Table of Content

    15 October 2015, Volume 30 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Resource Ecology
    Evaluation of Ecological Sensitivity in China
    LIU Jun-hui, GAO Ji-xi, MA Su, WANG Wen-jie, ZOU Chang-xin
    2015, 30 (10):  1607-1616.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.001
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (3745KB) ( )   Save
    Three typical factors including land desertification, soil erosion and rocky desertification are selected to establish the evaluation model of eco-environmental sensitivity by integrating the technologies of RS and GIS in the present study. This paper conducts comprehensive research on eco-environmental sensitivity, reveals its spatial features in quantitative way and defines the redline of ecological sensitivity in China. The results are as follows: 1) the moderate sensitivity is the main type of land desertification. The surrounding areas of deserts in semiarid areas of northern China are the most sensitive areas. This is due to the strong wind in winter and spring in these areas, and the soil that mainly consists of sand and is seldom covered by vegetation is also the reason. 2) The slight sensitivity and insensitive areas take great proportion in soil erosion. The southwestern and southeastern parts of China and loess hilly regions are the most environmental sensitive areas, which is mainly the result of the abrupt slopes and spatial variation of precipitation. 3) The insensitive area is the main type of rocky desertification. The karst areas of southwest China are the most sensitive areas. 4) The main types of comprehensive eco-environment sensitivity in the study area are slight, insensitive and moderate. The comprehensive eco-environment sensitivity in northwestern, southwestern, southeastern parts of China and loess hilly region is higher than other areas in China. 5) Based on the evaluation results of comprehensive eco-environment sensitivity, taking the extreme sensitive areas as the ecological redline areas, this paper uses top-down method to define the redline of eco-fragile areas in China. Three types and 23 important ecological redline areas are delimited across the country, and the ecological redline areas make up about 12.86% of the study area.
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    Ecosystem Respiration of Maize Agroecosystem and Its Response to Temperature in the Hexi Corridor, China
    CHEN Guo-peng, ZHAO Wen-zhi, JI Xi-bin
    2015, 30 (10):  1617-1627.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.002
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    The ecosystem respiration (RE), following gross primary productivity, is the second largest carbon flux in global carbon cycle. CO2 flux was measured continuously using the eddy covariance technique in a maize agroecosystem at middle reaches of Heihe River in northwest China. The seasonal variation of ecosystem respiration and the temperature controls on them were investigated. The results show that the mean ecosystem respiration at night (REmean) of maize agroecosystem shows a topical single peak, the highest values of REmean being 12.54 μmol·m-2·s-1 which is observed in July. RE at 2 m height increased exponentially with air temperature (Ta) better than with soil temperature (Ts). The rate of basal ecosystem respiration (RE10) and the calculated temperature sensitivity for ecosystem respiration (Q10) from April to October showed single peak, the highest values of RE10 and Q10 being 2.68 μmol·m-2·s-1 in June and 2.62 in August, respectively. A Logistic model fit best to the relationship between half hours RE and air temperature, explaining 55.9% of the variation in RE over the annual cycle, but the performance of the model was poor during period of high Ta. The annual total of RE of the maize agroecosystem in the Hexi Corridor in 2009 were form 1122 to 1252 g C·m-2·a-1 estimated by Q10, Quadratic, Lloyd & Taylor and Logistic models.
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    Estimation and Analysis of Net Primary Productivity in Wuling Mountainous Area Based on Remote Sensing
    SUN Qing-ling, FENG Xian-feng, LIU Meng-xiao, XIAO Xiao
    2015, 30 (10):  1628-1641.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.003
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    Using the Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model which combines remote sensing and ecosystem process simulations to quantify the terrestrial carbon and water cycle, we estimated the NPP of Wuling mountainous area in 2010. Based on the survey data of forest, statistical data of grain yield, MODIS NPP data, and the published estimated NPP and surveyed NPP data of each vegetation type, we validated the results of NPP simulation. After exploring the spatial pattern and monthly variation trends of NPP in 2010, the relations between annual NPP and primary terrain factors including altitude, slope and aspect were analyzed specifically. Results showed that: 1) The mean value of annual NPP over the whole study area in 2010 was 555.17 g C/(m2·a), and the total annual NPP was 92.96 Tg C. Compared with that of MODIS NPP, the spatial pattern of simulated NPP was more reasonable, and it reflected more accurate topographical information. 2) Monthly NPP changed with seasons. The monthly NPPs of different vegetation types within our study area in 2010 all displayed bimodal distributions. Among them, the NPPs of shrub and evergreen broadleaf forest had the largest amplitude of variation in the year, while the NPP of crop had the smallest amplitude of variation. 3) With the altitude increasing, NPP increased first and then decreased quickly. As to the slope, NPP increased with the slope when it is gentle, and then decreased slowly when the slope getting steeper, but when the slope is greater than a certain value, NPP began to increase again. Additionally, among all the aspects of the slope, the mean NPP on the south slope was the highest, while that on the north slope was the lowest.
