point source pollution control in agricultural areas. However, a large body of literatures has only quantified the retention and removal of agriculture-driven nitrogen and phosphorus emissions in single drainage ditch. These studies specifically have explored the impacts of different biophysical characteristics (e.g., length, size, sediment, and plant species) of the single drainage ditch on retention and removal of nutrients. Few studies have explicitly addressed the effects of drainage ditch network and connectivity on nutrient transportation and retention from a landscape perspective. This paper built the drainage Ditch Network Connectivity model (DNC) in accordance with the use of “connectivity” in the science of landscape ecology and hydrology for characterizing the degree that nitrogen and phosphorus was expedited or blocked within the drainage ditch network. We applied the DNC model to a typical reclamation area of Yancheng coastal zone, in which the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were measured before and after each rain event in August and October of the year 2015, captured their spatio-temporal dynamics respectively. We further employed the regression model to unravel the relationship of drainage ditch connectivity with nitrogen and phosphorus exports, and ultimately explored the effects of drainage ditch connectivity on diffusion and removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. Our results showed that: 1) TN and TP concentrations showed spatio-temporal variations that October pre-rainfall<August pre-rainfall < October post-rainfall<August post-rainfall, and that TN and TP concentrations increased first and decreased afterwards along the runoff flow direction. 2) TN and TP exports showed an inverted-“U” relationship with the increase of drainage ditch connectivity as revealed from regression models. TN and TP exports reached the inflection point when the drainage ditch connectivity is 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. This implied that improving drainage ditch connectivity could be critical for control of agricultural non-point source pollution due to the important role that ditch connectivity plays in modifying nutrients diffusion and removal processes. The DNC model proposed in this paper can be applied to other agricultural flat reclamation and irrigation areas and provide scientific basis for better control of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions.
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    Environment Capacity of the Guohe River in the Water Transfer Project from Yangtze River to Huaihe River Based on a MIKE 11 Model
    XIONG Hong-bin, ZHANG Si-si, KUANG Wu, WU Lei, ZHU Hui-luan
    2017, 32 (8):  1422-1432.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160781
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    In order to assess the dynamic characteristics of environment capacity, the m value of assimilative capacity method based on the MIKE 11 model was first proposed and applied in the Guohe River in the water transfer project from Yangtze River to Huaihe River. The result showed that: 1) It is feasible to analyze the dynamic characteristics of river water environment capacity through this method, as it integrates total maximum daily load with pollutant concentration control. 2) The model reflecting the space-time evolution of COD and ammonia nitrogen can be built with reasonable parameters. The MIKE 11 model takes into account of factors such as river bed roughness, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, integrated attenuation coefficient, maximum water content of surface water storage layer, maximum water content of soil or root zone water storage layer and other factors. The Re, R2 and Ens of simulated water depth are 3.30%, 0.990 and 0.984 respectively. The Re, R2 and Ens of flow rate are 9.8%, 0.969 and 0.997 respectively. The COD simulation error at the cross section of Yimen Bridge is 13.7%, and the simulation error of ammonia nitrogen is 14.7%. 3) With the m value of assimilative capacity method based on the MIKE 11 model, the monthly average environmental capacity of COD is -220.48 g/s and the average monthly environmental capacity of ammonia nitrogen is -10.97 g/s in Qiaocheng area; the monthly average environmental capacity of COD is -17.05 g/s and the average monthly environmental capacity of ammonia nitrogen is 2.56 g/s in Guoyang County; the monthly average environmental capacity of COD is 30.58 g/s and the average monthly environmental capacity of ammonia nitrogen is 4.47 g/s in Mengcheng County; the monthly average environmental capacity of COD is 176.59 g/s and the average monthly environmental capacity of ammonia nitrogen is 10.67 g/s in Huaiyuan County. Compared with 1-D model, the m value in assimilative capacity method based on the MIKE 11 model is more accurate. This method can broaden the application of the MIKE 11 model. The result could provide technical support to calculate dynamic environmental capacity in the water transfer project from Yangtze River to Huaihe River and contribute to river training works.
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    An Empirical Analysis of Climatic Factors Impact on Rice Yield—Based on the Hierarchical Model at Household Level
    YIN Chao-jing, LI Gu-cheng, GAO Xue
    2017, 32 (8):  1433-1444.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160271
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    Climatic conditions, such as temperature, precipitation and high temperature damage, are closely related to rice yield. Based on 2 610 sampled data from farmer households and meteorological data in Hubei Province during 2003-2011, the spatial-temporal variations of heat damage in rice growing period were studied and a hierarchical model about rice yield and its factors was established in order to find the effects of temperature, precipitation and heat damage on rice yield as well as the nonlinear relations. The results are as follows. High temperature damage shows obvious spatial and temporal variation in Hubei Province. Temporally, high temperature damage shows a trend which first decline and then rise. Spatially, it is more serious in central and eastern regions, but less serious in western part and Jianghan Plain. Climate factors have obviously different impacts on rice yield, while high temperature harm has a significant negative effect on rice yield, and there is a significant inverted “U” relationship between the temperature and the rice yield. The influence of precipitation on rice yield is not significant. Besides, the input such as machinery and labor, and infrastructures such as irrigation, can improve rice yield significantly. Therefore, we can enhance the rice yield in Hubei Province by ways of strengthening meteorological disaster alarming and forecasting, improving farmland water conservancy facilities, optimizing sowing and selecting suitable varieties.
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    Comprehensive Discussion
    Research on Spatial Regulation of Land Use Planning and Coordinated Development of Regional Economy: An Analytical Framework
    YU Liang-liang, CAI Yin-ying
    2017, 32 (8):  1445-1456.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20160789
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    The aim of this paper is to analyze the associated mechanism on spatial regulation of land use planning and coordinated development of regional economy, so as to clarify the relationship between spatial regulation of land use planning and coordinated development of regional economy. Based on the latest empirical research literatures, we studied spatial regulation of land use planning and regional economic development under the logic framework of “manifestation-mechanism-coordination mechanism”. The results indicate: 1) The effects of spatial regulation of land use planning on the coordinated development of regional economy was mainly embodied in the fact that the land property rights in the restricted area is restrained and the externality of environment and resources protection has failed to be internalized effectively. 2) The mechanism that spatial regulation of land use planning affects the coordinated development of regional economy is caused by the poor tradability of the ecological products in the protected regions. The protected area falls into the trap of comparative advantage. 3) Under the spatial regulation of land use planning, the coordination mechanisms of regional economy mainly include drift of land development rights, tax regulation and protection of the easement. In theory and in practice, spatial regulation of land use planning has been facing the dispute of efficiency since its birth. However, under the immense pressure of resources and environmental protection, the national spatial planning is not irreconcilable at the practical level. The key is the design of the coordination mechanism of regional economy. This paper has important policy implications to avoid new problems in harmonious development of different region at the background of building national spatial planning system.
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