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Table of Content

    20 July 2016, Volume 31 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Ecology
    Footprint and Degree of Ecological Civilization Assessment of Chinese Urban Food Consumption
    CAO Shu-yan, XIE Gao-di
    2016, 31 (7):  1073-1085.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150794
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3134KB) ( )   Save
    China’s urban household food consumption has significantly changed over the last decades. China has already begun to enter the primary city-based society with urban population projected to about 70% of the country’s population by 2030. During the urbanization, food consumption pattern involved in urban areas has been increasingly determining the fate of ecological civilization development for China, as in many other countries. Ecological footprint analysis estimates the “load” imposed on the ecosphere by human population and activities. Few but risen studies used it to measure the impact we pin on nature by making green food consumption policy. The Ecological Footprint of Foods (EFF) consumption by urban households is usually accounted using bottom to up footprint methodology. The incomplete food items list and the incomplete consumption-land use matrix are two key limits that significantly affect the accuracy of EFF. We modified the input-output technique based on footprint account model. Firstly, we make the food items list as complete as possible. The new list involves 30 food items consumed at home (FH), about 50% more than most of the published study, with food away from home (FAFH) traced. Secondly, the consumption-land use matrix for every item is accounted by using material flow analysis. The completeness and accuracy therefore could be improved significantly. We also develop a new concept, Degree of Ecological Civilization (DEC), to reveal the quality of EFF. DEC is defined as an indicator depicting the ecological rationality and sustainability of the impact that a defined food consumption pattern imposes on nature. DEC is disaggregated into five hierarchies (very high, high, medium, low and very low) by balancing EFF and two benchmark indicators, bio-capacity required by balanced diet pattern and national average bio-capacity available per capita. We applies the modified footprint account model and new DEC system to China in period 2005-2012, at both national and provincial scales, to measure the impact of human’s change of diet pattern on nature. FAFH contributes rising percentage of total EFF in national and provincial urban households, rocketing to 40% in 2012. Obviously, FAFH has already overridden FH as the key force driving EFF change. DEC degraded at national scale and in 28 of 31 provinces, indicating higher and universal ecological risk. The urban therefore must take corresponding responsibility.
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    The Impact of Urbanization on Ecosystem Carbon Storage in Arid Area
    ZHU Shi-hua, YAN Yan, HU Yun-feng, ZHANG Chi
    2016, 31 (7):  1086-1099.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150731
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    Urbanization is one of the main factors that influence the regional ecosystem. However, the paucity of observation on the soil organic carbon (SOC) beneath urban impervious surface area (ISA) limits the estimation on the implication of urban land conversion in regional carbon cycle, especially in the arid regions. In this paper, urban land covers (water, ISA, greenspace, cropland, and bare ground, remnant desert) and land cover conversion of Urumqi, Xinjiang, China was estimated using the models of Vegetation-Impervious surface-Soil for urban land covers, linear spectral mixture analysis, and decision tree classifier based on Landsat TM/ETM of 1990 and 2010. The impact of urban land conversion on the ecosystem carbon storage was estimated based on the SOC and vegetation carbon density that obtained from the field observation and literatures. The dominant land conversion was the ISA expansion, which was tripled during 1990-2010, mostly sprawling in the north, and infilling in the southwestern Urumqi. The ISA expansion mainly occupied the bare soil/remnant desert (62%) and cropland (27%). It was found that more than 95% of urban ecosystem carbon stored in the soils, and 48% of which was in the soil under ISA. Land cover conversion during 1990-2010 resulted in a total of 25% carbon loss, in which converting of bare soil/remnant desert and cropland into ISA explained 68% of the total SOC loss and 63% of the total VEGC loss, whose spatial distribution was consistent with the spatial distribution of land conversion. Urban ecosystem carbon sequestration could be improved by intensive management and reasonable planning of the proportion between urban ISA and green space, which could make up for part of carbon loss caused by land conversion.