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    Soil-plant-litter Stoichiometry under Different Site Conditions in Yanhe Catchment, China
    XIANG Yun, CHENG Man, AN Shao-shan, ZENG Quan-chao
    2015, 30 (10):  1642-1652.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.004
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    Based on the investigation of the plant, litter and soil under different site conditions in Yanhe catchment, we selected Lespedeza davurica (Laxm.) Schindl as common plant, and studied the C, N, P stoichiometry of plant, litter and soils in this paper. We also discussed the migration, conversion and limition of the elements. The results showed that: 1) Soil C/N was 10.88, and soil C/P and N/P ratios were 23.14 and 2.13. 2) Soil C/N and C/P decreased as follows: sunny slope>shady slope; gully slope > hill slope; there was no significant difference in soil N/P under different site conditions. Plant C/N decreased as follows: sunny slope > shady slope; hill slope > gully slope; whereas plant C/P and N/P decreased as follows: shady slope >sunny slope; hill slope > gully slope. Litter C/N decreased as follows: shady slope > sunny slope; hill slope > gully slope; litter C/P and N/P decreased as follows: shady slope > sunny slope, gully slope> hill slope. 3) The C, N, P stoichiometry of plant, litter and soil reflected higher rate of soil organic carbon accumulation in gully slope than in hill slope, and higher rate in sunny slope than in shady slope. Soil P was similar under different site conditions. In the later stage of plant growth and the decomposition of litter, the migration and conversion of N was observed in sunny slope and hill slope, whereas the migration and conversion of P were usually observed in shady slope and gully slope.
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    Resource Economics
    Differentiation of Local Government’s Land Fiscal Behavior on Basis of Urban Size
    ZHANG Yao-yu, CHEN Hui-guang, SONG Lu-yi, CHEN Li-gen
    2015, 30 (10):  1653-1663.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.005
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    Based on the city size, this paper analyzed the difference in local government’s land fiscal behavior. On the basis of the existing research, the paper induced three main effects which might explain the government’s behavior on land finance. The three effects were urban expansion effect, urban population agglomeration effect, and urban industrial scale and structural adjustment effect. Correspondently, three theoretical hypotheses about the effects were proposed and tested. Using the panel data of 11 years which contain 243 prefecture-level cities, it empirically tested the fixed effect model, and the results showed that there were different driving forces for different size of cities behind their land fiscal behaviors. Firstly, the urban expansion effect had more powerful influence in small cities and medium-sized cities, comparing with big cities and the megacities. Secondly, the urban population gathering effect is effective in all city groups. The relationship between the population and land finance can be described by a U-shaped curve, which means the urban population gathering effect has an inflexion point. Comparing the inflexion point with the median, it could be found that the median was bigger than the inflexion point in medium-sized cities (73.71×104>62.41×104), big cities (147.07×104>66.92×104), and megacities (499.90×104>384.24×104). Only in the group of small cities, its inflexion point is bigger than the median (51.81×104>42.74×104). Thirdly, the urban industrial scale and structural adjustment effect were complex. Generally, the third industry would push land fiscal revenue in all except big cities, while the second industry would push land fiscal revenue only in big cities. The second industry would decrease land fiscal revenue in small cities and medium-sized cities. The industrial structural adjustment in small and medium cities would decrease land fiscal revenue, while it would promote land fiscal revenue growth in big cities. Therefore, different policies should be made for different cities according to the governance of land fiscal revenue. Special attention should be paid to the control policies, such as land policy, population policy, household registering policy, and industrial policy. For a small city, the policy should focus on decreasing the urban expansion effect and increasing the population agglomeration effect. For a medium-sized city, the policy should keep land supply structure in addition to controlling the land size. For big cities and megacities, the policy of governance should contain land policy and population policy, and keep a reasonable and orderly rate of the immigration.
