Table of Content

    20 October 2018, Volume 33 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Special Forum of “Compilation of Natural Resources Balance Sheet”
    Research on Accounting and Balance Sheet of Natural Resources with Double-Entry Bookkeeping
    SHEN Lei, ZHONG Shuai, HE Li, TAO Jian-ge
    2018, 33 (10):  1675-1685.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180844
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1129KB) ( )   Save
    The problem of resource and environment requires human to strengthen the management of natural resources. In the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, balance sheet of natural resources is proposed. The fundamental purpose is to strengthen the accounting and management of natural resources, and to realize the sustainable development of resource, environment, economy and society. The purpose of preparing balance sheet of natural resources is to establish a system of natural resources accounting which accounts for changes in natural resources by compiling reports and clears the resources and environmental costs of local economic and social development. The system of natural resources accounting can be used to restrict the development view of local governments at all levels, improve the system of performance assessment, explicit the responsibility of local governments, and delineate red lines of natural resources development and utilization. Balance sheet of natural resources is an important start for the Ministry of Natural Resources to improve the management of natural resources. In this paper, we review the exploration of natural resource accounting and balance sheet of natural resources and the related research results both at home and abroad. Based on the important tasks of the current natural resource management and the responsibilities of the Ministry of Natural Resources, this paper studies the production theory, the resource science theory and the accounting theory related to balance sheet of natural resources. Based on the above research background and requirements of the balance sheet of natural resources, the main contents of balance sheet of natural resources are established, the key concepts of natural resource asset, liability and equity are analyzed, and the equities of natural resources are divided on the basis of the carrying capacity of resources and environment and related plans. On the basis of the related research results of natural resource balance sheet, we think that the balance sheet of natural resources is not only a report presentation, but also a suitable accounting system. We put forward the framework of balance sheet of natural resources and its accounting process and take the land resources as an example to demonstrate the process. This paper analyzes the compilation of balance sheet of natural resources and its accounting process. The main result of this study is the establishment of the system of “confirmation, measurement, record and report” of natural resources accounting based on double-entry bookkeep. Based on the equation of “assets = liabilities + equity”, the assets, the liabilities and the equities of natural resources are displayed. Combined with the research results of current natural resource research, it will be possible to further develop the special balance sheet of natural resources, establish the standard natural resources accounting subjects, and construct the management information system of natural resources accounting.
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    Analysis of Natural Resource Assets and Establishment and Definition of Liability and Equity Accounts—Based on Framework of Natural Resources Balance Sheet with Double-Entry Bookkeeping
    TAO Jian-ge, SHEN Lei, HE Li, ZHONG Shuai
    2018, 33 (10):  1686-1696.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180845
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    The problem of resources and environment has become a constraint of economic and social development. It is an important measure to set up the Ministry of Natural Resources and strengthen the overall management of natural resources. The compilation of natural resource accounting and the natural resources balance sheet is the basic work of the overall management of natural resources. At present, there have been many research achievements on natural resources accounting and balance sheet compilation, but the basic theory research and practice methods are still in the primary stage of research and it is needed to further strengthen the theoretical basis and scientific methods. Based on the theory of double accounting unit in accounting theory, this paper studies the theory of production and material circulation of natural resources liabilities and equities, and puts forward the standard of natural resource liability and equity based on resource environment carrying capacity, resource function planning and ecological red line. The natural resources balance sheet and related balance accounting are designed based on this standard. Natural resource assets refer to the sum of natural factors that can bring direct or indirect benefits to human beings. They include not only the material and environmental factors that directly participate in the economic and social cycle, but also the natural factors that indirectly bring ecological service value to human beings by participating in the ecological cycle. The equities of natural resources assets are divided into the ecological equities of natural resources and the economic equities of natural resources, and this classification has its ethical basis of ecological civilization. The liabilities of natural resources is due to excessive depletion of resources, environmental pollution and ecological destruction, that is, there are both human and natural factors. They are the economic cost to compensate for the sustainability of ecosystems. The above definitions of asset, liability and equity provide us a logical basis for designing a logical balance sheet of natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to design a reasonable liability and equity account based on the natural resource accounting and the natural resources balance sheet with double entries. It provides a scientific theoretical basis for the compilation of natural resources accounting and balance sheet.
