Spatial Pattern Evolution of Urban Tourism Performance and Its Influence Factors in Pan-Yangtze River Delta
2016, 31 (7):
Urban tourism performance is an important guideline for comprehensive measurement of urban tourism production activities and benefits. Taking the prefecture-level cities as the study units, this paper measures the tourism performance of Pan-Yangtze River Delta. Adopting urban tourism achievement index and Bootstrap-DEA model, with the help of the spatial variogram function and the Spatial Durbin Model, this paper analyzes the spatial pattern evolution of tourism performance and its influence mechanism. The main conclusions are shown as follows. Firstly, the urban tourism achievement and the urban tourism efficiency exhibit distinct spatial patterns. The areas of high urban tourism achievement are mainly the regional centers, such as the cities of Shanghai, Hangzhou and Nanjing and their neighboring regions, while the areas of low urban tourism achievement locate in northern Anhui and northern Jiangsu. The areas of high urban tourism efficiency gradually form a “Z”-shaped spatial distribution, which is composed of the “northern Anhui-southern Jiangsu-Shanghai-southern Anhui-eastern Zhejiang”, and the areas of low urban tourism efficiency are gradually gathering at northern Jiangsu and northern Anhui. Secondly, according to the levels of urban tourism achievement and urban tourism efficiency, the cities in Pan-Yangtze River Delta can be divided into four types, namely highest-level tourism performance, higher-level tourism performance, lower-level tourism performance and lowest-level tourism performance. The numbers of cities at the highest level and higher level obviously increased, and these cities concentrate at Shanghai, Zhejiang, southern Jiangsu, and southern Anhui. The spatial distribution of the lowest-level of tourism performance gradually narrowed down, which mainly concentrated in the central and northern Jiangsu and northern Anhui. Thirdly, the evolutions of spatial patterns of urban tourism achievement and urban tourism efficiency are significantly different. The random components of the variation of urban tourism achievement pattern are constantly reducing, while the structured components of the variation of urban tourism efficiency pattern are constantly growing. The spatial difference of regional urban tourism achievement is shrinking and the variation is isotropic. The spatial difference of urban tourism efficiency increased first and then decreased, and the variation is anisotropic. Lastly, the spatial pattern evolution of urban tourism performance not only depends on the change of tourism production, but also relies on urban macro environment. Various factors of urban macro environment, such as urban economic development, industrial structure, traffic condition, information technology, market-oriented and urbanization, and their spatial interaction, constitute the power of spatial pattern evolution of urban tourism performance.
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