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    Evaluation of Urban land Intensive Use in Guangdong Province: Based on Econometric Model
    YE Hao, ZHUANG Da-chang, YANG Lei
    2015, 30 (10):  1664-1674.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.006
    Abstract ( )   HTML ( )   PDF (1218KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the analysis of urban construction land expansion and its driving mechanism, an econometric model to evaluate the level of urban land intensive use was established. The regional differences and the temporal-spatial distribution of the levels of urban land intensive use in Guangdong Province were measured quantitatively. Then the results were compared with that of the traditional index weighting method. The results show that the econometric model proposed in the paper can measure the level of urban land intensive use very well. Viewed from the elastic coefficient of socio-economic variables, the expansion of urban land is mainly affected by the increase of urban population and residents’ income, while the effect of economic growth and fixed asset investment is not obvious. But the rising price of land and the strict land management can effectively inhibit the sprawl of urban land. The level of urban land intensive use was improved in Guangdong Province from 2003 to 2012. But there existed serious waste of land use in some cities. The gaps of land intensive use levels among cities are obvious in Guangdong Province. As viewed from the overall evolution, the levels of intensive use of seven cities in Pearl River Delta and seven cities in west and east Guangdong have declined, while the levels of land use intensive of seven cities on the mountain area have increased. The traditional index weighting method may be more suitable for the evaluation of industrial land, development zone and other productive land. If it was used to make a comprehensive evaluation on all urban land, it may exaggerate the effect of output and investment on land intensive use. Because of the law of diminishing land returns, high input and yield may not be the most economical and effective land use pattern. The results based on Data Envelopment Analysis show that the land use pattern with high investment in exchange for high yield is not necessarily intensive utilization.
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    Connotation and Evaluation of Regional Economic Transition Degree—A Case Study of the Western Hunan Area
    XU Mei, LIU Chun-la
    2015, 30 (10):  1675-1685.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.007
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    :Economic transition is an important aspect of regional economic development, and also an important content of regional economics and economic geography study. There are great theoretical value and practical significance to study the degree of economic transition. Region economic transition index involves five aspects which are economic transition speed, economic transition breadth, economic transition depth, economic transition direction and economic transition easiness. According to these five aspects, the paper built an economic transition evaluation index system, proposed an evaluation method of regional economic transition, and took western Hunan area as an example to carry out the empirical research. The results showed that: 1) The economic transition of the western Hunan area was rapidly. Compared to 2000, it has now entered a high transition phase. But the transition index is still low, only slightly higher than the minimum value of the high level of 0.517, and the gap between the western Hunan area and the developed areas inside and outside Hunan is still evident and needs to be narrowed. 2) In terms of each subsystem, the transition speed in western Hunan area had a rapid increase in 2001-2011; the transition breadth had a downward trend; the transition depth had jumped up; the transition dimension was continuously adjusting and optimizing; and the transition easiness degree has been improved. 3) Economic transition direction system is the main factor of economic transition in western Hunan area, followed by transition depth system and transition easiness system, while the effect of transition breadth system and transition speed system also cannot be ignored.