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    Research on Equilibrium Relation of Natural Resources Balance Sheet Based on Double-Entry Bookkeeping
    HE Li, SHEN Lei, TAO Jian-ge, ZHONG Shuai, ZHANG Yue
    2018, 33 (10):  1697-1705.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180846
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    The equilibrium relationship of natural resources balance sheet is the theoretical basis for compiling natural resources balance sheet and developing natural resources accounting. Because of the disagreement between the awareness of natural resources property and value, there are different understandings of balance relationship of natural resource balance sheet, which leads to the long-term dispute on the compilation of balance sheet of natural resources. The basic understanding of SEEA-2012’s “beginning + increase - decrease = end” is consistent. However, there is much controversy over the framework of the natural resources balance sheet. The researchers of natural resource believe that the natural resource balance sheet should be compiled based on the “early period + increase - decrease = end of term” of SEEA-2012, but this report cannot reflect natural resource liabilities, so it cannot be called the balance sheet of natural resources in strict sense and should be called the statistical report of natural resources. Many scholars in the accounting field believe that the balance sheet of natural resources should be compiled based on “assets = liabilities + rights and interests” and use complex accounts. However, because of the lack of understanding of natural resources, the concept of “asset liability = net assets” proposed by some scholars is also lack of practical significance. It is also impossible to design such an accounting system with double-entry bookkeeping. In this paper, based on the cross research of resource science and accounting theory, the framework of natural resource balance sheet is constructed with the property and value attributes of resources. The equilibrium relationship of the balance sheet is clarified, and the static balance relationship and dynamic balance relationship of natural resource balance sheet are studied. The static balance relationship of the natural resources balance sheet based on the double-entry accounting is generally expressed as “assets = equity”, which is the theoretical basis of debit and credit accounting; the dynamic balance relationship is expressed as “beginning + increase - decrease = end of period (beginning - decrease = end - increase)” and “income - output = surplus”, which is the theoretical basis for the period accounting. The paper further analyzes the equations of natural resources accounting system and the framework of natural resources balance sheet based on double-entry accounting.
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    Design and Application of Natural Resources Balance Sheet Ⅰ: Design
    JIAO Zhi-qian, WANG Hong-rui, XU Xin-yi, YANG Bo
    2018, 33 (10):  1706-1714.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20171361
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    “Preparing natural resources asset balance sheet and auditing natural resources assets on departure of leading cadres” is one of the major decisions of the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, as well as an important decision that can promote China’s ecological civilization construction. The balance sheet of natural resources is a report that states the stock of natural resources and the change of the stock in a certain time period.Based on the study of the connotation of the concept of natural resources balance sheet, this paper analyzes the method of calculating the physical quantity and value of natural resources and proposes the conversion table between them. Finally, the paper studies the compilation style of natural resources balance sheet and proposes the design scheme. The study in this paper provides a basis for applying of natural resource balance sheets.
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    Design and Application of Natural Resources Balance Sheet Ⅱ: Application
    JIAO Zhi-qian, WANG Hong-rui, XU Xin-yi, YANG Bo
    2018, 33 (10):  1715-1724.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.201713612
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    According to the design scheme of natural resource balance sheet proposed by the author in previous study, this paper takes Zhuxi County, Shiyan City, Hubei Province as a case study and compiles the substance accounting table and value accounting table of Zhuxi County respectively by using statistic methods, market price law, alternative market law, willingness assessment law, etc., and the relationship between the changes of natural resources and regional economic development are analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) The total amount of forest and characteristic resources in Zhuxi County is increasing year by year. The industrial water consumption is decreasing year by year. The efficiency of industrial water is increasing continuously, while the resident living water keeps at a consant level. The water usage for urban public and ecological environment is increasing annually and the trend of agricultural water consumption remains constant. Water consumption is mainly affected by precipitation and other natural conditions. In the future, developing modern agriculture and improving agricultural water efficiency are necessary. In addition, land resources are in the trend of converting to construction land. The government of Zhuxi County should control construction area in a reasonable range. 2) The value of natural resources is in a relatively stable state which shows the natural resources are not over-consumed, and the value of land resources is the highest. The influence of human factors on the value of forest resources is positive and the total value is increasing. The influence of human factors on the value of water resources is negative. 3) With the increase of GDP in Zhuxi County, the total amount of natural resources has not reduced and remains relatively stable. The effect of human factors on the total value of natural resources is positive.
