Table of Content

    20 January 2018, Volume 33 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Use of Land Natural Capital in the Context of Urbanization
    FANG Kai, WU Ci-fang, DONG Liang
    2018, 33 (1):  1-13.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161360
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (6027KB) ( )   Save
    The paper focused on the changes in natural capital use of urban and rural lands. It redefined the land footprint and land carrying capacity from the production perspective, and applied a revised 3D land footprint model which can differentiate the flows and stocks of natural capital between the scales of product, land and region. Then, the land natural capital use of Guiyang City in 2000-2014 was investigated. The results show that the mobility of natural capital flows increased by 39.4% while the depletion intensity of natural capital stocks decreased by 15.7%. There was a significant change in the composition of land natural capital use, as proven by the growing diverse sources of natural capital flows. Specifically, the largest appropriation of flows and depletion of stocks of land natural capital was found in cropland. However, the gap between cropland and other four land types was shrinking as a result of the reform of the supply front. The dietary supply patterns in Guiyang transformed from crop-dominated to vegetable-dominated. The expanding flows of natural capital benefitting from ecological surplus allowed the forest to have the second-largest share of natural capital use. The stock-flow utilization ratio of natural capital declined remarkably when it comes to the grassland, irrespective of the considerable risk of rebound. The built-up land attracted many of the natural capital flows and thus replaced grassland to be the third-largest land type in terms of natural capital use. There was a significant positive correlation between the magnitude of natural capital use in built-up land and the urbanization rate of Guiyang. The water body accounted for the least amount of natural capital use, and its natural capital use shifted from stock depletion-dominated to flow appropriation-dominated. The research to some extent exposited the nexus between the land use change and the flow-stock dynamics of natural capital in Guiyang City, and thus provided a reference for further scientific discussions on improving the robustness and standardization of footprint methodologies.
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    Urban Growth Boundary Delimitation Method Integrating Comprehensive Ecological Security Pattern and Urban Expansion Simulation—A Case Study of Planning Areas in Tianshui City (2015-2030)
    CONG Dian-min, ZHAO Shu-he, YU Tao, CHEN Cheng, WANG Xiao-biao
    2018, 33 (1):  14-26.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161330
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    Traditional methods for urban growth boundary delimitation generally consider the construction of ecological security patterns or the simulation of urban expansion. The former methods ignore the expansion of the city and are of less objectivity while the later methods only take the urban expansion into consideration and ignore the ecological security issues. To solve the above problem, the paper proposes a new method for delimitating urban growth boundary by integrating the comprehensive ecological security pattern and the simulation of urban expansion. Four kinds of factors are selected to build the comprehensive ecological security pattern and are used to modify the rigid urban growth boundary based on the designated no-construction areas. Then, the city expansion boundary is obtained through the simulation of the city expansion with suitable internal driving factors and CA_Markov model. The urban growth boundary of Tianshui City is delaminated by the method integrating the comprehensive ecological security pattern and the simulation of urban expansion. The final delimitation of urban growth area is 370.56 km2 in total, accounting for 7.7% of the whole planning area. Currently, the built-up area is 140.64 km2 and the area remained to be built is 154.05 km2. This method solves the contradiction between city growth and ecological protection effectively, which is of great importance for the growth boundary delimitation of the valley cities with land shortage and fragile ecological environment.
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    Impacts of Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect on Carbon Cycle in Global Terrestrial Ecosystem
    SHAO Si-ya, ZHANG Jing, ZHOU Li-hua, QIAO Yan
    2018, 33 (1):  27-36.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161109
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    The biogeochemical processes in global terrestrial ecosystem are studied using the Community Land Model (CLM), and the impacts of aerosol radiative effects on the carbon cycle in global terrestrial ecosystem are analyzed. Calculations show that the aerosol direct radiative effects caused the global averages of terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP), net primary productivity (NPP), heterotrophic respiration (RH), autotrophic respiration (RA), and net ecosystem productivity (Reco) to increase in 2007, with significant spatial variations however. For instance, the GPP increased in the mid-west of Africa, the mid-east of China, the southeastern US and the mid-south of Europe, and decreased in the Amazonia of South America and the southeastern Asia. The NPP and RA showed similar spatial pattern as GPP did. The average changes of GPP, NPP, NEP, RA, RH and Reco in 2007 were +6.47 g C·m-2 (+1.13%), +2.23 g C· m-2 (+0.98%), +0.34 g C·m-2 (+4.04%), +4.24 gC m-2 (+1.25%), +1.89 g C·m-2 (+0.86%), +6.13 g C·m-2 (+1.13%), respectively. Simulations of canopy photosynthesis found that the photosynthetic carbon sequestration by sunlit and shaded leaves was also impacted by aerosols. The photosynthetic carbon sequestration by shaded leaves exhibited similar trend as GPP did, and its global average increased by 23.93 g C·m-2. The carbon sequestration by sunlit leaves decreased by a global average of -17.47 g C·m-2. Examinations of the carbon fluxes show that the aerosol direct radiative effects influence the carbon cycle in terrestrial ecosystem via the following two ways: first, the diffuse fertilization effect, i.e. more diffuse radiation being absorbed by shaded leaves of vegetation (photosynthetic active radiation, PAR) results in higher photosynthetic rates; second, the radiation changes lead to changes in temperature and humidity, thereby changing the rates of the plant biophysical and chemical processes.
