Ecological environment problems are spreading from some small areas to wide areas across administrative regions due to unreasonable economic development. In this condition, the governments of the connected ecologically regions have to cooperate mutually to alleviate the ecological environment problems. Therefore, the ecological conservation cooperation (ECC) between administrative regions will gradually become usual. However, in the process of making ECC schemes, many significant questions need to be resolved, such as what ECC is, how many parts ECC consists of and how to make a reasonable ECC scheme between cooperators. These questions are all very critical for successful cooperation in resolving ecological environment problems. So far, the term“ecological conservation cooperation (ECC)”still was not defined clearly and accurately, and there is also not a systematical example about researching ECC. Constructing a framework of researching ECC is greatly significant to applied ecology, and will help resolving practically environmental problems. In this paper, based on the review of domestic and abroad researches on ecological cooperation, we gave ECC an accurate definition that is“the joint actions taken by stakeholders according to common agreements, in order to improve and protect ecological environment in a certain spatial scope where there are same ecological environment problems”, explained its connotation, and constructed a framework of ECC, including its compositions, research procedures, main types of cooperation, supervision and evaluations on the implication of ECC. In detail, The composition of ECC consists of the basis and purposes of cooperation, the cooperators, the supervision and evaluation systems; the procedure to construct the cooperation needs ten steps which include diagnosing regionally ecological problem, determining cooperators, finding out the objects of cooperation, clearing relationship between cooperators, mapping out cooperation scheme, consulting opinions about the scheme, implementing the scheme, supervising cooperators to carry out the scheme, evaluating, improving the schemes; there are six types of cooperation, which are labor service cooperation, engineering technology cooperation, industrial development cooperation, economic compensation cooperation, cooperation on ecological environment management, education and talent cooperation. Supervision and evaluation of ecological cooperation also involves four aspects which are supervision and evaluation on scheme implication, evaluation on the rationality of the cooperation scheme, evaluation of the supervision, re-evaluation periodically and eventual evaluation on the ecological environment qualities after implementing the ECC scheme.