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    Resource Ecology
    The Estimation of Forest Vegetation Biomass in China in Spatial Grid
    XU Wei-yi, JIN Xiao-bin, YANG Xu-hong, WANG Zhi-qiang, LIU Jing, WANG Dan, SHAN Wei, ZHOU Yin-kang
    2018, 33 (10):  1725-1741.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170802
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    Forest is a major carbon pool for terrestrial ecosystems, and it plays a very important role in global carbon cycle. Forest biomass is a key factor in estimating forest carbon storage, and its magnitude and spatial distribution are important parameters for assessing carbon sequestration potential of forest ecosystems. Scholars in the field have used different methods to study many aspects of forest biomass in China. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of forest biomass and differences in research methods and data, different scholars got different results. Three traditional methods have been used in biomass research: on-the-spot sampling, model method and remote sensing. Currently, statistical downscaling technique is a statistical method widely used in the study of ecosystem carbon cycle which transforms large-scale, low-resolution information into regional-scale, high-resolution information. This paper is based on the eighth China forest inventory data set, along with the impact factors of forest biomass, including the vegetation factor (NDVI), climatic factors (temperature, precipitation), and terrain factors (elevation, slope). We quantitatively estimate the forest biomass (1 km resolution) using the spatial downscaling technique, and the results of the study are verified on multiple scales. The results of this study are as follows: 1) The total stock of forest biomass is 13.56 Pg in China, with an average biomass of 65.3 t/hm2. The total amount of forest biomass is quite different in different provinces. The provinces with higher volume are concentrated in the southwest and the northeast, and the maximum biomass is 4.5 Pg in the southwest, accounting for 33% of the total biomass in China. The forest biomass is 3.58 Pg in the northeast, accounting for 26% of the total biomass in China. 2) The regression relationship between forest biomass and related factors at the provincial scale can be used for the estimation of forest biomass at the grid scale by downscaling technique, and the multi-scale verification analysis shows that the estimation results are reasonable. 3) The spatial pattern of forest biomass is consistent with the spatial distribution of hydrothermal condition. Taking the line from the northeast to the southwest as the boundary, China’s biomass is primarily in the Da Xing’an Mountains, Xiao Xing’an Mountains and Changbai Mountain in the Northeast China, the Hengduan Mountains in the Southwest China, the Qinling Mountains, and the Wuyi Mountains in the Southeast China.
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    Identifying the Benefit Areas of Wind Erosion Prevention in the Key Ecological Function Area of Grassland at the Northern Foot of Yinshan Mountain
    XIAO Yu, XIE Gao-di, ZHEN Lin, LU Chun-xia, XU Jie
    2018, 33 (10):  1742-1754.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170937
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    Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem in the arid and semi-arid agriculture and animal husbandry ecotone in the north. In this study, we used the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to simulate dust trajectories when wind speeds are equal to or greater than the threshold for dust transport (5.7 m/s), assuming no vegetation cover in the key ecological function area of grassland at the northern foot of Yinshan Mountain. These simulated trajectories represented the flow paths prevented from the wind erosion by the ecosystems within the northern foot of Yinshan Mountain. The service benefit areas were determined by interpolating these trajectories. The frequency with which the trajectories passed through each grid was taken as a proxy for the benefit associated with the wind erosion prevention realized by people in the grid. We also determined the benefits associated with land cover, population and GDP in the service benefit areas. The results show that: 1) Most of the wind erosion prevention in the grassland ecological function area in 2010 occurred in spring, and the flow path mainly extends to the eastern and southeastern areas. 2) The benefit areas were estimated to cover 46% of the total area of China, mainly located in the eastern and southern areas of the function area. 3) The benefit population and GDP accounted for 75% of the total population of China and 67% of the total GDP of China in 2010. Based on this research, we extracted a quantitative relationship between the key ecological function area and the service benefit areas and identified the actual beneficiaries. This work may provide support in terms of scientific knowledge that can be used by decision makers to develop strategies, such as ecological compensation in order to mitigate sandstorms in the study area.