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    The Spatial-temporal Differentiation of Green Space and Its Fragmentation during the Past Thirty-five Years in Guangzhou
    CHEN Kang-lin, GONG Jian-zhou, LIU Yan-sui, CHEN Xiao-yue
    2016, 31 (7):  1100-1113.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150869
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    As one of the fundamental elements in urban area, the scarcity and importance of green space are becoming more and more prominent along with the urbanization. This paper firstly quantified the change and the intensity of urban green space using spatial data acquired from Landsat TM images from 1979 to 2014. Secondly, the spatiotemporal patterns of green space fragmentation were quantified at landscape gradients from the center to the periphery of the city and at the administrative district level. The results show that the city has expanded from central area to outskirts, which results in the increasing landscape fragmentation of urban green space. The green space has not been observed great change over time, while slight variations occurred in different time periods, i.e., ascending from 1979 to 1990 (2.3%) and from 2000 to 2005 (5.3%) and descending from 1990 to 2000 (-2.7%). Fragmentation of green space and its periodic difference of decrease (1990-2000) -increase (2000-2005) -decrease (2014-2005) are widely observed in spherical gradient of landscapes from central to peripheral area, as well as in the districts of Panyu, Baiyun and Huadu which are all adjacent to the city center. All these characteristics indicate the unequal attentions paid to the economic development and green space. The latter, however, is worthy of great emphasis and optimization for the sustainable development of the city in the future. Conclusions are helpful to understand the characteristics of the evolution of regional ecological environment, enrich research case and theory of urban green space, and also provide information for urban planning and spatial structure optimization of Guangzhou in the future.
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    Resource Economy
    Effect of Forest Gap on Carbon Release of Toona Ciliata Leaf Litter
    LI Xun, ZHANG Jian, YANG Wan-qin, ZHANG Yan, ZHANG Ming-jin, LIU Hua, LIU Yang
    2016, 31 (7):  1114-1126.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150791
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    In order to readjust the structure of pine forest and explore the regularity of litter carbon release in forest gaps of Pinus massoniana plantation, a field litterbag experiment was set up in thinning Pinus massoniana plantation with seven different sizes of forest gaps (G1: 100 m2, G2: 225 m2, G3: 400 m2, G4: 625 m2, G5: 900 m2, G6: 1 225 m2, G7: 1 600 m2). The effect of the sized of forest gap on carbon release rate of Toona ciliata leaf litter was studied. The results indicated that: 1) Compared with the small size (100-200 m2) and the large size (1 225-1 600 m2) of forest gaps, the medium sized (400-625 m2) forest gaps promoted the carbon release. 2) The carbon release rate in early period of the first 30 days is higher than in the following periods. The carbon release rate shows that after a decomposition of 90 days, there is a phenomenon of carbon concentration enrichment. 3) The carbon release is affected by the gap size, within-gap location, and decomposition time as well. Decomposition time has extremely significant effect on carbon release (P < 0.01), and gap size also has significant effect on carbon release (P < 0.05). However, there is no significant effect of within-gap location on carbon release. 4) The temperature and moisture have extremely significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) with carbon release rate and mass loss rate.
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    The Analysis of Border Effect of Urban Land Based on Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Agglomeration
    WANG Cheng-long, LIU Hui, ZHANG Meng-tian
    2016, 31 (7):  1127-1137.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150932
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3823KB) ( )   Save
    How the administrative boundary influences the urban land-use scale? Quoting the study case of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration, we build the border effect model of urban land based on the structural equation model. In the process of developing the model, we select economic factors, industry factors, population factors, the administrative elements and urban land as the latent variables, then the fitted models are constructed according to the indexes’ values of the year 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010. Based on the built model, the mechanism and evolution process of urban land expansion under the border effect is revealed. The results show that: Firstly, the administrative boundary has no significant direct effect on the urban land-use scale; secondly, the administrative boundary has indirect influence on the process of urban land expansion, the indirect effects including the economic factors, population elements and other factors; thirdly, according to the measuring values at five time nodes (1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010), the financial expenses and non-agricultural population play a leading role in the indirect influence of the administrative boundary on the expansion of the urban land in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration. The social fixed assets, the actual utilization of foreign invest-ment and the average wages also play an important role in different periods. The final but not the least point is that the social fixed assets is a pivotal indirect element when the socio-economic development is in the low-level, while the important role of the actual utilization of foreign investment and the average wages cannot be denied in the urban land-use border effect when the social and economic elements flow is frequent and efficient. Based on this study, the theoretical support and policy recommendations can be provided for rational expansion of urban land in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei agglomeration and delineation of the urban development boundary.