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    Soil Preferential Flow Characteristics under Different Land Utilization Styles in the Reclaimed Dump of Haizhou Surface Coal Mine
    LÜ Gang, FU Xin-yang, LI Ye-xin, LI Jun, WANG Ting
    2018, 33 (1):  37-51.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161249
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    The macrospores, tubular channels and plant roots in the reclaimed soils of dump were the main reason for the formation of soil preferential flow. To better understand the morphological characteristics and variation of soil preferential flow in different land utilization styles in the dump, the dye staining experiment was carried out and physical and chemical analyses were used in the paper to investigate the formation mechanism and influencing factors of preferential flow in the process of revegetation. The results showed that: 1) Soil preferential flow in dump centered in the 0-40 cm soil layer where the proportion of dyed area ratio occupied more than 93% of the 0-60 cm soil layer. The characteristics of soil preferential flow differed significantly in different soils. The dyed area ratio in the 0-5 cm soil layer of arbor forest was higher than those of shrub land and weeds, and the order was Ulmus pumila land (90.37%), Robinia pseudoacacia land (79.84%), mixed forests land (65.37%), farmland (44.36%), shrub land (41.54%) and weeds land (38.38%). 2) The order of dyed area ratio in the 0-60 cm soil layer of all samples in the dump was Robinia pseudoacacia land (26.48%), Ulmus pumila land (20.12%), mixed forests land (17.32%), farmland (15.06%), shrub land (13.97%) and weeds land (10.07%). There was a good linear relationship between the dyed area ratio and the depth of soil layer. The Spearman correlation analysis was carried out between the dyed area ratio and soil factors, water factors and vegetation factors. The dyed area ratio has significant positive correlation (P<0.01) with gravel content, mean radius of soil macrospores, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, root weight density and density of root with length less 1 mm density and significant positive correlation (P<0.05) with density of root with length 1-2 mm and 2-5 mm, and it has significant negative correlation (P<0.01) with bulk density, water content. The results provide a scientific basis for understanding the formation mechanism of preferential flow, restoring and reconstructing vegetation in dumps.
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    Upscaling of the Transpiration and Water Consumption of Sand-fixing Vegetation Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla
    DUAN Li-min, TONG Xin, LÜ Yang, YAN Xue, LIU Ting-xi, WANG Xi-xi
    2018, 33 (1):  52-62.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161196
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    This study measured the daily sap flow of the selected individual stems of sand-fixing vegetation Salix gordejevii and Caragana microphylla in the Horqin Sandy Land, China, throughout the growing season. The stem cross-sectional area of Salix gordejevii and the leaf area of Caragana microphylla were selected as potential upscaling factors for modeling the transpiration of the communities across large area. The transpiration of the community Salix gordejevii and the community Caragana microphylla were found to be 287.26 mm and 197.23 mm, respectively, indicating that the drought tolerance of Salix gordejevii is lower than that of Caragana microphylla. The evapotranspiration of the two communities calculated with the FAO Penman-Monteith equation were 328.70 mm and 233.15 mm, respectively. The daily transpiration and evapotranspiration followed the similar trend, the coefficient of determination being 0.717 3 and 0.678 7, respectively. These results indicate that the upscaling method proposed in this paper is effective for estimating transpiration and water consumption of desert shrubs and provids a useful reference for the selection and management of sand-fixing vegetation and the determination of reasonable afforestation densities.