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    Effects of Combined Application of Chinese Milk Vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Ecological Service Function of Paddy Field
    MA Yan-qin, HUANG Guo-qin
    2018, 33 (10):  1755-1766.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20171081
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    Chinese milk vetch (Astragalus sinicus L.) is an important green manure crop in paddy fields in South China. When returned to field, it can replace part of nitrogen fertilizer and reduce the amount of fertilizer, and improve the yield and quality of agricultural products. In this study, based on the agro-ecosystem service appraisal theory, we used methods in ecological economics to develop a systematic model to evaluate the ecological services value of paddy fields when combining Chinese milk vetch and nitrogen fertilizer in paddy fields in South China. This model considered the unique properties of green manuring, and the ecological services value were estimated by considering the influence of green manure on four ecological services functions including crop production, gas regulation, water conservation, and soil nutrient accumulation. Results showed: Chinese milk vetch with nitrogen increased the total value of paddy field ecosystem service function. Compared with the fallow treatment, the treatment with Chinese milk vetch increased 7.56%-20.83% of total output of agricultural products, 21.64%-37.61% of gas regulation function, 8.74%-26.26% of soil nutrient accumulation function, and 15.15%-41.39% of total value of ecosystem services. The effect is even better when combining Chinese milk vetch and fertilizer. Under the combined treatment with Chinese milk vetch and optimized nitrogen, total value of agricultural product supply, ratio of output to input, gas regulation value and conservation of water all reached the highest. This study preliminarily counted the total ecosystem service values of paddy fields under treatments with combining Chinese milk vetch and different amount of nitrogen. It had benefits to understanding of the comprehensive value of Chinese milk vetch, and the findings provided theoretical basis for decision making in planting green manure.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Research on Identification of Potential Regions of National Parks in China
    YU Hu, ZHONG Lin-sheng, ZENG Yu-xi
    2018, 33 (10):  1766-1780.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20180616
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    National park is a natural ecological region with national representative resources, and the construction of national park system is an important part of China’s land ecological security and ecological civilization system reform. According to the dominant position of national park and the concept of ecosystem service, this paper build the comprehensive evaluation model containing six key indicators including ecological system integrity, ecological importance, authenticityty, biodiversity, natural landscape value and cultural heritage value, based on international experience, national park function and connotation of policy of national park. Single element layer analysis and multi-index superposition analysis were implemented, and then combined with China’s ecological geographic area, ecological function regionalization and provincial-level administrative region, selecting factors are extracted and the potential construction areas of national parks are identified. Results show that, the high ecosystem integrity areas of China distribute obviously in large natural geographical units, including mountainous areas, forests, lakes, grasslands and other ecosystem areas. The authenticity in eastern and central regions, especially coastal areas, plains and urbanization areas, is relatively low. The species diversity in Hengduanshan, Qinling, and Xishuangbanna ecological areas is high. There are spatial concentrations of high natural landscape and cultural heritage value areas, mainly in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and along the Heihe-Tengchong Line. Those areas with high values of the ecological system integrity, ecological importance, biological diversity and ecosystem authenticity have strong characteristics of convergence. Areas with good ecosystem integrity often bear important ecological functions, have high biodiversity and are well preserved. The natural geographical areas are obviously superposed on China’s three big ladders. The potential higher score regions in east and west area are of great difference in area that potential regions in the west are more continuous in space and often cross administrative boundaries. In this paper, we select 55 potential areas in total for national park construction in the future. This study can provide a methodological and theoretical reference for the reasonable layout of national park construction in China.