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    Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Water Use Efficiency in Henan Province Based on Spatial Econometric Models
    BAO Chao, CHEN Xiao-jie, LIANG Guang-lin
    2016, 31 (7):  1138-1148.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150934
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    Constrained by total amount of water resources, the improvement of water use efficiency is the necessary way to guarantee the development of urbanization, industrialization and social-economy in water scarce areas. Based on the panel data of the prefecture-level cities during the period of 2000-2013, we analyzed the influencing factors of water use efficiency in Henan Province by spatial econometric models, from the aspects of water resources endowment, water resources development level, economic development level, urbanization level, industrial structure, water utilization structure, agricultural modernization level and information level. The results show that: 1) There are notable spatial autocorrelation of water use efficiency among different prefecture-level cities in Henan Province, which can be best estimated by Spatial Dubin Model with spatial-temporal fixed effect. 2) The spatial spillover effect of water use efficiency in Henan Province is significant, i.e., if the water use efficiency in the neighboring prefecture-level cities increased 1%, then the water use efficiency of the prefecture-level city would increase 0.31%. 3) The endowment and the development level of water resources have significant negative effects on the water use efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Henan Province. However, the spatial spillover effects are not significant. 4) The economic development level, the urbanization level and the industrial structure optimization level have significant positive effects on the water use efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Henan Province. Moreover, the spatial spillover effect of each factor is very significant except for the industrialization level. 5) The change of water utilization structure, the agricultural modernization level and informatization level have few effects on the water use efficiency of prefecture-level cities in Henan Province. It indicates that a further coordination should be strengthened on the relationship between the sustainable utilization of water resources and the construction of national demonstration area of coordinated development of urbanization, industrialization, informatization & agricultural modernization in Henan Province.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Spatial Pattern Evolution of Urban Tourism Performance and Its Influence Factors in Pan-Yangtze River Delta
    WANG Kun, HUANG Zhen-fang, CAO Fang-dong, YU Feng-long, TANG Fu-jia
    2016, 31 (7):  1149-1163.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150767
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    Urban tourism performance is an important guideline for comprehensive measurement of urban tourism production activities and benefits. Taking the prefecture-level cities as the study units, this paper measures the tourism performance of Pan-Yangtze River Delta. Adopting urban tourism achievement index and Bootstrap-DEA model, with the help of the spatial variogram function and the Spatial Durbin Model, this paper analyzes the spatial pattern evolution of tourism performance and its influence mechanism. The main conclusions are shown as follows. Firstly, the urban tourism achievement and the urban tourism efficiency exhibit distinct spatial patterns. The areas of high urban tourism achievement are mainly the regional centers, such as the cities of Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing and their neighboring regions, while the areas of low urban tourism achievement locate in northern Anhui and northern Jiangsu. The areas of high urban tourism efficiency gradually form a “Z”-shaped spatial distribution, which is composed of the “northern Anhui-southern Jiangsu-Shanghai-southern Anhui-eastern Zhejiang”, and the areas of low urban tourism efficiency are gradually gathering at northern Jiangsu and northern Anhui. Secondly, according to the levels of urban tourism achievement and urban tourism efficiency, the cities in Pan-Yangtze River Delta can be divided into four types, namely highest-level tourism performance, higher-level tourism performance, lower-level tourism performance and lowest-level tourism performance. The numbers of cities at the highest level and higher level obviously increased, and these cities concentrate at Shanghai, Zhejiang, southern Jiangsu, and southern Anhui. The spatial distribution of the lowest-level of tourism performance gradually narrowed down, which mainly concentrated in the central and northern Jiangsu and northern Anhui. Thirdly, the evolutions of spatial patterns of urban tourism achievement and urban tourism efficiency are significantly different. The random components of the variation of urban tourism achievement pattern are constantly reducing, while the structured components of the variation of urban tourism efficiency pattern are constantly growing. The spatial difference of regional urban tourism achievement is shrinking and the variation is isotropic. The spatial difference of urban tourism efficiency increased first and then decreased, and the variation is anisotropic. Lastly, the spatial pattern evolution of urban tourism performance not only depends on the change of tourism production, but also relies on urban macro environment. Various factors of urban macro environment, such as urban economic development, industrial structure, traffic condition, information technology, market-oriented and urbanization, and their spatial interaction, constitute the power of spatial pattern evolution of urban tourism performance.