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    Assessment and Optimization on Energy Supply Security of High Energy Producing and High Energy Consumption Provinces in China: Cases Study of Shaanxi and Guangdong Provinces
    XUE Jing-jing, SHEN Lei, PENG Bao-fa, LIU Li-tao, LIU Jian
    2015, 30 (10):  1686-1697.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.008
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    From the current situation and problems of energy supply, we deeply analyzed the history and current issues of energy supply in high energy producing and high energy consumption provinces in China by taking Shaanxi and Guangdong provinces as cases. From the perspective of China regional energy supply security, the article built a comprehensive evaluation index system. The entropy method was applied to determine the weights of all indices. Using comprehensive scoring method the article comprehensively evaluated the energy supply security level of Shaanxi and Guangdong from 2000 to 2011. The trend was predicted based on gray prediction model GM(1, 1), and the differences of Shaanxi and Guangdong were compared. The results show that the energy supply security level is clearly polarized between Shaanxi as the representative of high energy producing provinces and Guangdong as the representative of high energy consumption provinces. Overall, the energy supply security level of Shaanxi shows a rising trend from 2000 to 2011with the energy supply security index between 0.27 and 0.47, while that of Guangdong declined with the energy supply security index between 0.23 and 0.31. According to the prediction the trends will continue till 2020. In view of regional differences in energy supply security between Guangdong and Shaanxi, several policies are recommended to provide scientific reference for energy supply security of different energy type provinces.
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    Resource Evaluation
    Dynamic Evaluation of Land Use Functions Based on Grey Relation Projection Method and Diagnosis of Its Obstacle Indicators: A Case Study of Guangzhou City
    WANG Feng, DONG Yu-xiang
    2015, 30 (10):  1698-1713.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.009
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    Multifunctional land use is the objective requirement of land use efficiency improving and social and economic sustainable development. The evaluation of land use functions is a basic work for multifunctional land use. After discussing the classification of land use function, the paper established an evaluation index system based on three-dimensional sustainable development of economics, environment and socity, and then measured the state of land use functions in 1990, 2000 and 2010, as well as the change during the 20 years in Guangzhou by using the grey relation projection evaluation model with the indexes reflecting the state and change of land use function, such as realization rate, dynamic degree, standard deviation and dominance. Furthermore, the obstacle indicators of land use function were analyzed via obstacle degree model. The results show that: 1) The dynamic degree of total function was 14.1% and 15.6% during 1990-2000 and 2000-2010, which indicated that the total function had slowly improved. The standard deviations of single function and subfunction increased gradually, which denoted that the harmony of multifunction was weakening. With the decrease of the dominance, land use functions become more diversified. The function that changed the most was the environmental function during 1990-2000 and the social function during 2000-2010, which meant that the kernal function of the land use changed from the environment in the former period to the society in the latter period. 2) The change characteristics among functions are different. For the single function, the economic function and social function jumped from slowly improving to rapid promotion, while the environmental function falled from rapid promotion to slowly improving during 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. 3) In the 10 subfunctions, agricultural production and resource supply continuously degenerated, environment purification firstly decreased and then increased, and other functions improved in different degree from 1990 to 2010, including economic development, transportation, ecological maintenance, provision of work, social security, living conditions and leisure culture. 4) As view from the index layer, factors which have impacts on the total function of land use were in dynamic changes, so were the categories and number of obstacle factors and the obstacle degree. The obstacle factors evolved from economic concerning type such as economic density to resources and environmental type, such as wastewater discharge intensity, per capita cultivated land, etc. Finally, the study indicates that the evaluation index system and model established in the paper is effective, and it enriches the research of multifunctional land use. The study provides the method and scientific basis for land use function evaluation and the decision support for multifunctional land use in the future in Guangzhou.
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    Spatiotemporal Patterns of Uniformity of Precipitation and Runoff over China and Related Influencing Factors
    GU Xi-hui, ZHANG Qiang, CHEN Xiao-hong
    2015, 30 (10):  1714-1724.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.010
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    Investigation has been widely done addressing precipitation processes and runoff changes which is under the combined influences from human activities and climate changes. In this case, based on daily precipitation data from 554 rain stations and monthly runoff data from 370 hydrological stations, Gini coefficient and ANOSIM (Analysis of Similarity) methods are used to investigate the uniformity of precipitation and runoff in space and time. The results indicate that: 1) the uniformity of precipitation at annual scale is increasing from northwest to southeast China. The uniformity change of precipitation is moderate but the uniformity of runoff evidently increased after 1980. 2) The Gini coefficient of annual distribution of precipitation is observed to be decreasing in the northeast, northwest and southeast China, which is particularly significant in the upper southwest rivers and in the Yangtze River basin. The Gini coefficient of runoff variations is decreasing generally and it is particularly evident in the Yangtze River basin and in the basins of southeast rivers. After 1980, the Gini coefficient of precipitation and runoff are in adverse patterns in the Yangtze and the Yellow River basins, showing that human activities significantly altered the temporal distribution of runoff. 3) The precipitation and runoff in different regions have similarity in magnitude, frequency, duration and temporal distribution. The uniformity of precipitation in space is decreasing and that of runoff is increasing. Runoff changes should be consistent with precipitation changes. However, human activities such as construction of water reservoirs have greatly altered the runoff distribution which triggered the change of runoff uniformity in space and time. The study will be of great merits in terms of water resources management under influences of climate changes and human activities.