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    A Study on the Relationship between Compactness and Energy Efficiency in Large Cities
    TIAN Cheng-shi, LI Jin
    2018, 33 (10):  1781-1795.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170919
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    Since the reform and opening up, the urbanization rate in China has risen about 40% from 1978 to 2016, and it has been rapidly advancing at a rate of 0.5 percentage points higher than the world average each year. In the process of city booming, there inevitably exist problems such as extensive land use, urban sprawl and excessive energy consumption. In recent years, environmental pollution such as haze caused by excessive energy consumption has impacted seriously on the life quality of urban residents, and the problem is even more serious in large cities. In western countries, it has been proved that compact city is an effective development mode in alleviating energy shortage and environmental pollution in large cities. However, the concept of compact city has not been given enough attention in China. In this paper, we focused on the relationship between energy efficiency and compactness. The energy efficiency and compactness of 29 large cities during 2003-2014 were measured with super-efficiency-DEA model and entropy value method, and then quadrant map approach was introduced to explore the relationship between urban compactness and energy efficiency. The results showed that energy efficiency was relatively low but was increasing slowly. The regional disparities of the relationship between urban compactness and energy efficiency were significant. The eastern part of China mainly had high coordination relationship, while the middle and western part of China mostly had low coordination relationship. From the perspective of the scale of cities, larger cities had higher energy efficiency. As the city size increased, the proportion of high coordination type became higher and higher. Megacities mostly fell into the categories of high coordination, and small cities mostly fell into the categories of low coordination. The quadrant diagram analysis after eliminating other possible affecting factors showed more obvious result that more compact city had higher energy efficiency. To improve the energy efficiency, multi-functional composite utilization of economy humanity and ecology should be realized by putting more investment into the construction of public service facilities and infrastructure, intensifying industrial land use and perfecting the functional system of cities.
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    Study on the Relationship between Precipitation and Pond Water Storage in Lowland Area of North China Plain—A Case Study in Nanpi County, Hebei Province
    LÜ Meng-yu, WANG Shi-qin, QI Yong-qing, KONG Xiao-le, SUN Hong-yong
    2018, 33 (10):  1796-1805.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170942
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    It is important that developing and utilizing of unconventional water resources such as pond water in the lowland area of North China Plain due to the shortage of fresh water resource. Thus, making clear the storage capacity of pond as irrigation water resources in years with different amount of precipitation and studying the relationship between precipitation and pond water storage are of great significance to the usages of multiple water resources in agriculture. Taking Nanpi County in Hebei Province as study area, this paper used the methods of Cl- and stable isotope balance to calculate the contribution of precipitation to pond water in rainy season. Besides, based on the Landsat TM remote sensing data during 2013-2015, the improved normalized difference water body index was used to extract the pond information and analyze the water storage capacity of ponds in Nanpi County in years with different amount of precipitation. The results showed that precipitation is the main source of pond water, and the groundwater was the second source. According to the calculation of Cl- and stable isotope, precipitation accounts for 74.3%-86.0% of water supply for medium and small ponds during the rainy season in wet year, however, it accounts for only less than 30% of water supply for large ponds. The ponds are mainly small ponds with area less than 0.5 hm2. The number and the water storage area of ponds with different areas changed with precipitation. The water storage capacity of ponds in flat water year, dry year and wet year were 1.49×107, 0.84×107 and 1.90×107 m3, respectively. The results provide important infromation for the pond water management and utilization in the lowland area of North China Plain.