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    Effects of Riparian Vegetation Patterns on the Distribution and Migration Characteristics of Surface Soil Nutrients
    GUO Er-hui, YUN Fei, FENG Zhi-pei, CHANG Hai-rong, YANG Xi-tian
    2016, 31 (7):  1164-1172.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150898
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    The types and patterns of riparian vegetation have changed greatly due to human activities along the Wenyu River. Three riparian vegetation patterns from the upland to the river channel along Wenyu River were chosen as the focus of this study. These vegetation patterns are (I) Populus simonii forestland-Cropland, (II) Rhus typhina forestland-Grassland and (III) Cropland-Grassland, respectively. The distributions of soil nutrients along these vegetation patterns were observed and compared. Results show that the heterogeneity of riparian vegetation structure can significantly affect the distribution characteristics of soil nutrients and the risk of soil nutrients loss. From the upland toward the river channel, the contents of soil TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus), AN (available nitrogen), AP (available phosphorus), and the content of SOM (soil organic matter) exhibit the declining trend in riparian vegetation structure I, whereas the soil bulk density (BD) shows an increase trend. The contents of TN, AN, SOM in riparian vegetation structure II fluctuate, while the contents of TP and AP are relatively stable. Soil nutrients in riparian vegetation structure III show the increase trend from the upland toward the river channel, however, the soil BD decreases in the same direction. For the vegetation structure III, the grassland soil in the lower slope has more nutrients and OM but lower BD than the cropland soil in the upper slope. The riparian vegetation structure also can affect the average contents of soil nutrients in riparian transect. A scientific reference can be provided by this paper for optimization and restoration design of riparian vegetation.
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    Soil Characteristics under Different Community Types in the Subtropical Evergreen and Deciduous Broad-leaved Mixed Forest in Southwest Hubei
    FENG Guang, AI Xun-ru, ZANG Run-guo, DING Yi
    2016, 31 (7):  1173-1184.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150744
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    As an essential substrate for plant growth, soils under vegetation play important roles in regulating the composition and structure of plant communities, which inversely have great influences on the properties of soils. The evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest is the most important vegetation type in subtropical mountain of southwest Hubei. It plays an irreplaceable role in maintaining the regional eco-environmental health. However, we know little about the features of the soil under this forest. In this paper, the characteristics of soils under five community types in the subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in southwest Hubei were analyzed. Based on measurements of 10 physical-chemical properties of soil samples from 92 permanent forest plots of five plant communities, we compared the characteristics and their variations among the soils under the five communities. Correlations among different soil factors under different communities were tested. The dominant factors and the overall qualities of soils under different communities were identified and assessed by using Principal Component Analysis. The result showed that: 1) The soil pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, available phosphorus under different communities varied significantly. 2) The dominant factors for determining the overall properties of soils across the subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in southwest Hubei were soil total nitrogen, soil moisture and soil total porosity. 3) The top three dominant factors for determining the overall properties of soils under each of the five communities ranked as follows: soil moisture, total porosity and density under community Ⅰ (Cyclobalanopsis glauca - Eurya alata + Camellia cuspidata); soil available kalium, total phosphorus and moisture under community Ⅱ(Carpinus fargesiana + Cyclobalanopsis glauca - Symplocos sumuntia); soil total porosity, pH and moisture under community Ⅲ(Carpinus fargesiana + Cyclobalanopsis glauca - Weigela japonica); soil total porosity, moisture and available kalium under community Ⅳ(Fagus lucida + Cyclobalanopsis multinervis-Eurya alata); and soil organic matter, total phosphorus and nitrogen under community Ⅴ(Carpinus fargesiana + Daphniphyllum macropodum + Lithocarpus cleistocarpus - Eurya alata). 4) The comprehensive quality for soils under the five communities ranked as: community Ⅰ> community Ⅲ> community Ⅳ> community Ⅱ> community Ⅴ. Our results indicated that soil nutrients content were higher under subtropical evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest in southwest Hubei, except the soil total phosphorus and available phosphorus. The variation of soils among different communities might be caused by the composition and structure of the communities. More researches remain to be done on the mechanism of the circulation of materials and the mutual effect between soil and vegetation.