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    Water Shortage and Its Trend Analysis in Beijing Based on PSR and DCE Model
    WANG Wei, XU Xin-yi, WANG Hong-rui, CHEN Wu, FAN Lin-lin
    2015, 30 (10):  1725-1734.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.011
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    The water resources in China are limited in terms of capacity, supply and demand. How to address the problem of development, utilization, protection and management of water resources has become an important research area. To ensure the rigorous management of water resources and facilitate the pressure of water resources utilization, it is necessary to investigate the status of water resources shortage. However, there is a lack of study on the trend and changing speed of water resources shortage during the dynamic evaluation. To address this knowledge gap, this paper proposes a model of dynamic evaluation of water resources shortage based on the theory of acceleration for analyzing the trend and changing speed of water resources shortage. This paper concerns the issue of water shortage in Beijing from 2003 to 2010 based on PSR and DCE model. The results show a fluctuant change of water shortage degree in Beijing. The water shortage degree in Beijing firstly increased then after a decline it increased again. This change is not severe in most administrative districts except four districts (the district under city administration, Changping District, Miyun County and Yanqing County). The water shortage shows aggravating tendency in six administrative districts including Fangshan District, Shunyi District, Changping District, Huairou Pinggu District and Yanqing County, while shows alleviated tendency in four districts including the district under city administration, Tongzhou District, Daxing District and Miyun County.
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    Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Drought during Crop Growth Period in Guizhou Province from Climate Change Perspectives
    CHEN Xue-kai, LEI Hong-jun, XU Jian-xin, HUANG Xin, ZHANG Ze-zhong, HU Juan-ping, SHANG Chong-ju, YANG Jing
    2015, 30 (10):  1735-1749.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.012
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    Guizhou is an important agriculture area locating in the southwest of China with maize and rice as its main food crops. Food security here is of great importance to maintain the stability of the minorities. However, droughts have frequently taken place recently, and resulted in big reductions in the crop yield. Under the circumstance of global climate change, therefore, the understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of drought and its relation with the climate mutation is of necessity for drought prevention and mitigation. We collected the daily meteorological data of 19 stations in Guizhou Province during 1960-2013. In consideration of the accumulated drought effect and the water requirement of autumn crops, the standard Precipitation-Evaporation index at six-month time scale between April and September (Sep-SPEI-6) was calculated. The correlation analysis between Sep-SPEI-6 and the crop yield reduction was tested. By use of multiple methods, i.e., Mann-Kendall, sliding t-test, Morlet wavelet cycle analysis and Hurst index, the spatial and temporal variation of drought were analyzed. Some results were obtained as bellow. Sep-SPEI-6 in Guizhou Province and the 9 cities showed a significant negative correlation with the annual crop yield reduction. The climate mutation occurred twice around year 1991 and year 2001. Compared with that in the first phase between 1960 and 1991, the occurring frequency and extent of droughts in the second stage between 1992 and 2001 decreased 10.59%. Compared with that in the second stage, the occurring frequency and extent of droughts increased 23.67% and 24.74% respectively in the third phase between 2002 and 2013. In contrast to the former two stages, the third one had significantly increased duration and intensity of drought. There was an obvious periodic oscillation in time series of Sep-SPEI-6, and 22 years was the first primary period. The Hurst index of Sep-SPEI-6 at different stations were all greater than 0.5, suggesting a better continuity in the Sep-SPEI-6 variation. The high drought frequency region tended to move to the west. The days of precipitation greater than 1 mm and the accumulative sunshine hours during the crop growth were both found the main factors affecting the meteorological drought in Guizhou Province. These results are fundamental to the decision of drought mitigation measures.