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    Soil Structure and Its Effect on Soil Water Holding Property under Three Land Use Patterns in Piedmont Plain of Mountain Tai
    WANG Xiu-kang, QI Xing-chao, LIU Yan-li, LIU Zhi-guang, SONG Fu-peng, LI Cheng-liang
    2018, 33 (1):  63-74.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161291
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    Soil water holding capacity, which is controlled by soil structure properties of land uses types with different vegetation and management systems, plays an important role in soil fertilization and crop root development. This study is to explore changes of water holding capacity and soil physicochemical properties in three land use types in piedmont plain of Mountain Tai, such as soil particle composition, particle size distribution, water stable soil aggregate content. Original soil samples in agricultural soil, forest field and barren land in meadow brown soil region and soil water characteristics curves were used to inspect soil water holding capacity, soil water and soil moisture holding, and supply capacity. The soil physicochemical properties affecting soil water holding capacity were identified by step regression and path coefficient method. Results showed that the agricultural soil and forest field had significant higher clay content, organic carbon content and soil capillary porosity and lower aggregate stability than barren land. Agricultural soil had more composition of fine particles and surface area of soil particles than forest field and barren land. The order of field water holding capacity from high to low was agricultural soil, forest field and barren land, which was 31% in agricultural soil and was 15% and 24% more than those in forest field and barren land. There was a power function correlation between the soil moisture and the potential of soil water, which is θ=A·S-B. The value A indicates the intensity of soil water retention with the order from high to low of agricultural soil, forest field and barren land. The order of total available water content and rapid available water percentage from high to low was forest field, agricultural soil and barren land. Step regression and path analysis indicated that soil water retention intensity was positively correlated with soil specific surface area and clay contents and was negative correlated with the stability of soil aggregates. Soil organic carbon played an important role in controlling soil clay content and soil aggregate formation. Consequently, the organic matter input should be increased in order to ameliorate soil structure, and rotation and intercrop should be applied in agricultural and forestry farming in order to improve soil water retention properties. The outcome of this paper provides reference for keeping soil fertility and sustainable application in the region of brown soil.
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    Food Consumption Patterns of Chinese Urban and Rural Residents Based on CHNS and Comparison with the Data of National Bureau of Statistics
    XIN Liang-jie, LI Peng-hui
    2018, 33 (1):  75-84.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161207
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    A China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was designed in 1989 to examine the nutritional status of the populations. This paper used the CHNS data acquired in 2011 to investigate the consumption status of Chinese urban and rural residents, which covered nine provinces and three municipalities. Out-of-home food consumption was also analyzed in this paper. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The average yearly ration consumption in 2011 was 119.93 kg per capita, and the out-of-home consumption took 9.91%. 2) Total meat consumption per capita reached 32.804 kg in 2011, including pork, beef, mutton, and poultry, in which pork took 69.85%, poultry took 20.98%, and beef and mutton together took only 9.20%. Egg and milk consumption per capita in 2011 were 10.90 kg and 13.56 kg, respectively. 3) The yearly ration consumption of Chinese urban residents was obviously lower than that of rural residents, but the yearly meat consumption of urban residents was obviously higher than that of rural residents. It is notable that the out-of-home meat consumption of rural residents was higher than that of urban residents. 4) The consumptions of meat, egg and milk released by the National Bureau of Statistics were lower than the data of CHNS, especially the egg, poultry and milk consumptions of rural residents. The food consumptions released by the National Bureau of Statistics were coincident with the at-home food consumptions of CHNS. However, the data of the National Bureau of Statistics missed the amount of out-of-home food consumption. According to the experience in developed countries, it is hard to reduce the amount of food rations, and it is expected that the consumptions of meat and dairy products will continue to rise in a long time. So, agricultural production pressure and the large amounts of animal feed import will continue to exist.

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    Research on the Spatial Structure and Complex Characteristics of Tourism Destination Network —A Case Study of Yesanpo Tourism Destination
    GAO Ping, XI Jian-chao
    2018, 33 (1):  85-98.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161212
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    Tourism destination is a complex adaptive system including many spatial elements which connect with each other composing tourism destination network. Complexity is the inevitable trend of the development of tourism destination network. Taking the Yesanpo tourism destination in Hebei Province as a case, this paper selects four types of tourism elements as the tourism nodes, which are core scenic spots, central towns, rural communities and characteristic gardens, to build the tourism destination network whose edges are the tourism connection strength. Based on the spatial analysis of TOP network, the paper analyzes the spatial structure of tourism destination network and its complexity characteristics. The results show that: 1) There is a hierarchical agglomeration phenomenon in the tourism destination network, which forms the spatial agglomeration units composed of core scenic spots, central towns, rural communities and characteristic gardens and has the dual characteristics of “adjacent connection” and “preferential connection”. 2) Yesanpo tourism destination network obeys power-law distribution, which shows the scale-free characteristic. 3) Compared with the random network, the Top3 and Top5 networks have smaller average path length and larger agglomeration coefficient, showing typical characteristics of “small world network”. 4) The tourist network is a typical heterogeneous network whose degree has a negative correlation, and it shows hierarchical properties since there is an approximate reciprocal relation between the agglomeration coefficient and the degree of nodes. The study also finds that the development model integrating scenic spots, towns, communities and gardens as basic structural unit is of great significance to guide spatial reconstruction of tourism destinations.