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    Analysis of Drought Characteristics of the East China Monsoon Area Based on Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index
    MA Bin, ZHANG Bo, ZHOU Dan, ZHANG Yao-zong, WANG Guo-qiang, TANG Min
    2016, 31 (7):  1185-1197.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150947
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (15454KB) ( )   Save
    In this paper, the gridded Chinese ground precipitation and temperature dataset with spatial resolution of 0.5°× 0.5° released by National Meteorological Information Center and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) were used to analyze the drought coverage rate, the occurrence frequency of drought, and the intensity of drought in unit area. It reveals the temporal and spatial variations of drought characteristics in East China monsoon region from 1961 to 2013. The results showed that there were obvious changes of drought characteristics in the East China monsoon area in recent 20 years; the drought coverage rate and the intensity of drought per unit area had significant growing trend; the occurrence frequency of droughts had grown in Northeast China, North China, Loess Plateau and Southwest China; the areas with high frequencies of droughts and the extremely danger areas had obviously expanded. There was an externalized trend of drought in East China monsoon area under the background of global warming.
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    Characteristics of the Stable Isotopes in Different Water Bodies and Their Relationships in Surrounding Areas of Yuelu Mountain in the Xiangjiang River Basin
    YAO Tian-ci, ZHANG Xin-ping, LI Guang, HUANG Huang, WU Hua-wu, HUANG Yi-min, ZHANG Wan-jun
    2016, 31 (7):  1198-1210.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150810
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    The stable isotopes in different water bodies are of great significance to the study of hydrological processes, such as recharge mechanism and the interaction among different waters. In order to characterize the isotopic composition and reveal the interrelationships among the stable isotopes in different water bodies in Changsha, the precipitation, surface water, shallow soil water and groundwater samples were collected in surrounding areas of Yuelu Mountain from 2010 to 2013. Meanwhile, auxiliary variables (time and amount of air temperature and precipitation) were also measured. These measurements indicated significant time lag effect of the responses of δD and δ18O in the surface water, shallow soil water and groundwater to those of the daily precipitation showed. The lag time of surface water and shallow soil water to the precipitation is shorter, but the groundwater is longer. There was a remarkable linear relationship between δD and δ18O of precipitation at the synoptic scale, with a correlation coefficient 0.98; and the correlation coefficients between δD and δ18O in the surface water, shallow soil water and groundwater is 0.95, 0.90 and 0.90 respectively. In the δD-δ18O relation pattern, the slopes and the intercepts of the Surface Water Line (SWL), Shallow Soil Water Line (SSWL) and Groundwater Water Line (GWL) are smaller than those of the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL), suggesting that the precipitation is the primarily sources of other water bodies, and it has experienced considerable degree of evaporation and mixed with other water bodies. At the seasonal scale, notable positive correlations between the slope and the intercept of the same water-line were observed, however we also found the correlations between the slope and the intercept of LMWL failed to obey the pattern. The slope of LMWL during the dry season is smaller than in the rainy season, which revealed that the raindrops had undergone strong secondary evaporation during their descending from the cloud.
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    The Variations of Hydrogen and Oxygen Compositions and Moisture Sources in the Precipitation in Western Mountain Areas of Beijing
    HAO Yue, YU Xin-xiao, DENG Wen-ping, JIA Guo-dong, LOU Yuan-hai, BAI Yan-jing
    2016, 31 (7):  1211-1221.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150656
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    Stable isotopes of δD and δ18O in precipitation are investigated in western mountains of Beijing from July 2011 to July 2012. The results show that the mean values of δD and δ18O in precipitation in the study area were lower than those in global and in China, and had great difference to those in Beijing, and the isotope values of precipitation within the same month showed great variations. Because of the mutual influence of monsoon climate and atmospheric water vapor cycle, the stable isotopes of δD and δ18O in summer precipitation were less. The isotopic values decreased with the increase of monthly precipitation and temperature from April to July since the rainfall played the leading role in the interaction process of temperature and rainfall. The isotopic values increased from July to September when the temperature took the leading role. There are more stable isotopes of δD and δ18O in winter precipitation since the precipitation was formed in the continental air masses from the northerly winds. The second evaporation after the rainfall in the process of atmospheric water vapor cycle also causes the piecewise fluctuated decline of δD and δ18O in a typical long duration of rain. The meteoric water line equation of the study areas was δD=7.17δ18O+1.46 (R2=0.934 2), and the slope and intercept were lower than those in the national and global atmospheric precipitation line equations. When compared to the meteoric water line equation of Beijing, the slope of the equation was similar and the intercept was obviously different, which indicated that the ocean water vapor was not the only source of water vapor in the study area, the values of isotopes in the precipitation in this area were also influenced by the continental air masses, local strong water vapor cycle and the drying process in recent years. The irregularity of deuterium excess indirectly reflected the complexity of water source in the study area.