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    Changes in Cultivated Land and Influencing Factors before and after the Implementation of Grain forGreen Project in Zhangjiakou City
    LIU Chao, HUO Yong-wei, XU Yue-qing, HUANG An, SUN Pi-ling, LU Long-hui
    2018, 33 (10):  1806-1820.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170965
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    The Grain for Green Project (GGP) started in Zhangjiakou city, Hebei Province, China in 2000. As an important artificial landscape, cultivated land has functions of ensuring national food security and meeting the needs of urbanization and ecological environment construction land. It is necessary to pay more attention to the differences of cultivated land change and the influencing factors before and after GGP due to the influence of related land policies. By integrating satellite images, geospatial data and socio-economic statistic data, we characterized spatio-temporal dynamics of cultivated land change and micro spatial affecting factors of cultivated land change in Zhangjiakou city before and after GGP (1989-2000 and 2000-2015). This region is located in the farming-pastoral ecotone in North China facing contradictions of developing economy, protecting cultivated land and restoring ecology. The major findings were that cultivated land area continued decreasing from 1 090 031.02 hm2 in 1989 to 924 647.32 hm2 in 2015, especially after GGP, the rate of cultivated land decreased at annual change rate of -0.84%, totally 132 426.91 hm2 cultivated land lost; however, spatial pattern of cultivated land did not change, concentrated in Zhangbei, Kangbao and Guyuan. GGP had accelerated cultivated land conversion speed. Compared with before GGP (1989-2000), conversion area increased 121 695.72 hm2 after GGP. Also, the rank of cultivated land conversion type changed remarkably. Cultivated land mainly converted to grassland, construction land, forestland and orchard land before GGP with conversion area of 17 063.59, 9 007.00, 8 932.72 and 5 981.19 hm2, respectively, and mainly converted to forestland, orchard land, grassland and construction land after GGP with conversion area of 51 902.41, 40 311.23, 32 292.66 and 23 152.11 hm2, respectively. Before GGP, altitude was the leading factor for cultivated land converting to orchard land and forestland, and slope affected most evidently on the conversions from cultivated land to grassland and construction land. After GGP, while altitude remained the dominant factor affecting the conversion from farmland to orchard land, per capita GDP was the most important factor for conversions of cultivated land to forestland and grassland and distance to the nearest road was the significant factor for conversion of cultivated land to construction land. In addition, China’s specific land control policy (prime cropland protection and nature reserves) had an important influence on the conversion of farmland to orchard land, forestland and grassland. In order to protect food and ecology security, the following measures could be taken in Zhangjiakou city: continue to return cultivated land on steep slope and serious desertification regions to forests or grassland moderately, construct ecological farmland which emphasizes farmland system production and ecology safety, establish a differential mechanism for returning farmland to compensation and develop the follow-up industry after GGP. The research results will provide an objective basis for cultivated land protection, ecological protection and socio-economic coordinated development, as well as a scientific reference for similar regions.
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    Balance Analysis between Forage and Livestock Based on Grassland Production Estimation by Remote Sensing in Golog and Yushu Region, Qinghai, China during 2006-2015
    LÜ Xin, WANG Juan-le, KANG Hai-jun, HAN Xue-hua
    2018, 33 (10):  1821-1832.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170914
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    The Three-River Source Region is rich in grassland resources, and research of balance between forage and livestock can provide decision support for grassland environmental protection and sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, Golog and Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures in Qinghai Province, China were selected as the study area. The grassland production was retrieved using model and the carrying capacity was calculated. Then, balance analysis between forage and livestock was carried out by combining balance index between grassland and livestock (BGLI) and index of grazing pressure (Ip). The result shows that the balance status between forage and livestock in the two autonomous prefectures has been constantly improved from 2006 (BGLI is 47.1%) to 2013 (BGLI is -13.8%), however, the status deteriorated partly during 2014-2015. Compared to Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (average BGLI is 38.15%), the Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (average BGLI is 33.51%) is better in balance status. In the end, the research suggested that relevant departments in the two autonomous prefectures should strengthen planning and policy regulation, strengthen the fine management of livestock balance in accordance with the “grass livestock” principle, and build decision support information system of livestock balance driven by big data.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity of Water Resource and Aquaculture Structure in Jiangxi Province Based on Remote Sensing Image