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    The Multiple Paths of the Rural Settlement Evolution in the Peak-cluster-depression Area of Central Guizhou Province—A Case Study in Houzhaihe, Puding County
    LI Yang-bing, LIU Ya-xiang, LUO Guang-jie
    2018, 33 (1):  99-113.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161309
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    The study of the spatial evolution of rural settlements at micro-scale contributes to the deep understand of the diversity of settlement evolution. The paper discusses the multivariate space evolution model of the typical karst rural settlements in the Guizhou Plateau at patch scale and aims to reveal the diversity of rural settlements in karst mountainous areas, which is important to promote the reconstruction model in suitable production, living and ecological space in karst mountainous villages. The high resolution remote sensing images with long time series from 1963 to 2015 and the field surveys of local households are the main data sources. In order to reflect the spatial distribution pattern of the settlements in the study area, the average neighborhood index, the patch density per unit area and the percentage of the settlement area are defined, and the types of settlement evolution are divided based on the space composition of new and old settlement houses. The results show that the overall settlements in the study area can be characterized as “dense in the peripheral area and sparse in the middle”, and this kind of spatial pattern had been continuously strengthened from 1963 to 2015. The types of settlement evolution can be divide into “hollowing out and abandoned type”, “Old declined and new built-up type”, “natural fading type”, “internal reconstruction type”, “basically unchanged type” and “comprehensive evolution type”. In 1963, the settlements mixed with old and new buildings in the study area accounted for 71.83% of the area, and the settlements dominated with old buildings accounted for 28.17% of the area. In 2015, the settlements mixed with old and new buildings, the settlements dominated with old buildings and the settlements dominated with new buildings accounted for 45.14%, 28.07% and 26.79% of the total area, respectively. The settlement landscape in the study area experienced the evolution process of mixture of old and new buildings, old buildings dominated and new buildings dominated from 1963 to 2015. The multiple paths of the settlement evolution in the study area can be summarized as three types: lowland oriented, traffic oriented and economy and central area oriented. Based on the above results, this paper argues that the remediation of the settlement and the spatial optimization and control in the study area should be based on the multiple evolution models.

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    Variation of Springtime Northern Branch Ridge and Its Impact on Climate in China
    ZHANG Yong-li, FAN Guang-zhou, WANG Jia-nan, WU Yu, WANG Xiao, HUANG Xian-lun, GE Fei, LONG Yan-yan
    2018, 33 (1):  114-126.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161067
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    The variation of springtime northern branch ridge (SNBR) and its impact on precipitation and temperature in China are analyzed using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the observational precipitation and temperature data at the 160 stations of China, with the methods of wavelet analysis, correlation analysis, etc. The results indicate that SNBR is gradually strengthening with periods of 2-3 years and quasi-6 years. Its position is moving eastward slightly with quasi-periods of 3 years and 12 years. When the SNBR is stronger (weaker), the spring precipitation from the Yellow River basin to south of the Yangtze River decreases (increases) obviously, while the spring precipitation rises (drops) in Northeast, Southwest and South China. When SNBR is eastward (westward), the spring pecipitation increases (decreases) in most part of the northern China and drops (rises) in most part of the southwest and southeast of China. Meanwhile, the springtime mean temperature in most part of China is higher (lower) than normal. When SNBR locates more westward (eastward), the precipitation decreases (increases) in the Huaihe River Basin, and rises (drops) in Northeast, Southwest and South China when the SNBR is strong (weak). The springtime mean temperature in most part of China is higher (lower) than normal. The relationship between the SNBR and the variation of the circulation can explain the climate change in China and improve the short-term climate forecasting.