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    Rainfall Characteristics in Debris Flow Prone Areas of Jilin Province
    LI Hong-yan, YUAN Ruo-xi, WANG Xiao-jun, ZHANG Lei, YU Wen-quan
    2016, 31 (7):  1222-1230.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150816
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    In the southeast of Jilin Province, the debris flows mostly occurred in the low mountain and hilly area where the altitude is lower than 1 000 m, and are always associated with rainstorms. The physical geographical features of the debris flow-prone areas in Jilin Province were analyzed based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) platform, and the distribution of the debris flow prone areas in Jilin Province was drawn. The elevation, slope, soil types and land uses in the study area were evaluated by the experts, and the self-organizing cluster analysis and grey cluster method were used to classify the debris flows. Debris flow events were divided according to the date of rainfall (J1), days of cumulative rainfall (J2), cumulative rainfall in 7 days before debris flow (J3), height (J4) , slope (J5), soil type (J6) and land use (J7). Finally, the events were divided into three categories, and the zoning map of rainfall induced debris flows in Jilin Province was drawn, which provides a reference for managing geological disasters.
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    Exploring the Pollution Characteristics of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Primary Tributaries of the Dongjiang River
    LIU Qi, JIANG Yuan, DING Jiao, HOU Zhao-jiang, FU Lan
    2016, 31 (7):  1231-1240.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20150803
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    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is an important component of natural water, and its composition and content can reflect the pollution characteristics of rivers. We assessed the components of DOM from eight primary tributaries of the Dongjing River sampled from March to April, 2014 using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence. Two humic-like DOMs (Peak A and B) and two protein-like DOMs (Peak C and D) were found by peak-picking method and PARAFAC method. We used these four components, combining with water quality parameters, to explore the pollutant sources of each tributary. The results showed that: 1) The content of two protein-like components in Danshui River and Shima River was significantly higher than in other tributaries, and two humic-like components were missing in these two rivers. 2) The protein-like components (Peak C and D) showed strong correlations with general water quality parameters (P<0.05). 3) The tributaries located in upper and middle reaches of the Dongjing River were polluted slightly, the habitat conditions being good. The contents of the humic-like and protein-like components in the tributaries located in the middle reach were significantly high due to the pollutants from industries and agriculture. There was no humic-like components in the tributaries located in lower reach, but the protein-like components increased significantly, as a result of destruction of natural habitat and industrial wastewater discharges. 4) Like the estuary of the Pearl River and the Taizi River in the Liaohe River Basin, the tributaries of Dongjing River had high concentration of protein-like components, which is quite different from the Changjiang River and foreign rivers. This indicated that the human-caused organic pollution is serious in the Dongjing River.
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    Resource Research Method
    Water Resources and Industrial Structure Optimization of Hebei Province Based on Interval Multi-objective Programming
    ZHAO Yan, HUANG Xin-xin, WANG Hong-rui, WANG Xin-li, XU Xin-yi
    2016, 31 (7):  1241-1250.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.20140913
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    The increasingly sharp contradiction between supply and demand of water resources has become the major constraint that affects the sustainable development and ecological construction in Hebei Province. An interval multi-objective optimization model of industrial structure was set up based on water resource input-output table, and three objective functions and corresponding constraint conditions were determined. The optimization adjustment of water resources and industrial structure was calculated and analyzed. According to related policies, the adjustment programs of industrial structure in Hebei Province were put forward, i.e. expanding farms, forestry, fishery, wood products, nonmetallic mineral products, services, construction and food services, continuing to decrease mining, fabricated metal products, textile and apparel products, paper products, printing and energy supplies, and keeping unchanged of other industries. After the implementation of the adjusted structural programs, the added values of Hebei Provinces are expected to reach at least 5 119.116 3 billion yuan, up to 5 518.170 8 billion yuan, and averagely 5 318.643 6 billion yuan; the total amount of water consumption can be controlled within the range of 151.67×108-176.02×108 t; the quantity of pollutant COD can be controlled within the range of 117.31×104-136.80×104 t. The adjusted industrial structure can meet requirements of the development of Hebei Province.
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