    LIU Zun-lei, ZHANG Han-ye, YUAN Xing-wei, YANG Lin-lin, LIN Yu, YAN Li-ping, CHENG Jia-hua
    2018, 33 (10):  1833-1846.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20170987
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    In order to understand the water resource types and aquaculture structure in Jiangxi Province, the area of water resource at county level was obtained with remote sensing images in 2012 and was divided into different water body types. The spatial heterogeneity and spatial variability of typical elements in relation to aquaculture in 89 counties were analyzed based on global and local spatial autocorrelation. Considering the phenomenon of spatial correlation and heterogeneity, we explored the influence of water resource area, aquaculture type, yield per unit and the number of professional fishery population on the production of aquaculture by using geographically weighted regression. The results showed that the water resource is dominated by large water body, accounting for 70% of the total area, followed by ponds and reservoirs, accounting for 21.26%, and small pond area accounted for about 9%. Obvious regional difference of water resource was observed that there was mainly large water bodies in the north region and mainly ponds and reservoirs in the south region. The production and area of aquaculture showed spatial clusters (P<0.01), but with different patterns. It was high-high distribution in Pengze County, Duchang County, Poyang County, Nanchang District, Nanchang County, Fengcheng City, Jinxian County and Yugan County, with significance at the level of 0.01 by Moran analysis, and the area and production in these areas accounted for 34.55% and 35.42%, respectively. According to the aquaculture species, the production of special aquaculture was mainly in Shangrao, Jiujiang, Nanchang and Yichun, whose production accounted for 69.84% of the special aquaculture production, however, the correlation between the proportion of special aquaculture production and water area was low. Turtle and frog industries dominated in the eastern mountain hilly land, therefore, the proportion of special aquaculture was high in Zixi, Nanfeng and Shicheng where there are less water resources. From the driving force of aquaculture, water area had the most important impact on aquaculture production (0.46 at the median level), followed by small pond area (0.36 at the median level), professional aquaculture population (0.26 at the median level), who all were positively correlated with aquaculture production. The impacts of water area and small pond area on aquaculture production declined from south to north, but the impact of professional aquaculture population on aquaculture production increased from south to north. The spatial heterogeneity of the influence degree may be related to aquaculture type and species structure. The influence of average yield per unit area was weak (-0.003 at the median level), and there was little difference among regions. The results of this study contribute to understanding the water resources distribution and aquaculture structure in Jianxi Province, and provide foundational data for the scientific layout of aquaculture.
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    Resource Research Method
    Evaluating the Applicability of GPM Satellite Precipitation Datain Heihe River Basin
    WANG Si-meng, WANG Da-zhao, HUANG Chang
    2018, 33 (10):  1847-1861.  doi: 10.31497/zrzyxb.20171180
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    The precipitation varies across space and time. The estimation of precipitation is thus difficult to achieve high precision, leading to the significant difference and enormous uncertainties when applying precipitation products in different areas. The accuracy could be influenced by terrain or climatic factors. Therefore, it is necessary to verify its suitability and accuracy before using GPM data for precipitation monitoring. In this paper, the applicability of GPM satellite precipitation data in Heihe River Basin (HRB) is evaluated at both spatial and temporal scales. Based on the precipitation data of the TRMM satellite and the precipitation data measured at the meteorological observation sites, the correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), relative bias (BIAS), mean error (ME) and standard deviation (SD) were selected to evaluate the accuracy of satellite data. The results demonstrate that the monthly GPM data can capture the precipitation well. It shows a good consistency with the measured data and reveals a good temporal pattern. There is a high correlation between the GPM data and the observed data (R> 0.72) and a low error range (-0.59% - 1.62%). Comparing with TRMM, GPM produces lower RMS error (RMSE <28.76). In summer, GPM performs better, with higher correlation coefficient (R> 0.76) and lower error (BIAS <1.14). Both estimated precipitation and measured precipitation decline from southeast to northwest. The elevation was found to have a significant impact on the precipitation monitoring accuracy. In general, the GPM satellite precipitation data are applicable in the arid and semi-arid areas with complex terrain and can accurately reflect the precipitation distribution, bearing in mind that further improvement is still needed.
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