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    Variation Characteristics of Snow Cover Days in Winter in Arid Region of Northwest China in Last 50 Years
    MA Rong, ZHANG Ming-jun, WANG Sheng-jie, WANG Jie, YANG Sen, CHEN Rong
    2018, 33 (1):  127-138.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161261
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    In this paper, the daily datasets of snow depth, mean air temperature, and precipitation from 104 meteorological stations and NCEP/NCAR were used to study the snow cover days in winter in the arid region of Northwest China during 1961-2010. K-means clustering, Mann-Kendall test and other methods were used to calculate the temporal-spatial characteristics of the snow cover days and interpret the reason of the climate change. The results indicated that: 1) More snow cover days in winter mainly distributed in Junggar Basin and Altai Mountains (i.e. the region of III). The snow cover days in winter decreased gradually from high latitude to low latitude in the Inner Mongolia Plateau (i.e. the region of I). The snow cover days in winter were relatively few in the Xiliao River Basin, Ordos Plateau, Alxa Plateau, Tianshan Mountains and Tarim Basin (i.e. the region of II). 2) During the period 1961-2010, the snow cover days in winter presented an increased trend in the arid region of Northwest China, and the abrupt change was found in 1984. The big change of snow cover days in winter happened at some meteorological stations in the Inner Mongolia Plateau (i.e. the region of I), while snow cover days in winter had no obvious change at the stations in the Xiliao River Basin, Ordos Plateau, Alxa Plateau, Tianshan Mountains, Tarim Basin, Junggar Basin and Altai Mountains (i.e. the regions of II and III). 3) The variation of snow cover days in winter showed the periods of 5 years, 10 years, 25 years, approximately. The period of 25 years showed the most significance. 4) The increased precipitation in winter, caused by the weaken the East Asia major trough and Southern branch trough and the enhancement of the westerly wind, maybe the main factor of the increased trend of the snow cover days in winter in the arid region of Northwest China.

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    Analysis of Heating Intensity in Harbin Based on Degree-hours Method
    LIU Yu-lian, REN Guo-yu
    2018, 33 (1):  139-148.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161270
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    Compared to degree-day, degree-hour is more realistic to indicate the heating intensity. Using the degree-hour method and hourly temperature data of 2005-2014, the characteristics of temperature and heating intensity of the heating period in Harbin City were analyzed. The main conclusions include: 1) During the 183 days of Harbin heating period, the average temperature was -7.7 ℃. Higher temperatures appeared in 2007 and 2008, which were 2.6 ℃ higher than the average, and the lower temperature occured in 2013, which was 2.0 ℃lower than the average. 2) During the period of 2005-2014, the average annual heating intensity was 1.1×105 ℃·h, with the maximum value 1.2×105 ℃·h (2013), and the minimum value 1.0×105 ℃·h (2007). The highest heating intensity was in January, and the lowest was in April; the maximum hourly mean heating intensity appeared in the early morning, and the minimum hourly mean heating intensity appeared in the early afternoon. 3) The hourly mean heating intensity of Harbin heating period was 25.7 ℃·h, and the diurnal distribution of hourly mean heating intensity was opposite to the temperature. The maximum hourly mean heating intensity, 29.3 ℃·h, was at 06:00 am, while the minimum value, 21.6 ℃·h, was at 14:00 pm. The heating intensity was generally higher than the average during the period from 21:00 pm to 09:00 am, and was lower than the average during the period from 09:00 am to 21:00 pm. 4) January has the maximum hourly mean heating intensity of 35.4 ℃·h, followed by December, February, November, March, October, and April had the minimum of only 12.0 ℃·h. 5) The minimum hourly mean heating intensity was at 15:00 pm in March and April, and was at 14:00 pm in other months of the heating period; the maximum hourly mean heating intensity was generally at 07:00 am in January, February and December, and happened at 06:00 am in March, October and November, and 05:00 am in April. The highest hourly mean heating intensity happened from 06:00 am to 08:00 am in mid-January.

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    Spatial Variability of Organic Matter and Its Influencing Factors in Red Soil with Different Erosion Degrees in South China
    JIANG Ye-feng, SUN Kai, GUO Xi, YE Ying-cong, RAO Lei, LI Wei-feng, LI Jie, WANG Lan-ke
    2018, 33 (1):  149-160.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161265
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    SPSS and GIS were applied to analyze the spatial variability of soil organic matter (SOM) and its influencing factors in red soil with different erosion degrees in Xingguo County in Jiangxi Province. The results showed that the SOM content tends to decline with the increase of soil erosion degree. Significant differences of SOM content were found in soil with different erosion degrees (P<0.001), and the soil of each erosion degree can be divided into four grades of SOM content, with the coefficient of variation decreasing in the order of moderate erosion (43.70%), fierce erosion (37.78%), serious erosion (34.88%), extremely intensive erosion (34.44%), no significant erosion (34.38%) and slight erosion (28.91%). In the cases of no significant erosion and slight erosion, the elevation and profile pattern are the main controlling factors affecting spatial variability of SOM. When the erosion is moderate or serious, slope becomes the main factor. The elevation, profile configuration, slope and parent material all have significant effects on the SOM content in soil with extremely intensive erosion or fierce erosion. The research indicated that there are various controlling factors in soil with different erosion degrees. It can maximize saving resources when reasonably using of cultivated land, soil and water according to the erosion level of soil. The study is of great significance for cultivated land use and soil and water conservation.