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    Influencing Factors of Cropping System Change in Upper Dadu River Watershed, China
    LI Zan-hong, YAN Jian-zhong, HUA Xiao-bo
    2015, 30 (10):  1750-1761.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.013
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    In recent years, “Transferring from double cropping to single cropping” has become a great concern in academia, as it has linkages with intensive utilization of cultivated land and food security. By using panel data, the drivers and determinants that change double cropping to single cropping can be explained, and the result will help the policy-makers to formulate better targeted agricultural policy. This paper analyzes the change of cropping system in 2006-2011 based on household survey and land plot survey in an agro-pastoral interlaced region of the upper reaches of Dadu River watershed, and explores its influencing factors by adopting linear regression model. Results show that: 1) From 2006 to 2011, the area of corn planting was stable, the area of wheat planting dropped sharply, the area of potato planting rose fast and that of economic crops planting increased slowly. Moreover, crop arrangement tended to be diversified and the multiple-crop index reduced obviously. 2) Changes of non-agricultural income, change of livestock income, average area of plots and location variables are the main causes for the transfer of cropping system. The increase of non-agricultural income have positive effect on the transfer from double cropping to single cropping, while the increase of livestock income and average area of plots prevent this kind of transfer.
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    Analysis of Characteristics and Cause of Spatial Distribution of the World Heritage in China
    YU Zheng-jun, TIAN Xiang-li, CHEN Ya-ling
    2015, 30 (10):  1762-1773.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.014
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    World heritages are the common wealth of all mankind. To analyze the distribution of world heritages in China, reveal the characteristics and regularity of the spatial distribution, can provide scientific basis for declaration, management and protection plans for the world heritages. This paper, with the help of Google Earth, fixed the position of world heritages in China on the map. Then, by using Excel and GIS software, detailedly analyzed the quantity characteristics and spatial distribution characteristics of world heritages in China, and also investigated the causes of the variety of spatial distribution. The results show that: the work on world heritages in China has gone through three stages, respectively, initial stage, leap transition stage, steady development stage. The world heritages show a trend of agglomeration on spatial distribution, which mainly distributed in a circle, the center of the circle being in Henan, the radius being 1017.6 km. All kinds of world heritages display different spatial distribution characteristics in different divisions of geographic regions, such as in the division of east-middle-west, south-north, or Three Terrains, respectively. The natural heritages mainly distribute in the western region and the southern region, but the cultural heritages mainly distribute in the central and eastern region and northern region. From the Three Terrains point of view, the world heritages in China mainly distribute on the second and third steps. The distribution of world heritages in China is affected by many factors, such as natural, socio-economic, human etc. And then relevant countermeasures were put forward, including: continue the world heritage declaration, maintain stable and rapid economic development, strengthen the protection of the world heritage etc.
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    Research on the Vacancy Analysis and Protection Measures of China’s Nature Relics Reserves
    ZHANG Meng-meng, WEI Dong-ying, LI Jun-sheng, WANG Wei, LUO Zun-lan
    2015, 30 (10):  1774-1782.  doi: 10.11849/zrzyxb.2015.10.015
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    Nature relics reserves play an important role in the protection of nature relics. Our country owns rich natural heritage resources, but the protected areas for nature relics take very low proportion in the whole nature reserves’ system, which cannot meet the needs of the protection. Through the vacancy analysis on both types and spatial distributions of the nature relics protected areas, it is concluded that the basic geological heritages and geomorphological heritages are balanced in proportion in the category of geological relics, but there are still types are vacant in protection. What’s more, it should be paid more attention to the construction of protected areas in Loess Plateau of Shaanxi and Gansu, Southwest China, Tibetan Plateau, east China and eastern coastal areas, and it is needed to establish priority conservation areas. At last, based on the comprehensive analysis of nature relics reserves, some corresponding protection measures are proposed. First of all, the legal obstacles of nature relics reserves should be solved. Secondly, efforts should be made to improve the natural relics reserves’ management agencies. Finally, the planning and management of geological heritage should be enhanced scientifically and systematically.
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