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    Content and Ecological Stoichiometry Characteristics of Organic Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Typical Soils in Sub-alpine/Alpine Mountain of Western Sichuan
    CHENG Huan, GONG Yuan-bo, WU Qiang, LI Yao, LIU Ying, ZHU De-wen
    2018, 33 (1):  161-172.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161100
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    In this paper, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus contents and ecological stoichiometry characteristics of typical soil types at different elevations of sub-alpine /alpine mountain of western Sichuan were studied and compared with the results of survey made in 1985. The content and ecological chemistry variables in humus horizon, illuvial horizon and parent materials horizon of various soil types (subalpine mountain meadow soil, meadow soil, dark brown soil, brown soil, yellow brown soil, cinnamon soil) were measured and calculated. The results show that in terms of soil organic carbon, the soils are sorted in following order: subalpine mountain meadow soil>meadow soil>dark brown soil>cinnamon soil>yellow brown soil>brown soil; in terms of total nitrogen content, the soils are sorted in following order: dark brown soil>subalpine mountain meadow soil>meadow soil>brown soil>cinnamon soil>yellow brown soil; in terms of total phosphorus contents, the soils are sorted in following order: subalpine mountain meadow soil>brown soil>meadow soil>dark brown soil>cinnamon soil>yellow brown soil; and the contents of dark brown soil, brown soil decrease with the increasing of the depth. According to the classification standard of Second National Soil Survey, the survey region is highly rich in soil organic carbon, rich in total nitrogen, and lack of total phosphorus, and such three elements firstly increase and then decrease from south to north. The ecological stoichiometry characteristics, soil carbon-nitrogen ratio: meadow soil>cinnamon soil>yellow brown soil>subalpine mountain meadow soil>dark brown soil>brown soil, carbon-phosphorus ratio: meadow soil>yellow brown soil>cinnamon soil>dark brown soil>subalpine mountain meadow soil>brown soil, nitrogen-phosphorus ratio: meadow soil>dark brown soil>yellow brown soil>cinnamon soil >subalpine mountain meadow soil >brown soil,, and total phosphorus content is the limiting factor of soil quality. Compared with the result of the survey in 1985, the organic carbon content in subalpine mountain meadow soil, meadow soil, yellow brown soil and cinnamon soil increased and the organic carbon content in brown soil decreased significantly (the content in 2015 was 31.06% of that in 1985) during the past three decades; total nitrogen content had slight change; total phosphorus content decreased with range between 56.41% - 87.85%.

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    Evaluation of Resources and Environmental Carrying Capacity Based on Spring Model—Taking Chen Barag Banner in Inner Mongolia as an Example
    HUANG Qiu-sen, ZHAO Yan, XU Xin-yi, WANG Guo-qiang, WANG Hong-rui, GU Qi-wei
    2018, 33 (1):  173-184.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20161250
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    The research of resources and environment carrying capacity is of great significance to the sustainable development of social and economy in ecological regions in China. In this paper, ecological health degree was used to describe the characteristics of ecological regions, the evaluation indexes system of resources and environmental carrying capacity was constructed, and the evaluation model of resources and environmental carrying capacity based on spring model and the method discretizing social and economic data were proposed to analyze the carrying state of resources and environment and the influence of social and economic pressure on the system of resources and environment in Chen Barag Banner of Inner Mongolia. The results showed that the resource and environmental systems of Baorixile Town, Huhenuoer Town and Bayankuren Town were all overloaded, and the values of RECS/RECC were 9.860, 1.369 and 1.221, respectively, while the others were all below 0.8. The evaluation results were reasonable and in accordance with the facts, which reflected the reliability of the evaluation method in the evaluation of ecological regions. The discretization result of social and economic pressure in 10 km×10 km spatial units was helpful to understand the spatial trend of social and economic pressure inside towns, which cannot be learned from the result based on the scale of township.

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